Browsing by Subject "SOUTHERN FINLAND"

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  • Peltoniemi, Mikko; Pulkkinen, Minna; Aurela, Mika; Pumpanen, Jukka; Kolari, Pasi; Makela, Annikki (2015)
    Simple approaches to predicting ecosystem fluxes are useful in large-scale applications because existing data rarely support justified use of complex models. We developed a model of daily ecosystem gross primary production (P), evapotranspiration (E), and soil water content (theta), which only requires standard weather data and information about the fraction of absorbed radiation. We estimated the parameters of the model for two boreal Scots pine eddy-covariance sites (Hyytiala and Sodankyla). The model predicted P and E adequately for Hyytiala for both calibration and additional test years. The model calibrated for Hyytiala slightly overestimated P and E in Sodankyla, but its performance levelled with the model calibrated for Sodankyla in a dry year. Sensitivity analysis of the model implied that drought prediction is sensitive, not only to key E submodel parameters, but also to P submodel parameters. Further improvement and calibrations of the model could benefit from forest sites with varying canopy and different species structures.
  • Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Lempiaeinen, Terttu; Aspelund, Mikko; Hellstedt, Paavo; Ikonen, Katri; Itaemies, Juhani; Vaehae, Ville; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Asikainen, Juha; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Niemelae, Pekka; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri (2012)
  • Korrensalo, Aino; Kettunen, Laura; Laiho, Raija; Alekseychik, Pavel; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (2018)
    Question: Peatlands are globally important for carbon storage due to the imbalance between plant biomass production and decomposition. Distribution of both live standing biomass (BM, dry mass g/m(2)) and biomass production (BMP, dry mass gm(-2) growing season(-1)) are known to be dependent on the water table (WT). However, the relations of BM and BMP to WT variation are poorly known. Here we investigated, how the above- and below-ground BM and BMP of three different plant functional types (PFTs), dwarf shrubs, sedges and Sphagnum mosses, relate to natural WT variation within an ombrotrophic boreal bog. In addition, we estimated ecosystem-level BMP and compared that with ecosystem net primary production (NPP) derived from eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Location: Siikaneva bog, Ruovesi, Finland. Methods: We quantified above- and below-ground BM and BMP of PFTs along the WT gradient, divided into six plant community types. Plant community scale BM and BMP were up-scaled to the ecosystem level. NPP was derived from EC measurements using a literature-based ratio of heterotrophic respiration to total ecosystem respiration. Results: BM varied from 211 to 979 g/m(2) among the plant community types, decreasing gradually from dry to wet community types. In contrast, BMP was similar between plant community types (162-216 g/m(2)), except on nearly vegetation-free bare peat surfaces where it was low (38 g/m(2)). Vascular plant BM turnover rate (BMP:BM, per year) varied from 0.14 to 0.30 among the plant community types, being highest in sedge-dominated hollows. On average 56% of the vascular BM was produced below ground. Mosses, when present, produced on average 31% of the total BM, ranging from 16% to 53% depending on community type. EC-derived NPP was higher than measured BMP due to underestimation of certain components. Conclusions: We found that the diversity of PFTs decreases the spatial variability in productivity of a boreal bog ecosystem. The observed even distribution of BMP resulted from different WT optima and BMP:BM of dwarf shrubs, sedges and Sphagnum species. These differences in biomass turnover rate and species responses to environmental conditions may provide a resilience mechanism for bog ecosystems in changing conditions.
