Browsing by Subject "SOLAR"

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  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Räsänen, J. E.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Magdalenic, J.; Lynch, B. J.; Kumari, A.; Pomoell, J.; Palmroth, M. (2020)
    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large eruptions of magnetised plasma from the Sun that are often accompanied by solar radio bursts produced by accelerated electrons.Aims. A powerful source for accelerating electron beams are CME-driven shocks, however, there are other mechanisms capable of accelerating electrons during a CME eruption. So far, studies have relied on the traditional classification of solar radio bursts into five groups (Type I-V) based mainly on their shapes and characteristics in dynamic spectra. Here, we aim to determine the origin of moving radio bursts associated with a CME that do not fit into the present classification of the solar radio emission.Methods. By using radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, combined with observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we investigate the moving radio bursts accompanying two subsequent CMEs on 22 May 2013. We use three-dimensional reconstructions of the two associated CME eruptions to show the possible origin of the observed radio emission.Results. We identified three moving radio bursts at unusually high altitudes in the corona that are located at the northern CME flank and move outwards synchronously with the CME. The radio bursts correspond to fine-structured emission in dynamic spectra with durations of similar to 1 s, and they may show forward or reverse frequency drifts. Since the CME expands closely following an earlier CME, a low coronal CME-CME interaction is likely responsible for the observed radio emission.Conclusions. For the first time, we report the existence of new types of short duration bursts, which are signatures of electron beams accelerated at the CME flank. Two subsequent CMEs originating from the same region and propagating in similar directions provide a complex configuration of the ambient magnetic field and favourable conditions for the creation of collapsing magnetic traps. These traps are formed if a CME-driven wave, such as a shock wave, is likely to intersect surrounding magnetic field lines twice. Electrons will thus be further accelerated at the mirror points created at these intersections and eventually escape to produce bursts of plasma emission with forward and reverse drifts.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Lynch, B. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2020)
    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest explosions in the Solar System that can drive powerful plasma shocks. The eruptions, shocks, and other processes associated to CMEs are efficient particle accelerators and the accelerated electrons in particular can produce radio bursts through the plasma emission mechanism. Aims. Coronal mass ejections and associated radio bursts have been well studied in cases where the CME originates close to the solar limb or within the frontside disc. Here, we study the radio emission associated with a CME eruption on the back side of the Sun on 22 July 2012. Methods. Using radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, spectroscopic data from the Nancay Decametric Array, and extreme-ultraviolet observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we determine the nature of the observed radio emission as well as the location and propagation of the CME. Results. We show that the observed low-intensity radio emission corresponds to a type II radio burst or a short-duration type IV radio burst associated with a CME eruption due to breakout reconnection on the back side of the Sun, as suggested by the pre-eruptive magnetic field configuration. The radio emission consists of a large, extended structure, initially located ahead of the CME, that corresponds to various electron acceleration locations. Conclusions. The observations presented here are consistent with the breakout model of CME eruptions. The extended radio emission coincides with the location of the current sheet and quasi-separatrix boundary of the CME flux and the overlying helmet streamer and also with that of a large shock expected to form ahead of the CME in this configuration.
  • Santangeli, Andrea; Toivonen, Tuuli; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Pogson, Mark; Hastings, Astley; Smith, Pete; Moilanen, Atte (2016)
    Reliance on fossil fuels is causing unprecedented climate change and is accelerating environmental degradation and global biodiversity loss. Together, climate change and biodiversity loss, if not averted urgently, may inflict severe damage on ecosystem processes, functions and services that support the welfare of modern societies. Increasing renewable energy deployment and expanding the current protected area network represent key solutions to these challenges, but conflicts may arise over the use of limited land for energy production as opposed to biodiversity conservation. Here, we compare recently identified core areas for the expansion of the global protected area network with the renewable energy potential available from land-based solar photovoltaic, wind energy and bioenergy (in the form of Miscanthusxgiganteus). We show that these energy sources have very different biodiversity impacts and net energy contributions. The extent of risks and opportunities deriving from renewable energy development is highly dependent on the type of renewable source harvested, the restrictions imposed on energy harvest and the region considered, with Central America appearing at particularly high potential risk from renewable energy expansion. Without restrictions on power generation due to factors such as production and transport costs, we show that bioenergy production is a major potential threat to biodiversity, while the potential impact of wind and solar appears smaller than that of bioenergy. However, these differences become reduced when energy potential is restricted by external factors including local energy demand. Overall, we found that areas of opportunity for developing solar and wind energy with little harm to biodiversity could exist in several regions of the world, with the magnitude of potential impact being particularly dependent on restrictions imposed by local energy demand. The evidence provided here helps guide sustainable development of renewable energy and contributes to the targeting of global efforts in climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation.
