Browsing by Subject "SOLAR-CELLS"

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  • Popov, Georgi; Bačić, Goran; Mattinen, Miika; Manner, Toni; Lindström, Hannu; Seppänen, Heli; Suihkonen, Sami; Vehkamäki, Marko; Kemell, Marianna; Jalkanen, Pasi; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Leskelä, Markku; Koivula, Hanna Maarit; Barry, Seán T.; Ritala, Mikko (2020)
    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a viable method for depositing functional, passivating, and encapsulating layers on top of halide perovskites. Studies in that area have only focused on metal oxides, despite a great number of materials that can be made with ALD. This work demonstrates that, in addition to oxides, other ALD processes can be compatible with the perovskites. We describe two new ALD processes for lead sulfide. These processes operate at low deposition temperatures (45-155 degrees C) that have been inaccessible to previous ALD PbS processes. Our processes rely on volatile and reactive lead precursors Pb(dbda) (dbda = rac-N-2,N-3-di-tertbutylbutane-2,3-diamide) and Pb(btsa)(2) (btsa = bis(trimethylsilyl)amide) as well as H2S. These precursors produce high quality PbS thin films that are uniform, crystalline, and pure. The films exhibit p- type conductivity and good mobilities of 10-70 cm(2) V-1 s(-1). Low deposition temperatures enable direct ALD of PbS onto a halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI) without its decomposition. The stability of MAPI in ambient air is greatly improved by capping with ALD PbS. More generally, these new processes offer valuable alternatives for PbS-based devices, and we hope that this study will inspire more studies on ALD of non-oxides on halide perovskites.
  • Wlodarski, Maksymilian; Putkonen, Matti; Norek, Malgorzata (2020)
    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the chemical structure and dynamics of various types of samples. However, the signal-to-noise-ratio drops rapidly when the sample thickness gets much smaller than penetration depth, which is proportional to wavelength. This poses serious problems in analysis of thin films. In this work, an approach is demonstrated to overcome these problems. It is shown that a standard IR spectroscopy can be successfully employed to study the structure and composition of films as thin as 20 nm, when the layers were grown on porous substrates with a well-developed surface area. In contrast to IR spectra of the films deposited on flat Si substrates, the IR spectra of the same films but deposited on porous ceramic support show distinct bands that enabled reliable chemical analysis. The analysis of Zn-S ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc (DEZ) and 1,5-pentanedithiol (PDT) as precursors of Zn and S, respectively, served as proof of concept. However, the approach presented in this study can be applied to analysis of any ultrathin film deposited on target substrate and simultaneously on porous support, where the latter sample would be a reference sample dedicated for IR analysis of this film.