Browsing by Subject "SOLUBILITY"

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  • Toivola, Martta; Prisle, Nonne L.; Elm, Jonas; Waxman, Eleanor M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Kurten, Theo (2017)
    We have used COSMO-RS, a method combining quantum chemistry with statistical thermodynamics, to compute Setschenow constants (K-S) for a large array of organic solutes and salts. These comprise both atmospherically relevant solute-salt combinations, as well as systems for which experimental data are available. In agreement with previous studies on single salts, the Setschenow constants predicted by COSMO-RS (as implemented in the COSMOTherm program) are generally too large compared to experiments. COSMOTherm overpredicts salting out (positive K-S), and/or underpredicts salting in (negative K-S). For ammonium and sodium salts, K-S values are larger for oxalates and sulfates, and smaller for chlorides and bromides. For chloride and bromide salts, K-S values usually increase with decreasing size of the cation, along the series Pr4N+ <Et4N+ <Me4N+
  • Abersteiner, Adam; Golovin, Alexander; Chayka, Ivan; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Goemann, Karsten; Rodemann, Thomas; Ehrig, Kathy (2022)
    Petrological and geochemical studies of lamproites can provide useful insights into the nature of their lithospheric mantle sources, but their geochemical and mineralogical diversity has complicated our understanding of their primary/parental melt composition, volatile (CO2, H2O) inventory and magmatic evolution. To help address this issue, we present a detailed study of different generations (primary, pseudo-secondary, secondary) of crystal, and melt and fluid inclusions in olivine, Cr-spinel and perovskite from three olivine lamproites in the Ellendale Field of the West Kimberley Province (Australia) in order to understand the composition and evolution of their parental magmas. Melt inclusions in the different host minerals and from each of these localities are broadly similar to each other and consist of glass, alkali/alkali-earth (Mg-Ca-K-Na-Ba) carbonates, phosphates and chlorides, in addition to minerals typical of lamproite groundmass (fluorapatite, perovskite, phlogopite, diopside, wadeite, Mg-ilmenite, Fe-Mg-Ti-Cr spinel). The dominant volatile species in the melt and fluid inclusions is CO2 based on Raman data. Heating experiments of melt/fluid inclusions in olivine show significant phase transformations in which the carbonate may separate into an immiscible carbonate-rich sulphatebearing fraction or exsolve a CO2 fluid. Our results indicate that carbonates, along with alkali/alkali-earths, halogens and sulphur, became progressively concentrated in the West Kimberley lamproitic magmas during crystallisation, leading to the entrapment of a complex array of daughter minerals, some not previously reported from lamproites and, in some inclusions, immiscible carbonate melt. The widespread occurrence of daughter carbonates in melt/fluid inclusions in lamproite minerals is at odds with their apparent paucity in the lamproite groundmass. The presence of carbonate and the abundance of CO2-rich and H2O-poor melt and fluid inclusions are attributed to the preferential partitioning of CO2 into the vapour and retention of H2O in the magma during degassing, coupled with H2O loss by post-entrapment modification of the inclusions through H+ diffusion. (C) 2022 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Association for Gondwana Research.
  • Herrero, Bernardo; Bes, Rene; Audubert, Fabienne; Clavier, Nicolas; Hunault, Myrtille O. J. Y.; Baldinozzi, Gianguido (2020)
    The evolution of the crystal lattice of samples made of UO2 doped with different concentrations of Nd in stoichiometric and hypo-stoichiometric conditions has been systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The substitution of a trivalent cation for the U4+ initial position is responsible for creating local structural disorder and changes in the oxidation states. In this scenario, the lattice parameter is affected and the concentration of U5+ and formation of oxygen vacancies as well, since these are the mechanisms necessary to maintain the charge neutrality. The systematic oxidation of U4+ as predominant charge compensation mechanism over the formation of vacancies can be reduced by performing a thermal treatment under reducing conditions. This paper presents an experimental characterization of the uranium oxidation state mixture and local structure using XAS techniques in samples with chemical formula (U1-yNdy)O2-x, with y = 0.04, 0.17 and 0.25 (
  • Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Lingxi; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula (2020)
    This study investigated the mechanisms of the co-migration of phytic acid during beta-glucan isolation and its contribution to the retardation of starch hydrolysis in vitro. During the isolation, phytic acid precipitated together with beta-glucan when ethanol was added as the precipitation solvent. The precipitation of phytic acid was reduced by lowering the pH or the ethanol concentration. When 20% (NH4)(2)SO4 was used as the precipitation solvent, only minor phytic acid was found in isolated beta-glucan, because phytic acid did not precipitate by this solvent. In the in vitro starch hydrolysis test, the isolated oat beta-glucan (OBG) containing 3.9% co-migrated phytic acid showed better retardation effect than OBG containing 0.6% phytic acid. Therefore, we concluded that the co-migration of phytic acid was dependent on the chosen isolation procedure and conditions, and both intrinsic phytic acid and viscosity contributed to the retardation of starch hydrolysis.
