Browsing by Subject "SOLID-STATE"

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  • Krieger, Ulrich K.; Siegrist, Franziska; Marcolli, Claudia; Emanuelsson, Eva U.; Gobel, Freya M.; Bilde, Merete; Marsh, Aleksandra; Reid, Jonathan P.; Huisman, Andrew J.; Riipinen, Ilona; Hyttinen, Noora; Myllys, Nanna; Kurten, Theo; Bannan, Thomas; Percival, Carl J.; Topping, David (2018)
    To predict atmospheric partitioning of organic compounds between gas and aerosol particle phase based on explicit models for gas phase chemistry, saturation vapor pressures of the compounds need to be estimated. Estimation methods based on functional group contributions require training sets of compounds with well-established saturation vapor pressures. However, vapor pressures of semivolatile and low-volatility organic molecules at atmospheric temperatures reported in the literature often differ by several orders of magnitude between measurement techniques. These discrepancies exceed the stated uncertainty of each technique which is generally reported to be smaller than a factor of 2. At present, there is no general reference technique for measuring saturation vapor pressures of atmospherically relevant compounds with low vapor pressures at atmospheric temperatures. To address this problem, we measured vapor pressures with different techniques over a wide temperature range for intercomparison and to establish a reliable training set. We determined saturation vapor pressures for the homologous series of polyethylene glycols (H-(O-CH2-CH2)(n)-OH) for n = 3 to n = 8 ranging in vapor pressure at 298 K from 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-2) Pa and compare them with quantum chemistry calculations. Such a homologous series provides a reference set that covers several orders of magnitude in saturation vapor pressure, allowing a critical assessment of the lower limits of detection of vapor pressures for the different techniques as well as permitting the identification of potential sources of systematic error. Also, internal consistency within the series allows outlying data to be rejected more easily. Most of the measured vapor pressures agreed within the stated uncertainty range. Deviations mostly occurred for vapor pressure values approaching the lower detection limit of a technique. The good agreement between the measurement techniques (some of which are sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient and some not) suggests that the mass accommodation coefficients of the studied compounds are close to unity. The quantum chemistry calculations were about 1 order of magnitude higher than the measurements. We find that extrapolation of vapor pressures from elevated to atmospheric temperatures is permissible over a range of about 100 K for these compounds, suggesting that measurements should be performed best at temperatures yielding the highest-accuracy data, allowing subsequent extrapolation to atmospheric temperatures.
  • Stadelmann, B.; Bender, J.; Förster, D.; Frey, W.; Nieger, M.; Gudat, D. (2015)
    A unique anionic phosphenium complex was prepared from reaction of an N-heterocyclic chlorophosphine with Collman's reagent or K[HFe(CO)(4)]/NaH and characterized by spectral and XRD data. The complex behaves as an ambident nucleophile. Reactions with acetic acid, ClSnPh3, and a further equivalent of an N-heterocyclic chlorophosphine proceed via electrophilic functionalization at the metal site to yield appropriate mono- or bis-phosphenium complexes. Reaction with MeI at -70 degrees C produces a P-alkylation product as the first spectroscopically detectable intermediate, which decays at a higher temperature to give a mixture of free P-methylated N-heterocyclic phosphine and its Fe(CO)(4) complex. The different reaction products were characterized by spectral and XRD data. Computational studies indicate that the NHP units in all complexes display p-acceptor behaviour but show no disposition to adopt phosphide-like character or formally oxidize the metal centre.