  • Buenrostro Mazon, S.; Riipinen, I.; Schultz, D. M.; Valtanen, M.; Dal Maso, M.; Sogacheva, L.; Junninen, H.; Nieminen, T.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Kulmala, M. (2009)
  • Makela, Jarmo; Susiluoto, Jouni; Markkanen, Tiina; Aurela, Mika; Järvinen, Heikki; Mammarella, Ivan; Hagemann, Stefan; Aalto, Tuula (2016)
    We examined parameter optimisation in the JSBACH (Kaminski et al., 2013; Knorr and Kattge, 2005; Reick et al., 2013) ecosystem model, applied to two boreal forest sites (Hyytiala and Sodankyla) in Finland. We identified and tested key parameters in soil hydrology and forest water and carbon-exchange-related formulations, and optimised them using the adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm for Hyytil with a 5-year calibration period (2000-2004) followed by a 4-year validation period (2005-2008). Sodankyla acted as an independent validation site, where optimisations were not made. The tuning provided estimates for full distribution of possible parameters, along with information about correlation, sensitivity and identifiability. Some parameters were correlated with each other due to a phenomenological connection between carbon uptake and water stress or other connections due to the set-up of the model formulations. The latter holds especially for vegetation phenology parameters. The least identifiable parameters include phenology parameters, parameters connecting relative humidity and soil dryness, and the field capacity of the skin reservoir. These soil parameters were masked by the large contribution from vegetation transpiration. In addition to leaf area index and the maximum carboxylation rate, the most effective parameters adjusting the gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes in seasonal tuning were related to soil wilting point, drainage and moisture stress imposed on vegetation. For daily and half-hourly tunings the most important parameters were the ratio of leaf internal CO2 concentration to external CO2 and the parameter connecting relative humidity and soil dryness. Effectively the seasonal tuning transferred water from soil moisture into ET, and daily and half-hourly tunings reversed this process. The seasonal tuning improved the month-to-month development of GPP and ET, and produced the most stable estimates of water use efficiency. When compared to the seasonal tuning, the daily tuning is worse on the seasonal scale. However, daily parametrisation reproduced the observations for average diurnal cycle best, except for the GPP for Sodankyla validation period, where half-hourly tuned parameters were better. In general, the daily tuning provided the largest reduction in model-data mismatch. The models response to drought was unaffected by our parametrisations and further studies are needed into enhancing the dry response in JSBACH.
  • Äijälä, Mikko; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Canonaco, Francesco; Heikkinen, Liine; Junninen, Heikki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Ehn, Mikael (2019)
    The interactions between organic and inorganic aerosol chemical components are integral to understanding and modelling climate and health-relevant aerosol physicochemical properties, such as volatility, hygroscopicity, light scattering and toxicity. This study presents a synthesis analysis for eight data sets, of non-refractory aerosol composition, measured at a boreal forest site. The measurements, performed with an aerosol mass spectrometer, cover in total around 9 months over the course of 3 years. In our statistical analysis, we use the complete organic and inorganic unit-resolution mass spectra, as opposed to the more common approach of only including the organic fraction. The analysis is based on iterative, combined use of (1) data reduction, (2) classification and (3) scaling tools, producing a data-driven chemical mass balance type of model capable of describing site-specific aerosol composition. The receptor model we constructed was able to explain 83 +/- 8% of variation in data, which increased to 96 +/- 3% when signals from low signal-to-noise variables were not considered. The resulting interpretation of an extensive set of aerosol mass spectrometric data infers seven distinct aerosol chemical components for a rural boreal forest site: ammonium sulfate (35 +/- 7% of mass), low and semi-volatile oxidised organic aerosols (27 +/- 8% and 12 +/- 7 %), biomass burning organic aerosol (11 +/- 7 %), a nitrate-containing organic aerosol type (7 +/- 2 %), ammonium nitrate (5 +/- 2 %), and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (3 +/- 1 %). Some of the additionally observed, rare outlier aerosol types likely emerge due to surface ionisation effects and likely represent amine compounds from an unknown source and alkaline metals from emissions of a nearby district heating plant. Compared to traditional, ionbalance-based inorganics apportionment schemes for aerosol mass spectrometer data, our statistics-based method provides an improved, more robust approach, yielding readily useful information for the modelling of submicron atmospheric aerosols physical and chemical properties. The results also shed light on the division between organic and inorganic aerosol types and dynamics of salt formation in aerosol. Equally importantly, the combined methodology exemplifies an iterative analysis, using consequent analysis steps by a combination of statistical methods. Such an approach offers new ways to home in on physicochemically sensible solutions with minimal need for a priori information or analyst interference. We therefore suggest that similar statisticsbased approaches offer significant potential for un- or semi-supervised machine-learning applications in future analyses of aerosol mass spectrometric data.