  • Falke, J.; Parkkinen, J.; Vaahtera, L.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C. A.; Oosterwijk, E.; Witjes, J. A. (2018)
    Objective. To evaluate the antitumor effect of cyclodextrin-curcumin complex (CDC) on human and rat urothelial carcinoma cells in vitro and to evaluate the effect of intravesical instillations of CDC, BCG, and the combination in vivo in the AY-F344 orthotopic bladder cancer rat model. Curcumin has anticarcinogenic activity on urothelial carcinoma and is therefore under investigation for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Curcumin and BCG share immunomodulating pathways against urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Curcumin was complexed with cyclodextrin to improve solubility. Four human urothelial carcinoma cell lines and the AY-27 rat cell line were exposed to various concentrations of CDC in vitro. For the in vivo experiment, the AY-27 orthotopic bladder cancer F344 rat model was used. Rats were treated with consecutive intravesical instillations of CDC, BCG, the combination of CDC+BCG, or NaCl as control. Results. CDC showed a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on all human urothelial carcinoma cell lines tested and the rat AY-27 urothelial carcinoma cell line. Moreover, intravesical treatment with CDC and CDC+BCG results in a lower percentage of tumors (60% and 68%, respectively) compared to BCG (75%) or control (85%). This difference with placebo was not statistically significant (p=0.078 and 0.199, respectively). However, tumors present in the placebo and BCG-treated rats were generally of higher stage. Conclusions. Cyclodextrin-curcumin complex showed an antiproliferative effect on human and rat urothelial carcinoma cell lines in vitro. In the aggressive orthotopic bladder cancer rat model, we observed a promising effect of CDC treatment and CDC in combination with BCG.
  • Peltonen, Leena; Strachan, Clare J. (2020)
    Poor aqueous solubility is currently a prevalent issue in the development of small molecule pharmaceuticals. Several methods are possible for improving the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II and class IV drugs. Two solid state approaches, which rely on reductions in order, and can theoretically be applied to all molecules without any specific chemical prerequisites (compared with e.g. ionizable or co-former groups, or sufficient lipophilicity), are the use of the amorphous form and nanocrystals. Research involving these two approaches is relatively extensive and commercial products are now available based on these technologies. Nevertheless, their formulation remains more challenging than with conventional dosage forms. This article describes these two technologies from both theoretical and practical perspectives by briefly discussing the physicochemical backgrounds behind these approaches, as well as the resulting practical implications, both positive and negative. Case studies demonstrating the benefits and challenges of these two techniques are presented.
  • Ramos, Flávio James Humberto Tommasini Vieira; Reis, Raphael Henrique Morais; Grafova, Iryna; Grafov, Andriy; Monteiro, Sergio Neves (2020)
    Civil construction wastes have been incorporated into polymers for recycling as novel engineering composites. In the present work eco-friendly composites with recycled polypropylene (rPP) matrix incorporated with geopolymer concrete waste particles, wither plain (GCW) or surface-modified with oleic acid (AGC) were investigated. The geopolymer concrete waste particles were mixed with polymer powder to provide an effective dispersion between the different materials. Composites were produced by an initial reactive extrusion processing followed by injection molding. These novel composites with amount of 20, 40 and 50 wt% of GCW particles, both plain as-received and surface-modified, were technically evaluated by tensile tests, statistically analyzed by ANOVA, as well as by water absorption as per ASTM standards. Surface dispersion of nanoparticles was revealed by atomic force microscopy. Microstructural analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that these sustainable GCW particles incorporated into rPP matrix exhibit superior processability and water absorption less than 0.01%. The rPP/AGC composites present relatively higher elastic modulus, 629 MPa, as compared to the neat rPP, with 529 MPa. These properties suggest potential sustainable applications in building construction using waste materials.