  • de Souza Rodrigues, Maria Paula; Dourado, Andre H. B.; Cutolo, Leonardo de O.; Parreira, Luanna S.; Alves, Tiago Vinicius; Slater, Thomas J. A.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Cordoba de Torresi, Susana Ines (2021)
    State of the art electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are based on metal nanoparticles (NPs). It has been shown that the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excitation in plasmonic NPs can be harvested to accelerate a variety of molecular transformations. This enables the utilization of visible light as an energy input to enhance HER performances. However, most metals that are active toward the HER do not support LSPR excitation in the visible or near-IR ranges. We describe herein the synthesis of gold-rhodium core-shell nanoflowers (Au@Rh NFs) that are composed of a core made up of spherical Au NPs and shells containing Rh branches. The Au@Rh NFs were employed as a model system to probe how the LSPR excitation from Au NPs can lead to an enhancement in the HER performance for Rh. Our data demonstrate that the LSPR excitation at 533 nm (and 405 nm) leads to an improvement in the HER performance of Rh, which depends on the morphological features of the Au Rh NFs, offering opportunities for optimization of the catalytic performance. Control experiments indicate that this improvement originates from the stronger interaction of Au@Rh NFs with H2O molecules at the surface, leading to an icelike configuration, which facilitated the HER under LSPR excitation.
  • Valiev, Rashid R.; Kurten, Theo (2020)
    Peroxyl radicals (ROO.) are key intermediates in atmospheric chemistry, with relatively long lifetimes compared to most other radical species. In this study, we use multireference quantum chemical methods to investigate whether photolysis can compete with well-established ROO. sink reactions. We assume that the photolysis channel is always ROO. + h nu => RO + O(P-3). Our results show that the maximal value of the cross-section for this channel is sigma = 1.3 x 10(-18) cm(2) at 240 nm for five atmospherically representative peroxyl radicals: CH3OO., C(O)HCH2OO., CH3CH2OO., HC(O)OO. and CH3C(O)OO.. These values agree with experiments to within a factor of 2. The rate constant of photolysis in the troposphere is around 10(-5) s(-1) for all five ROO.. As the lifetime of peroxyl radicals in the troposphere is typically less than 100 s, photolysis is thus not a competitive process. Furthermore, we investigate whether or not electronic excitation to the first excited state (D-1) by infrared radiation can facilitate various H-shift reactions, leading, for example, in the case of CH3OO. to formation of O.H and CH2O or HOO. and CH2 products. While the activation barriers for H-shifts in the D-1 state may be lower than in the ground state (D-0), we find that H-shifts are unlikely to be competitive with decay back to the D-0 state through internal conversion, as this has a rate of the order of 10(13) s(-1) for all studied systems.
  • Kotilainen, Titta; Robson, T. Matthew; Hernandez, Ricardo (2018)
    Climate screens are typically used inside glass greenhouses to improve control of humidity and temperature, and thus reduce energy expenditure. Shade nets are more appropriate to use, either with or without polyethylene cladding, at locations less-reliant on climate control, but where protection against hail, wind and excessive solar radiation might be needed. In addition, insect screens and nets can be employed to hinder insect pests and other invertebrates entering either type of production environment, and to keep invertebrates used in pest management contained inside. Screens and nets both transmit sunlight in a wavelength-specific manner, giving them the potential to affect plant morphology and physiology. Screens and nets of various colours and nominal shading factors have been described and studied; however, detailed measurements of their spectral characteristics are scarce. We measured solar spectral photon-irradiance and its attenuation by climate screens, shade nets, insect nets, greenhouse glass, and polyethylene covers. Our aim was to elucidate the effects of different patterns, colours, and shading factors, on light quality in production environments. Our measurements reveal that there are large differences both in the fraction of global irradiance attenuated and spectral ratios received under materials that are otherwise superficially similar in terms of their appearance and texture. We suggest that the type of spectral characterization that we performed is required to fully interpret the results of research examining plant responses to different types of screen and net. These data on spectral irradiance would benefit material manufacturers, researchers, growers, and horticultural consultants, enabling material selection to better match the solutions sought by growers and their desired outcomes regarding plant performance.