  • Nieminen, M.; Hökkä, H.; Laiho, R.; Juutinen, A.; Ahtikoski, A.; Pearson, M.; Kojola, S.; Sarkkola, S.; Launiainen, S.; Valkonen, S.; Penttilä, T.; Lohila, A.; Saarinen, M.; Haahti, K.; Makipää, R.; Miettinen, J.; Ollikainen, M. (2018)
    Environmental and economic performance of forestry on drained peatlands was reviewed to consider whether continuous cover forestry (CCF) could be a feasible alternative to even-aged management (EM). CCF was regarded feasible particularly because continuously maintaining a tree stand with significant transpiration and interception capacity would decrease the need for ditch network maintenance. Managing CCF forests in such a way that the ground water levels are lower than in clear-cut EM forests but higher than in mature EM forests could decrease greenhouse gas emissions and negative water quality impacts caused both by anoxic redox reactions and oxidation and mineralization of deep peat layers. Regeneration studies indicated potential for satisfactory natural regeneration under CCF on drained peatlands. An economic advantage in CCF over EM is that fewer investments are needed to establish the forest stand and sustain its growth. Thus, even if the growth of trees in CCF forests were lower than in EM forests, CCF could at least in some peatland sites turn out to be a more profitable forest management regime. An advantage of CCF from the viewpoint of socially optimal forest management is that it plausibly reduces the negative externalities of management compared to EM. We propose that future research in drained peatland forests should focus on assessing the economic and environmental feasibility of CCF.
  • Kotze, D. Johan; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lehvävirta, Susanna (2012)
  • Hui, Nan; Liu, Xinxin; Kotze, D. Johan; Jumpponen, Ari; Francini, Gaia; Setala, Heikki (2017)
    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important mutualists for the growth and health of most boreal trees. Forest age and its host species composition can impact the composition of ECM fungal communities. Although plentiful empirical data exist for forested environments, the effects of established vegetation and its successional trajectories on ECM fungi in urban greenspaces remain poorly understood. We analyzed ECM fungi in 5 control forests and 41 urban parks of two plant functional groups (conifer and broadleaf trees) and in three age categories (10, similar to 50, and > 100 years old) in southern Finland. Our results show that although ECM fungal richness was marginally greater in forests than in urban parks, urban parks still hosted rich and diverse ECM fungal communities. ECM fungal community composition differed between the two habitats but was driven by taxon rank order reordering, as key ECM fungal taxa remained largely the same. In parks, the ECM communities differed between conifer and broadleaf trees. The successional trajectories of ECM fungi, as inferred in relation to the time since park construction, differed among the conifers and broadleaf trees: the ECM fungal communities changed over time under the conifers, whereas communities under broadleaf trees provided no evidence for such age-related effects. Our data show that plant-ECM fungus interactions in urban parks, in spite of being constructed environments, are surprisingly similar in richness to those in natural forests. This suggests that the presence of host trees, rather than soil characteristics or even disturbance regime of the system, determine ECM fungal community structure and diversity. IMPORTANCE In urban environments, soil and trees improve environmental quality and provide essential ecosystem services. ECM fungi enhance plant growth and performance, increasing plant nutrient acquisition and protecting plants against toxic compounds. Recent evidence indicates that soil-inhabiting fungal communities, including ECM and saprotrophic fungi, in urban parks are affected by plant functional type and park age. However, ECM fungal diversity and its responses to urban stress, plant functional type, or park age remain unknown. The significance of our study is in identifying, in greater detail, the responses of ECM fungi in the rhizospheres of conifer and broadleaf trees in urban parks. This will greatly enhance our knowledge of ECM fungal communities under urban stresses, and the findings can be utilized by urban planners to improve urban ecosystem services.