  • Ho, Minh Thao; Zhu, Jinlei; Bansal, Nidhi; Boyce, Mary; Le, Thao (2021)
    Effects of pH and heating on deamidation of whey protein concentrate (WPC) solution and functional properties of resultant spray-dried WPC powder were investigated. Temperature and heating time affected deamidation rates with the highest reactivities for WPC solutions heated at 120 °C for 15 min and 145 °C for 120 s. Deamidation sites were pH dependent: pH 3 induced more glutamine deamidation; pH 10 induced more asparagine deamidation. The functional properties of spray-dried WPC powders were also pH dependent. WPC solution adjusted to pH 3 and heated at 145 °C for 120 s (prior to spray drying) exhibited a reduction in solubility and foamability, but markedly improved foam stability of the resultant powders; meanwhile, the properties of powders were not significantly impacted by pH adjustment to 10.0 and heating at 145 °C for 120 s. However, pH 3 and 10 with and without heating significantly improved emulsifying properties of spray-dried WPC.
  • Vaalama, Anu; Hartikainen, Helina; Soinne, Helena; Lukkari, Kaarina (2022)
    This study reports results on the estimated magnitude of changes in P sorption isotherms in clayey mud sediments when performed using (1) freeze-dried instead of fresh sediment samples and (2) artificial sea water (ASW) instead of ambient near-bottom water. The sediments used differed in their P sorption. For the isotherms, sediments were equilibrated for 48 h in solutions of varying P concentration whereafter the amount of P sorbed or desorbed was determined. We adjusted the modified Freundlich equation to the isotherm data and assessed differences in the isotherms between the treatments by comparing equilibrium P concentrations and P buffering capacities determined from the isotherm equation. Freeze-drying decreased the P sorption in all investigated sediments, but the magnitude of the changes varied depending on the properties of the sediments. The effect was minor in the sediment abundant in P sorption sites and low in easily exchangeable P, while it was clearer in the sediments originally high in P or low in sorption surfaces. ASW and ambient water produced similar isotherms suggesting that ASW is a suitable equilibrium solution in P exchange experiments with muddy clay sediments. This study enlightens the processes occurring in freeze-drying. The results highlight that when examining the effects of dissimilar treatments or experimental conditions on the P exchange isotherms the magnitude and significance of the observed changes should be evaluated in a proper context considering the precision of the method.
  • Holding, Ashley J.; Parviainen, Arno; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Soto, Ana; King, Alistair W. T.; Rodriguez, Hector (2017)
    Hydrophobic, long-chain tetraalkylphosphonium acetate salts (ionic liquids) were combined with a dipolar aprotic co-solvent, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and the feasibility of these solvent systems for cellulose dissolution and regeneration was studied. A 60 : 40 w/w mixture of the ionic liquid tetraoctylphosphonium acetate ([P-8888][OAc]) and DMSO was found to dissolve up to 8 wt% cellulose, whilst trioctyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium acetate ([P-14888][OAc]) dissolved up to 3 wt% cellulose. Water (an anti-solvent for cellulose) was found to give rise to biphasic liquid-liquid systems when combined with these mixtures, yielding an upper phase rich in ionic liquid and a lower aqueous phase. The liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary systems were experimentally determined, finding that DMSO strongly partitioned towards the aqueous phase. Thus, a process scheme involving simultaneous regeneration of cellulose and recycling of the solvent system was envisioned, and demonstrated on a large scale using [P-8888] [OAc]. A large portion of the ionic liquid (ca. 60 wt%) was directly recovered via phase separation, with a further 37 wt% being recovered from the swollen cellulose phase and residual materials, bringing recovery to 97%. XRD analysis of the recovered cellulose materials showed a loss of crystallinity and conversion from Cellulose I to Cellulose II. Non-dissolving compositions of ionic liquid and DMSO did not affect cellulose crystallinity after cellulose pulp treatment.