  • Lynch, Benjamin J.; Palmerio, Erika; DeVore, C. Richard; Kazachenko, Maria D.; Dahlin, Joel T.; Pomoell, Jens; Kilpua, Emilia K. J. (2021)
    We present observations and modeling of the magnetic field configuration, morphology, and dynamics of a large-scale, high-latitude filament eruption observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We analyze the 2015 July 9-10 filament eruption and the evolution of the resulting coronal mass ejection (CME) through the solar corona. The slow streamer-blowout CME leaves behind an elongated post-eruption arcade above the extended polarity inversion line that is only poorly visible in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) disk observations and does not resemble a typical bright flare-loop system. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation results from our data-inspired modeling of this eruption compare favorably with the EUV and white-light coronagraph observations. We estimate the reconnection flux from the simulation's flare-arcade growth and examine the magnetic-field orientation and evolution of the erupting prominence, highlighting the transition from an erupting sheared-arcade filament channel into a streamer-blowout flux-rope CME. Our results represent the first numerical modeling of a global-scale filament eruption where multiple ambiguous and complex observational signatures in EUV and white light can be fully understood and explained with the MHD simulation. In this context, our findings also suggest that the so-called stealth CME classification, as a driver of unexpected or "problem" geomagnetic storms, belongs more to a continuum of observable/nonobservable signatures than to separate or distinct eruption processes.
  • Dabrowski, B. P.; Morosan, D. E.; Fallows, R. A.; Blaszkiewicz, L.; Krankowski, A.; Magdalenic, J.; Vocks, C.; Mann, G.; Zucca, P.; Sidorowicz, T.; Hajduk, M.; Kotulak, K.; Fron, A.; Sniadkowska, K. (2018)
    We report first results of solar spectroscopic observations carried out with the Baldy LOFAR (LOw-Frequency ARray) station, Poland from October 2016 to July 2017. During this time, we observed different types of radio emission: type I and type III radio bursts. Our observations show that the station is fully operational and it is capable to work efficiently in the single station mode for solar observations. Furthermore, in this paper we will briefly describe the observational technique and instrument capabilities and show some examples of first observations. (C) 2018 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Peiris, Erandi; Hanauer, Sebastien; Knapas, Kjell; Camargo, Pedro H. C. (2020)
    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) can accelerate and control the selectivity of a variety of molecular transformations. This opens possibilities for the use of visible or near-IR light as a sustainable input to drive and control reactions when plasmonic nanoparticles supporting LSPR excitation in these ranges are employed as catalysts. Unfortunately, this is not the case for several catalytic metals such as palladium (Pd). One strategy to overcome this limitation is to employ bimetallic NPs containing plasmonic and catalytic metals. In this case, the LSPR excitation in the plasmonic metal can contribute to accelerate and control transformations driven by the catalytic component. The method reported herein focuses on the synthesis of bimetallic silver-palladium (Ag-Pd) NPs supported on ZrO2 (Ag-Pd/ZrO2) that acts as a plasmonic-catalytic system. The NPs were prepared by co-impregnation of corresponding metal precursors on the ZrO2 support followed by simultaneous reduction leading to the formation of bimetallic NPs directly on the ZrO2 support. The Ag-Pd/ZrO2 NPs were then used as plasmonic catalysts for the reduction of nitrobenzene under 425 nm illumination by LED lamps. Using gas chromatography (GC), the conversion and selectivity of the reduction reaction under the dark and light irradiation conditions can be monitored, demonstrating the enhanced catalytic performance and control over selectivity under LSPR excitation after alloying non-plasmonic Pd with plasmonic metal Ag. This technique can be adapted to a wide range of molecular transformations and NPs compositions, making it useful for the characterization of the plasmonic catalytic activity of different types of catalysis in terms of conversion and selectivity.