  • Bhuiyan, Md Rabbil; Minkkinen, Kari; Helmisaari, Helja-Sisko; Ojanen, Paavo; Penttila, Timo; Laiho, Raija (2017)
    Background and aims Estimation of root-mediated carbon fluxes in forested peatlands is needed for understanding ecosystem functioning and supporting greenhouse gas inventories. Here, we aim to determine the optimal methodology for utilizing ingrowth cores in estimating annual fine-root production (FRP) and its vertical distribution in trees, shrubs and herbs. Methods We used 3-year data obtained with modified ingrowth core method and tested two calculation methods: 'ingrowth-dividing' and `ingrowth-subtracting'. Results The ingrowth-dividing method combined with a 2-year incubation of ingrowth cores can be used for the 'best estimate' of FRP. The FRP in the nutrient-rich fen forest (561 g m(-2)) was more than twice that in the nutrient-poor bog forest (244 g m(-2)). Most FRP occurred in the top 20-cm layer (76-82 %). Tree FRP accounted for 71 % of total FRP in the bog and 94 % in the fen forests, respectively, following the aboveground vegetation patterns; however, in fen forest the proportions of spruce and birch in FRP were higher than their proportions in stand basal area. Conclusions Our methodology may be used to study peatland FRP patterns more widely and will reduce the volume of labour-intensive work, but will benefit from verification with other methods, as is the case in all in situ FRP studies.
  • Lawler, Michael J.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Ehn, Mikael; Mauldin, R. Lee; Sarnela, Nina; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N. (2018)
    New particle formation (NPF) is an important contributor to particle number in many locations, but the chemical drivers for this process are not well understood. Daytime NPF events occur regularly in the springtime Finnish boreal forest and strongly impact aerosol abundance. In April 2014 size-resolved chemical measurements of ambient nanoparticles were made using the Time-of-Flight Thermal Desorption Chemical ionization Mass Spectrometer and we report results from two NPF events. While growth overall was dominated by terpene oxidation products, newly formed 20-70nm particles showed enhancement in apparent alkanoic acids. The events occurred on days with rapid transport of marine air, which correlated with low background aerosol loading and higher gas phase methanesulfonic acid levels. These results are broadly consistent with previous studies on Nordic NPF but indicate that further attention should be given to the sources and role of non-terpenoid organics and the possible contribution of transported marine compounds in this process. Plain Language Summary Clouds are an enormously important part of the climate system because they control the radiation entering and leaving the Earth. Clouds form as water condenses onto small particles called cloud condensation nuclei. These particles can be directly emitted from the Earth's surface, like sea spray, for example, or they can form in the atmosphere out of precursor gases. We have measured the composition of these atmosphere-formed particles to understand better how this process works in the Nordic boreal forest. We found that a diverse mix of processes and molecules are likely involved, possibly including the transport of materials from the ocean. While these results will ultimately lead to a better understanding of ocean-land-cloud interactions, they currently indicate that more work is needed to learn the processes involved.
  • Hakala, Sanja Maria; Seppä, Perttu; Heikkilä, Maria; Punttila, Pekka; Sorvari, Jouni; Helanterä, Heikki (2018)
    Coptoformica Muller, 1923 is a subgenus of Formica Linnaeus, 1758 that consists of c. a dozen species of ants that typically inhabit open grassy habitats and build small nest mounds. The most recent addition to the group is Formica fennica Seifert, 2000. The description was based on morphological characters, but the species status has not been confirmed by molecular methods. In this study, we use thirteen DNA microsatellite markers and a partial mitochondrial COI gene sequence to assess the species status of F. fennica, by comparing the genetic variation among samples identified as F. fennica and six other boreal Formica (Coptoformica) species. Most of the species studied form separate, discontinuous clusters in phylogenetic and spatial analyses with only little intraspecific genetic variation. However, both nuclear and mitochondrial markers fail to separate the species pair F. exsecta Nylander, 1846 and F. fennica despite established morphological differences. The genetic variation within the F. exsecta/fennica group is extensive, but reflects spatial rather than morphological differences. Finnish F. fennica populations studied so far should not be considered a separate species, but merely a morph of F. exsecta.