  • Ramos-Diaz, Jose Martin; Kantanen, Katja Annika; Edelmann, Minnamari; Suhonen, Heikki; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Jouppila, Kirsi; Piironen, Vieno (2022)
    A new generation of plant-based texturized meat analogues attempts to boost the consumption of dietary fiber. In the present study, oat fiber concentrate (OFC) and pea protein isolate (PPI) were combined (30:70; 50:50; 70:30) and processed with high-moisture extrusion (long cooling die temperature [LCDT]: 40, 60 and 80 °C; screw speed [SS]: 300, 400 and 500 rpm) to obtain meat-mimicking fibrous meat analogues (FMAs). The results showed that OFC reduced the structural strength (e.g., hardness, chewiness) of the FMAs, whereas LCDT strengthened the structure. Microtomography imaging revealed that FMAs containing more OFC presented smaller void thickness, thus reducing the FMAs' water holding capacity. An in-vitro gastrointestinal model showed that the extractability and viscosity of β-glucan were well preserved, particularly at low LCDT. Overall, it was possible to add substantial amounts of OFC (30–50%) to FMAs while maintaining fibrous meat-mimicking structures and retaining the oat fiber's viscous properties.
  • Ramos-Diaz, J. M.; Kantanen, Katja; Edelmann, Minnamari; Jouppila, Kirsi; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Piironen, Vieno (2022)
    Oat has been recognized for its health-promoting fiber, beta-glucan, while protein-rich faba bean has remained underutilized in Nordic countries despite its good nutritional quality. This research investigated the functionality of oat fiber concentrate and faba bean protein concentrate in plant-based substitutes for minced meat (SMs). The resulting product aimed at mimicking the mechanical and physicochemical characteristics of beef minced meat (BM) and its applications (i.e., fried and burger patty). In this regard, the mechanical properties (e.g., chewiness, Young's modulus) of original/fried SMs were comparable to or higher than those of original/fried BM. SM patties (45% SMs) were structurally weaker than beef burger patties (100% BM). The rheological analysis showed that the presence of oat fiber concentrate increased the gel-like properties of the blend, which correlated with the overall strength of original SMs (e.g., Young's modulus). The results suggested that SMs could be used as BM for the preparation of vegetarian meat-like products.
  • Ojala, Krista; Salmia, Jukka; Shevchenko, Anna; Ylikotila, Johanna; Korjamo, Timo; van Veen, Bert; Koistinen, Piritta; Malmstrom, Chira; Laakso, Sirpa; Bansal, Indu; Samiulla, D. S.; Juppo, Anne (2021)
    Our objectives were to stabilize a non-clinical suspension for use in toxicological studies and to develop methods to investigate the stability of the formulation in terms of salt disproportionation. The compound under research was a hydrochloride salt of a practically insoluble discovery compound ODM-203. The first of the three formulation approaches was a suspension prepared and stored at room temperature. The second formulation was stabilized by pH adjustment. In the third approach cooling was used to prevent salt disproportionation. 5 mg/mL aqueous suspension consisting of 20 mg/mL PVP/VA and 5 mg/mL Tween 80 was prepared for each of the approaches. The polymer was used as precipitation inhibitor to provide prolonged supersaturation while Tween 80 was used to enhance dissolution and homogeneity of the suspension. The consequences of salt disproportionation were studied by a small-scale in vitro dissolution method and by an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats. Our results show that disproportionation was successfully suppressed by applying cooling of the suspension in an ice bath at 2-8 degrees C. This procedure enabled us to proceed to the toxicological studies in rats. The in vivo study results obtained for the practically insoluble compound showed adequate exposures with acceptable variation at each dose level.
