Browsing by Subject "SOURCE LOCALIZATION"

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  • Tokariev, Anton; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Palva, J. Matias (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2016)
    Objective: To assess how the recording montage in the neonatal EEG influences the detection of cortical source signals and their phase interactions. Methods: Scalp EEG was simulated by forward modeling 20-200 simultaneously active sources covering the cortical surface of a realistic neonatal head model. We assessed systematically how the number of scalp electrodes (11-85), analysis montage, or the size of cortical sources affect the detection of cortical phase synchrony. Statistical metrics were developed for quantifying the resolution and reliability of the montages. Results: The findings converge to show that an increase in the number of recording electrodes leads to a systematic improvement in the detection of true cortical phase synchrony. While there is always a ceiling effect with respect to discernible cortical details, we show that the average and Laplacian montages exhibit superior specificity and sensitivity as compared to other conventional montages. Conclusions: Reliability in assessing true neonatal cortical synchrony is directly related to the choice of EEG recording and analysis configurations. Because of the high conductivity of the neonatal skull, the conventional neonatal EEG recordings are spatially far too sparse for pertinent studies, and this loss of information cannot be recovered by re-montaging during analysis. Significance: Future neonatal EEG studies will need prospective planning of recording configuration to allow analysis of spatial details required by each study question. Our findings also advice about the level of details in brain synchrony that can be studied with existing datasets or by using conventional EEG recordings. (C) 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Tokariev, Anton; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Palva, J. Matias (2016)
    Objective: To assess how the recording montage in the neonatal EEG influences the detection of cortical source signals and their phase interactions. Methods: Scalp EEG was simulated by forward modeling 20-200 simultaneously active sources covering the cortical surface of a realistic neonatal head model. We assessed systematically how the number of scalp electrodes (11-85), analysis montage, or the size of cortical sources affect the detection of cortical phase synchrony. Statistical metrics were developed for quantifying the resolution and reliability of the montages. Results: The findings converge to show that an increase in the number of recording electrodes leads to a systematic improvement in the detection of true cortical phase synchrony. While there is always a ceiling effect with respect to discernible cortical details, we show that the average and Laplacian montages exhibit superior specificity and sensitivity as compared to other conventional montages. Conclusions: Reliability in assessing true neonatal cortical synchrony is directly related to the choice of EEG recording and analysis configurations. Because of the high conductivity of the neonatal skull, the conventional neonatal EEG recordings are spatially far too sparse for pertinent studies, and this loss of information cannot be recovered by re-montaging during analysis. Significance: Future neonatal EEG studies will need prospective planning of recording configuration to allow analysis of spatial details required by each study question. Our findings also advice about the level of details in brain synchrony that can be studied with existing datasets or by using conventional EEG recordings. (C) 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Trusbak Haumann, Niels; Hansen, Brian; Huotilainen, Minna; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira (2020)
    Background The accuracy of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in measuring neural evoked responses (ERs) is challenged by overlapping neural sources. This lack of accuracy is a severe limitation to the application of ERs to clinical diagnostics. New method We here introduce a theory of stochastic neuronal spike timing probability densities for describing the large-scale spiking activity in neural assemblies, and a spike density component analysis (SCA) method for isolating specific neural sources. The method is tested in three empirical studies with 564 cases of ERs to auditory stimuli from 94 humans, each measured with 60 EEG electrodes and 306 MEG sensors, and a simulation study with 12,300 ERs. Results The first study showed that neural sources (but not non-encephalic artifacts) in individual averaged MEG/EEG waveforms are modelled accurately with temporal Gaussian probability density functions (median 99.7 %–99.9 % variance explained). The following studies confirmed that SCA can isolate an ER, namely the mismatch negativity (MMN), and that SCA reveals inter-individual variation in MMN amplitude. Finally, SCA reduced errors by suppressing interfering sources in simulated cases. Comparison with existing methods We found that gamma and sine functions fail to adequately describe individual MEG/EEG waveforms. Also, we observed that principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) does not consistently suppress interference from overlapping brain activity in neither empirical nor simulated cases. Conclusions These findings suggest that the overlapping neural sources in single-subject or patient data can be more accurately separated by applying SCA in comparison to PCA and ICA.