  • Laine, A. M.; Mehtätalo, L.; Tolvanen, A.; Frolking, S.; Tuittila, E-S (2019)
    Northern wetlands with organic soil i.e., mires are significant carbon storages. This key ecosystem service may be threatened by anthropogenic activities and climate change, yet we still lack a consensus on how these major changes affects their carbon sink capacities. We studied how forestry drainage and restoration combined with experimental warming, impacts greenhouse gas fluxes of wetlands with peat. We measured CO2 and CH4 during two and N2O fluxes during one growing season using the chamber method. Gas fluxes were primarily controlled by water table, leaf area and temperature. Land use had a clear impact of on CO2 exchange. Forestry drainage increased respiration rates and decreased field layer net ecosystem CO2 uptake (NEE) and leaf area index (LAI), while at restoration sites the flux rates and LAI had recovered to the level of undrained sites. CH4 emissions were exceptionally low at all sites during our study years due to natural drought, but still somewhat lower at drained compared to undrained sites. Moderate warming triggered an increase in LAI across all land use types. This was accompanied by an increase in cumulative seasonal NEE. Restoration appeared to be an effective tool to return the ecosystem functions of these wetlands as we found no differences in LAI or any gas flux components (PMAX, Reco, NEE, CH4 or N2O) between restored and undrained sites. We did not find any signs that moderate warming would compromise the return of the ecosystem functions related to C sequestration. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Mathijssen, Paul J. H.; Kahkola, Noora; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Lohila, Annalea; Minkkinen, Kari; Laurila, Tuomas; Väliranta, Minna (2017)
    Data on past peatland growth patterns, vegetation development, and carbon (C) dynamics during the various Holocene climate phases may help us to understand possible future climate-peatland feedback mechanisms. In this study, we analyzed and radiocarbon dated several peat cores from Kalevansuo, a drained bog in southern Finland. We investigated peatland succession and C dynamics throughout the Holocene. These data were used to reconstruct the long-term atmospheric radiative forcing, i.e., climate impact of the peatland since initiation. Kalevansuo peat records revealed a general development from fen to bog, typical for the southern boreal zone, but the timing of ombrotrophication varied in different parts of the peatland. Peat accumulation patterns and lateral expansion through paludification were influenced by fires and climate conditions. Long-term C accumulation rates were overall lower than the average values found from literature. We suggest the low accumulation rates are due to repeated burning of the peat surface. Drainage for forestry resulted in a nearly complete replacement of typical bog mosses by forest species within 40 years after drainage. The radiative forcing reconstruction suggested positive values ( warming) for the first similar to 7000 years following initiation. The change from positive to negative forcing was triggered by an expansion of bog vegetation cover and later by drainage. The strong relationship between peatland area and peat type with radiative forcing suggests a possible feedback for future changing climate, as high-latitude peatlands may experience prominent regime shifts, such as fen to bog transitions.
  • Czechowski, Wojciech; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Stephan, Wojciech; Vepsäläinen, Kari (2016)
    A unique accumulation of workers ('colony') of the wood ant Formica polyctena Forst., trapped within an old bunker for storing nuclear weapons, is described. The source of the 'colony' is a large colony nesting outdoors, on top of the bunker. Individuals that have fallen down through a ventilation pipe are not able to find their way back to the mother nest. In total darkness, they have constructed an earthen mound, which they have maintained all-year-round by moulding it and keeping the nest entrances open. Judging from the huge deposits of wood-ant corpses in the bunker, the 'colony' has survived for years. Through these years, the mortality has been more than compensated by new workers that fall down during the active season of the free-living colony outside, and at present the number of the bunker workers is counted in hundreds of thousands. The 'colony' has evidently produced no offspring, which is due to low (though relatively stable) temperatures and scanty food in the bunker.
  • Zawiska, Izabela; Dimante-Deimantovica, Inta; Luoto, Tomi P.; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Saarni, Saija; Stivrins, Normunds; Tylmann, Wojciech; Lanka, Anna; Robeznieks, Martins; Jilbert, Tom (2020)
    Cultural eutrophication, the process by which pollution due to human activity speeds up natural eutrophication, is a widespread and consequential issue. Here, we present the 85-year history of a small, initially Lobelia-Isoetes dominated lake. The lake's ecological deterioration was intensified by water pumping station activities when it received replenishment water for more than 10 years from a eutrophic lake through a pipe. In this study, we performed a paleolimnological assessment to determine how the lake's ecosystem functioning changed over time. A multi-proxy (pollen, Cladocera, diatoms, and Chironomidae) approach was applied alongside a quantitative reconstruction of total phosphorus using diatom and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen with chironomid-based transfer functions. The results of the biotic proxy were supplemented with a geochemical analysis. The results demonstrated significant changes in the lake community's structure, its sediment composition, and its redox conditions due to increased eutrophication, water level fluctuations, and erosion. The additional nutrient load, particularly phosphorus, increased the abundance of planktonic eutrophic-hypereutrophic diatoms, the lake water's transparency decreased, and hypolimnetic anoxia occurred. Cladocera, Chironomidae, and diatoms species indicated a community shift towards eutrophy, while the low trophy species were suppressed or disappeared.