  • Paukkonen, Heli; Ukkonen, Anni; Szilvay, Geza; Yliperttula, Marjo; Laaksonen, Timo (2017)
    The purpose of this study was to construct biopolymer-based oil-in-water emulsion formulations for encapsulation and release of poorly water soluble model compounds naproxen and ibuprofen. Class II hydrophobin protein HFBII from Trichoderma reesei was used as a surfactant to stabilize the oil/water interfaces of the emulsion droplets in the continuous aqueous phase. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was used as a viscosity modifier to further stabilize the emulsions and encapsulate protein coated oil droplets in NFC fiber network. The potential of both native and oxidized NFC were studied for this purpose. Various emulsion formulations were prepared and the abilities of different formulations to control the drug release rate of naproxen and ibuprofen, used as model compounds, were evaluated. The optimal formulation for sustained drug release consisted of 0.01% of drug, 0.1% HFBII, 0.15% oxidized NFC, 10% soybean oil and 90% water phase. By comparison, the use of native NFC in combination with HFBII resulted in an immediate drug release for both of the compounds. The results indicate that these NFC originated biopolymers are suitable for pharmaceutical emulsion formulations. The native and oxidized NFC grades can be used as emulsion stabilizers in sustained and immediate drug release applications. Furthermore, stabilization of the emulsions was achieved with low concentrations of both HFBII and NFC, which may be an advantage when compared to surfactant concentrations of conventional excipients traditionally used in pharmaceutical emulsion formulations. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Guo, Ming; Maltari, Riku; Zhang, Rui; Kontro, Jussi; Ma, Enlu; Repo, Timo (2021)
    Lignin is a potential renewable raw material for synthesis of aromatic molecules and materials. Particularly, Kraft-type lignins are abundantly available as a byproduct of wood and paper industries. Currently, there are practically no valuable products made using this highly complex polymer. Within this work, we have investigated the straightforward, high-yield depolymerization of two different technical lignins (Indulin AT and alkaline lignin) using only a mixture of green short-chain (C-1-C-3) alcohols and water as solvents. As shown here, at a temperature of 220 degrees C, autogenous pressure, and isopropanol/water as a co-solvent medium, it is possible to cleave Kraft lignin without char-forming side reactions. The obtained so-called "light" oil contains guaiacol-based monomeric units of 23 wt % yield together with liquid oligomers of 13 wt % yield combining liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extraction. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of lignin residues showed that the isopropanol/water treatment caused a marked breakdown of the intermolecular beta-O-4 and beta-beta bonds; thus, the depolymerization produced monomers and lignin residues with lower molecular weight. The results suggested a synergistic effect between isopropanol and water. No sign of repolymerization reactions could be observed with this process.
  • Geilfus, N-X; Munson, K. M.; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva Liisa; Kaartokallio, H.; Lemes, M.; Wang, Feng; Rysgaard, S.; Delille, B. (2021)
    Although studies of biogeochemical processes in polar sea ice have been increasing, similar research on relatively warm low-salinity sea ice remains sparse. In this study, we investigated biogeochemical properties of the landfast sea ice cover in the brackish Bothnian Bay (Northern Baltic Sea) and the possible role of this sea ice in mediating the exchange of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) across the water column-sea ice-atmosphere interface. Observations of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon in both landfast sea ice and the water column suggest that the carbonate system is mainly driven by salinity. While high CH4 and N2O concentrations were observed in both the water column (up to 14.3 and 17.5 nmol L-1, respectively) and the sea ice (up to 143.6 and 22.4 nmol L-1, respectively), these gases appear to be enriched in sea ice compared to the water column. This enrichment may be attributable to the sea ice formation process, which concentrates impurities within brine. As sea ice temperature and brine volume decrease, gas solubility decreases as well, promoting the formation of bubbles. Gas bubbles originating from underlying sediments may also be incorporated within the ice cover and contribute to the enrichment in sea ice. The fate of these greenhouse gases within the ice merits further research, as storage in this low-salinity seasonal sea ice is temporary.