  • Creston Meteorite Consortium; Jenniskens, Peter; Utas, Jason; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Matson, Robert D.; Fries, Marc; Howell, J. Andreas; Free, Dwayne; Albers, Jim; Devillepoix, Hadrien; Bland, Phil; Miller, Aaron; Verish, Robert; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Ziegler, Karen; Sanborn, Matthew E.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Rowland, Douglas J.; Ostrowski, Daniel R.; Bryson, Kathryn; Laubenstein, Matthias; Zhou, Qin; Li, Qiu-Li; Li, Xian-Hua; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guo-Qiang; Welten, Kees; Caffee, Marc W.; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Plant, Amy A.; Maden, Colin; Busemann, Henner; Granvik, Mikael (2019)
    It has been proposed that all L chondrites resulted from an ongoing collisional cascade of fragments that originated from the formation of the similar to 500 Ma old asteroid family Gefion, located near the 5:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter in the middle Main Belt. If so, L chondrite pre-atmospheric orbits should be distributed as expected for that source region. Here, we present contradictory results from the orbit and collisional history of the October 24, 2015, L6 ordinary chondrite fall at Creston, CA (here reclassified to L5/6). Creston's short 1.30 +/- 0.02 AU semimajor axis orbit would imply a long dynamical evolution if it originated from the middle Main Belt. Indeed, Creston has a high cosmic ray exposure age of 40-50 Ma. However, Creston's small meteoroid size and low 4.23 +/- 0.07 degrees inclination indicate a short dynamical lifetime against collisions. This suggests, instead, that Creston originated most likely in the inner asteroid belt and was delivered via the nu(6) resonance. The U-Pb systematics of Creston apatite reveals a Pb-Pb age of 4,497.1 +/- 3.7 Ma, and an upper intercept U-Pb age of 4,496.7 +/- 5.8 Ma (2 sigma), circa 70 Ma after formation of CAI, as found for other L chondrites. The K-Ar (age similar to 4.3 Ga) and U,Th-He (age similar to 1 Ga) chronometers were not reset at similar to 500 Ma, while the lower intercept U-Pb age is poorly defined as 770 +/- 320 Ma. So far, the three known L chondrites that impacted on orbits with semimajor axes a AU all have high (>3 Ga) K-Ar ages. This argues for a source of some of our L chondrites in the inner Main Belt. Not all L chondrites originate in a continuous population of Gefion family debris stretching across the 3:1 mean-motion resonance.
  • Wijsen, N.; Aran, A.; Sanahuja, B.; Pomoell, J.; Poedts, S. (2020)
    Aims. We study the effect of the magnetic gradient and curvature drifts on the pitch-angle dependent transport of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in the heliosphere, focussing on similar to 3-36 MeV protons. By considering observers located at different positions in the heliosphere, we investigate how drifts may alter the measured intensity-time profiles and energy spectra. We focus on the decay phase of solar energetic proton events in which a temporal invariant spectrum and disappearing spatial intensity gradients are often observed; a phenomenon known as the "reservoir effect" or the "SEP flood". We study the effects of drifts by propagating particles both in nominal and non-nominal solar wind conditions.Methods. We used a three-dimensional (3D) particle transport model, solving the focused transport equation extended with the effect of particle drifts in the spatial term. Nominal Parker solar wind configurations of different speeds and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generated solar wind containing a corotating interaction region (CIR) were considered. The latter configuration gives rise to a magnetic bottle structure, with one bottleneck at the Sun and the other at the CIR. We inject protons from a fixed source at 0.1 AU, the inner boundary of the MHD model.Results. When the drift induced particle net-flux is zero, the modelled intensity-time profiles obtained at different radial distances along an IMF line show the same intensity fall-off after the prompt phase of the particle event, which is in accordance with the SEP flood phenomenon. However, observers magnetically connected close to the edges of the particle injection site can experience, as a result of drifts, a sudden drop in the intensities occurring at different times for different energies such that no SEP flood phenomenon is established. In the magnetic bottle structure, this effect is enhanced due to the presence of magnetic field gradients strengthening the nominal particle drifts. Moreover, anisotropies can be large for observers that only receive particles through drifts, illustrating the importance of pitch-angle dependent 3D particle modelling. We observe that interplanetary cross-field diffusion can mitigate the effects of particle drifts.Conclusions. Particle drifts can substantially modify the decay phase of SEP events, especially if the solar wind contains compression regions or shock waves where the drifts are enhanced. This is, for example, the case for our CIR solar wind configuration generated with a 3D MHD model, where the effect of drifts is strong. A similar decay rate in different energy channels and for different observers requires the mitigation of the effect of drifts. One way to accomplish this is through interplanetary cross-field diffusion, suggesting thus a way to determine a minimum value for the cross-field diffusion strength.