  • Parviainen, Tiina; Helenius, Päivi; Salmelin, Riitta (2019)
    Auditory cortex in each hemisphere shows preference to sounds from the opposite hemifield in the auditory space. Besides this contralateral dominance, the auditory cortex shows functional and structural lateralization, presumably influencing the features of subsequent auditory processing. Children have been shown to differ from adults in the hemispheric balance of activation in higher-order auditory based tasks. We studied, first, whether the contralateral dominance can be detected in 7- to 8-year-old children and, second, whether the response properties of auditory cortex in children differ between hemispheres. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) responses to simple tones revealed adult-like contralateral preference that was, however, extended in time in children. Moreover, we found stronger emphasis towards mature response properties in the right than left hemisphere, pointing to faster maturation of the right-hemisphere auditory cortex. The activation strength of the child-typical prolonged response was significantly decreased with age, within the narrow age-range of the studied child population. Our results demonstrate that although the spatial sensitivity to the opposite hemifield has emerged by 7 years of age, the population-level neurophysiological response shows salient immature features, manifested particularly in the left hemisphere. The observed functional differences between hemispheres may influence higher-level processing stages, for example, in language function.
  • De Tiege, Xavier; Lundqvist, Daniel; Beniczky, Sandor; Seri, Stefano; Paetau, Ritva (2017)
    Purpose: This comprehensive survey aims at characterizing the current clinical use of magnetoencephalography (MEG) across European MEG centres. Methods: Forty-four MEG centres across Europe were contacted in May 2015 via personalized e-mail to contribute to survey. The web-based survey was available on-line for 1 month and the MEG centres that did not respond were further contacted to maximize participation. Results: Among the 57% of responders, 12 centres from 10 different countries reported to use MEG for clinical applications. A total of 524 MEG investigations were performed in 2014 for the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy, while in the same period 244 MEG investigations were performed for pre-surgical functional brain mapping. Seven MEG centres located in different European countries performed >50 MEG investigations for epilepsy mapping in 2014, both in children and adults. In those centres, time from patient preparation to MEG data reporting tends to be lower than those investigating a lower annual number of patients. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates that there is in Europe an increasing and widespread expertise in the field of clinical MEG. These findings should serve as a basis to harmonize clinical MEG procedures and promote the clinical added value of MEG across Europe. MEG should now be considered in Europe as a mature clinical neurophysiological technique that should be used routinely in two specific clinical indications, i.e, the pre-surgical evaluation of refractory focal epilepsy and functional brain mapping. (C) 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Helenius, Paivi; Laasonen, Marja; Hokkanen, Laura; Paetau, Ritva; Niemivirta, Markku (2010)
    The P3 response has been one of the most extensively studied event-related potential (ERP) components. Still, the exact functional role and cortical basis of P3 has remained unsettled. To explore the cortical processes underlying the generation of late positivities, we recorded the activation evoked by frequent Go and infrequent NoGo stimuli and correct versus erroneous responses using combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and ERP measurements during a visual Go/NoGo task. The stimulus-locked signals in the ERP channels revealed an enhanced negative N2 and a prominent late positive component (LPC) after the complex NoGo stimuli associated with successfully withheld responses. The response-locked ERP signals revealed error-related negativity (ERN) and positivity (Pe) after erroneous responses. The positive LPC and Pe components were coupled with functionally and temporally comparable MEG signals. This MEG activation detected during the positive components was localized bilaterally in the posterior temporal cortex. In the response-locked averages, the temporal activity was enhanced around 200 ms after a commission of an error. In the stimulus-locked averages, the activation was also enhanced after infrequent NoGo stimuli around 500 ms after stimulus onset and delayed about 80 ms for the initially miscategorized NoGo stimuli accompanied by erroneous response. The results suggest that the cortical correlates of Pe are not specifically related to commission of an error, but both the LPC and Pe components, and bilateral temporal cortices, are more generally involved in stimulus-driven attentional processing evoked by unexpected stimuli. The negative ERP components evoked by NoGo stimuli (N2) and erroneous responses (ERN) were found to be associated with partly non-overlapping neural sources.
  • Näätänen, Risto; Petersen, Bjorn; Torppa, Ritva; Lonka, Eila; Vuust, Peter (2017)
    In the present article, we review the studies on the use of the mismatch negativity (MMN) as a tool for an objective assessment of cochlear-implant (CI) functioning after its implantation and as a function of time of CI use. The MMN indexes discrimination of different sound stimuli with a precision matching with that of behavioral discrimination and can therefore be used as its objective index. Importantly, these measurements can be reliably carried out even in the absence of attention and behavioral responses and therefore they can be extended to populations that are not capable of behaviorally reporting their perception such as infants and different clinical patient groups. In infants and small children with CI, the MMN provides the only means for assessing the adequacy of the CI functioning, its improvement as a function of time of CI use, and the efficiency of different rehabilitation procedures. Therefore, the MMN can also be used as a tool in developing and testing different novel rehabilitation procedures. Importantly, the recently developed multi-feature MMN paradigms permit the objective assessment of discrimination accuracy for all the different auditory dimensions (such as frequency, intensity, and duration) in a short recording time of about 30 min. Most recently, such stimulus paradigms have been successfully developed for an objective assessment of music perception, too. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.