  • Souza, Paulo C. T.; Alessandri, Riccardo; Barnoud, Jonathan; Thallmair, Sebastian; Faustino, Ignacio; Grunewald, Fabian; Patmanidis, Ilias; Abdizadeh, Haleh; Bruininks, Bart M. H.; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A.; Kroon, Peter C.; Melcr, Josef; Nieto, Vincent; Corradi, Valentina; Khan, Hanif M.; Domanski, Jan; Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Reuter, Nathalie; Best, Robert B.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Monticelli, Luca; Periole, Xavier; Tieleman, D. Peter; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J. (2021)
    The coarse-grained Martini force field is widely used in biomolecular simulations. Here we present the refined model, Martini 3 (http://cgmartini.nl), with an improved interaction balance, new bead types and expanded ability to include specific interactions representing, for example, hydrogen bonding and electronic polarizability. The updated model allows more accurate predictions of molecular packing and interactions in general, which is exemplified with a vast and diverse set of applications, ranging from oil/water partitioning and miscibility data to complex molecular systems, involving protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions and material science applications as ionic liquids and aedamers.
  • Semjonov, Kristian; Lust, Andres; Kogermann, Karin; Laidmäe, Ivo; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa; Hirvonen, Sami-Pekka; Yliruusi, Jouko; Nurk, Gunnar; Lust, Enn; Heinamäki, Jyrki (2018)
    The present study introduces a modified melt-electrospinning (MES) method for fabricating the melt-electrospun fibers (MSFs) of a poorly water-soluble drug and carrier polymer. The MES of poorly water-soluble model drug indomethacin (IND) and hydrophilic carrier polymer, Soluplus (R) (SOL) were prepared at a 1:3 drug-polymer weight ratio. Water was used as an external plasticizer to regulate a MES processing temperature and to improve fiber formation. The fiber size, surface morphology, physical solid state, drug-polymer (carrier) interactions, thermal and chemical stability and dissolution behavior of MSFs were investigated. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to measure T1(H-1), and the domain size of IND in MSFs (25-100 nm) was calculated from these results. Solid-state and thermal analysis confirmed the presence of amorphous solid dispersions of IND and SOL. IND was found to be chemically stable during an entire MES process. Only small drug content variability of different MSF batches was detected with high performace liquid chromatography (HPLC). Given findings were verified with the liquid NMR spectroscopy. The dissolution of MSFs was significantly faster than that of physical mixtures (PMs) or pure drug. The enhanced dissolution of MSFs was caused by high surface area, amorphous state of the drug and solubilizing properties of the carrier polymer (SOL).
  • Vaalama, Anu; Hartikainen, Helina; Vallius, Henry; Lukkari, Kaarina (2019)
    Phosphorus (P) exchange in clayey mud sediments was investigated with desorption-sorption isotherms at 22 coastal sites in the eutrophied brackish Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The aim was to gain information on P sorption potential and pattern of oxygenated surface sediments and to elucidate factors explaining them. Modified Freundlich equation was fitted to the isotherm data and used for calculation of the P exchange parameters EPC0 (equilibrium P concentration at zero net sorption), k(E)(PC0), k(15) and k(100) (P buffering capacities at early, middle and high sorption stages, respectively). They were further used to assess the P sorption potential and pattern of the sediments. Sediment properties explaining the P sorption potential at different sorption stages were identified.The greatest sorption potentials were recorded in originally poorly oxic sediments in the inner archipelago with accumulated fine particulate material, high in adsorbents for P, transported from the watersheds. After oxygenation, they were high in amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides, which explained their efficient P sorption (k(EPC0) > 1.32 I g(-1)). Poorer P sorption (k(EPC0) 0.45-0.84 I g(-1)) was recorded in fine sediments abundant in Al-oxyhydroxides, presumably due to their higher original P occupation degree. The lowest sorption potentials were found in the outer archipelago sediments. Their lowest specific surface areas and highest original P contents referred to scarcity of adsorbents and high occupation degree of the existing ones. These results suggest that the coastal clayey mud sediments investigated possess high P sorption potential, which can be markedly diminished by eutrophication-induced hypoxia but recovered if oxygen conditions improve.