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Pomoell, J.; Vainio, R.; Palmroth, M.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2020)
    Context. Some of the most prominent sources for particle acceleration in our Solar System are large eruptions of magnetised plasma from the Sun called coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These accelerated particles can generate radio emission through various mechanisms. Aims. CMEs are often accompanied by a variety of solar radio bursts with different shapes and characteristics in dynamic spectra. Radio bursts directly associated with CMEs often show movement in the direction of CME expansion. Here, we aim to determine the emission mechanism of multiple moving radio bursts that accompanied a flare and CME that took place on 14 June 2012. Methods. We used radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, combined with observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, to analyse these moving radio bursts in order to determine their emission mechanism and three-dimensional (3D) location with respect to the expanding CME. Results. In using a 3D representation of the particle acceleration locations in relation to the overlying coronal magnetic field and the CME propagation, for the first time, we provide evidence that these moving radio bursts originate near the CME flanks and that some are possible signatures of shock-accelerated electrons following the fast CME expansion in the low corona. Conclusions. The moving radio bursts, as well as other stationary bursts observed during the eruption, occur simultaneously with a type IV continuum in dynamic spectra, which is not usually associated with emission at the CME flanks. Our results show that moving radio bursts that could traditionally be classified as moving type IVs can represent shock signatures associated with CME flanks or plasma emission inside the CME behind its flanks, which are closely related to the lateral expansion of the CME in the low corona. In addition, the acceleration of electrons generating this radio emission appears to be favoured at the CME flanks, where the CME encounters coronal streamers and open field regions.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Carley, E. P.; Monstein, C. (2019)
    Context. The Sun is an active star and the source of the largest explosions in the solar system, such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Flares and CMEs are powerful particle accelerators that can generate radio emission through various emission mechanisms. Aims. CMEs are often accompanied by Type IV radio bursts that are observed as continuum emission in dynamic spectra at decimetric and metric wavelengths, but their emission mechanism can vary from event to event. Here, we aim to determine the emission mechanism of a complex Type IV burst that accompanied the flare and CME on 22 September 2011. Methods. We used radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, spectroscopic data from the e-Callisto network, ARTEMIS, Ondrejov, and Phoenix3 spectrometers combined with extreme-ultraviolet observations from NASA's Solar Dynamic Observatory to analyse the Type IV radio burst and determine its emission mechanism. Results. We show that the emission mechanism of the Type IV radio burst changes over time. We identified two components in the Type IV radio burst: an earlier stationary Type IV showing gyro-synchrotron behaviour, and a later moving Type IV burst covering the same frequency band. This second component has a coherent emission mechanism. Fundamental plasma emission and the electron-cyclotron maser emission are further investigated as possible emission mechanisms for the generation of the moving Type IV burst. Conclusions. Type IV bursts are therefore complex radio bursts, where multiple emission mechanisms can contribute to the generation of the wide-band continuum observed in dynamic spectra. Imaging spectroscopy over a wide frequency band is necessary to determine the emission mechanisms of Type IV bursts that are observed in dynamic spectra.