  • Tuderman, Anna-Kaisa; Strachan, Clare J.; Juppo, Anne M. (2018)
    The purpose of this research was to study isomalt as a protein-stabilizing excipient with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during freeze-drying and subsequent storage and compare it to sucrose, a standard freeze-drying excipient. Four different diastereomer mixtures of isomalt were studied. The stability of the protein was studied with a spectrophotometric enzyme activity test and circular dichroism after freeze-drying and after 21 days of storage at 16% RH. Physical stability was analyzed with differential scanning calorimetry and Karl Fischer titration. Statistical analysis was utilized in result analysis. LDH activity was almost completely retained after freeze-drying with sucrose; whereas samples stabilized with isomalt diastereomer mixtures had a considerably lower protein activity. During storage the sucrose-containing samples lost most of their enzymatic activity, while the isomalt mixtures retained the protein activity better. In all cases changes to protein secondary structure were observed. Isomalt diastereomer mixtures have some potential as protein-stabilizing excipients during freeze-drying and subsequent storage. Isomalt stabilized LDH moderately during freeze-drying; however it performed better during storage. Future studies with other proteins are required to evaluate more generally whether isomalt would be a suitable excipient for pharmaceutical freeze-dried protein formulations.
  • Sundholm, Dage; Rabaa, Hassan; Chiheb, Mohammed; Balch, Alan L. (2019)
    Calculations have been performed at the MP2 and DFT levels for investigating the reasons for the difficulties in synthesizing bis(isocyanide)gold(I) halide complexes. Three-coordinated gold(I) complexes of the type (R3P)(2)(AuX)-X-I (1) can be synthesized, whereas the analogous isocyanide complexes (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I (2) are not experimentally known. The molecular structures of (R3P)(2)(AuX)-X-I (X = Cl, Br, and I) and (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I with X = halide, cyanide, nitrite, methylthiolate, and thiocyanate are compared and structural differences are discussed. Calculations of molecular properties elucidate which factors determine the strength of the gold-ligand interactions in (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I. The linear bonding mode of RNC favors a T-shaped geometry instead of the planar Y-shaped trigonal structure of (R3P)(2)(AuX)-X-I complexes that have been synthesized. An increased polarity of the Au-X bond in 2 leads to destabilization of the Y-shaped structure. Chalcogen-containing ligands or cyanide appear to be good X-ligand candidates for synthesis of (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I complexes.
  • Garrigues, Sandra; Kun, Roland; Peng, Mao; Gruben, Birgit; Benoit Gelber, Isabelle; Mäkelä, Miia; de Vries, Ronald (2021)
    In nature, filamentous fungi are exposed to diverse nutritional sources and changes in substrate availability. Conversely, in submerged cultures, mycelia are continuously exposed to the existing substrates, which are depleted over time. Submerged cultures are the preferred choice for experimental setups in laboratory and industry and are often used for understanding the physiology of fungi. However, to what extent the cultivation method affects fungal physiology, with respect to utilization of natural substrates, has not been addressed in detail. Here, we compared the transcriptomic responses of Aspergillus niger grown in submerged culture and solid culture, both containing sugar beet pulp (SBP) as a carbon source. The results showed that expression of CAZy (Carbohydrate Active enZyme)-encoding and sugar catabolic genes in liquid SBP was time dependent. Moreover, additional components of SBP delayed the A. niger response to the degradation of pectin present in SBP. In addition, we demonstrated that liquid cultures induced wider transcriptome variability than solid cultures. Although there was a correlation regarding sugar metabolic gene expression patterns between liquid and solid cultures, it decreased in the case of CAZyme-encoding genes. In conclusion, the transcriptomic response of A. niger to SBP is influenced by the culturing method, limiting the value of liquid cultures for understanding the behavior of fungi in natural habitats. IMPORTANCE Understanding the interaction between filamentous fungi and their natural and biotechnological environments has been of great interest for the scientific community. Submerged cultures are preferred over solid cultures at a laboratory scale to study the natural response of fungi to different stimuli found in nature (e.g., carbon/nitrogen sources, pH). However, whether and to what extent submerged cultures introduce variation in the physiology of fungi during growth on plant biomass have not been studied in detail. In this study, we compared the transcriptomic responses of Aspergillus niger to growth on liquid and solid cultures containing sugar beet pulp (a by-product of the sugar industry) as a carbon source. We demonstrate that the transcriptomic response of A. niger was highly affected by the culture condition, since the transcriptomic response obtained in a liquid environment could not fully explain the behavior of the fungus in a solid environment. This could partially explain the differences often observed between the phenotypes on plates compared to liquid cultures.