  • Kristensson, Adam; Johansson, Martin; Swietlicki, Erik; Kivekas, Niku; Hussein, Tareq; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kulmala, Markku; Dal Maso, Miikka (2014)
    Particle number size distributions at various field sites are used to identify atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF) event days. However, the spatial distribution of regionally extensive events is unknown. To remedy this situation, the NanoMap method has been developed to enable the estimation of where NPF occurs within 500 km from any field station using as input size distribution and meteorological trajectories only. Also, the horizontal extension of NPF can be determined. An open-source program to run NanoMap is available on the internet. NanoMap has been developed using as an example the Finnish field site at Hyytiala. It shows that there are frequent NPF events over the Baltic Sea, but not as frequent as over Finland for certain wind directions; hence NanoMap is able to pinpoint areas with a low or high occurrence of NPF events. The method should be applicable to almost any field site.
  • Oosterwijk, Aleid; Henzing, Bas; Järvi, Leena (2018)
    To study the environmental fate of nanoparticles, reliable measurements of particle fluxes in the atmosphere are of importance. The eddy-covariance (EC) technique can be used to calculate surface fluxes. In this study, the EC technique has been applied to calculate particle fluxes in Helsinki (Finland) and Cabauw (the Netherlands). For reliable estimations of the surface fluxes, particle flux measurements need to be corrected for attenuation at the highest frequencies. This attenuation is caused by the relatively long response time of scalar sensors and measurement set-up. The attenuation can be estimated using a theoretical or an empirical approach. Horst [Horst, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1997, 82(2)] developed a simple formula to estimate the attenuation, based on the empirical approach. The empirical approach relies on the assumption of spectral similarity between two scalars. In this paper the effect of the spectral similarity assumption is investigated. It is shown that in order to apply the Horst formula reliably, a decent estimate of the sensor response time is required. Furthermore, it is shown that in order to apply the empirical method, a fast sensor response is required. It is concluded that theory does not predict the position of the peak in the cospectrum well, which means that for measurement set-ups not yet operational, this requirement is not easily evaluated. The assumption of spectral similarity seems reasonable for particle fluxes and heat fluxes, when compared to similarity between fluxes of other scalars. An altered assumption of spectral similarity has been applied, where similarity is assumed only at frequencies higher than the peak frequency in the cospectrum. This assumption leads to a better estimate for the attenuation, when applied to the Helsinki data. It does not lead to an improvement for the Cabauw data set, due to the large response time of the measurement set-up.
  • Minkkinen, Kari; Ojanen, Paavo; Penttilä, Timo; Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Lohila, Annalea (2018)
    Drainage of peatlands is expected to turn these ecosystems into carbon sources to the atmosphere. We measured carbon dynamics of a drained forested peatland in southern Finland over 4 years, including one with severe drought during growing season. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured with the eddy covariance method from a mast above the forest. Soil and forest floor CO2 and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured from the strips and from ditches with closed chambers. Biomass and litter production were sampled, and soil subsidence was measured by repeated levellings of the soil surface. The drained peatland ecosystem was a strong sink of carbon dioxide in all studied years. Soil CO2 balance was estimated by subtracting the carbon sink of the growing tree stand from NEE, and it showed that the soil itself was a carbon sink as well. A drought period in one summer significantly decreased the sink through decreased gross primary production. Drought also decreased ecosystem respiration. The site was a small sink for CH4, even when emissions from ditches were taken into account. Despite the continuous carbon sink, peat surface subsided slightly during the 10-year measurement period, which was probably mainly due to compaction of peat. It is concluded that even 50 years after drainage this peatland site acted as a soil C sink due to relatively small changes in the water table and in plant community structure compared to similar undrained sites, and the significantly increased tree stand growth and litter production. Although the site is currently a soil C sink, simulation studies with process models are needed to test whether such sites could remain C sinks when managed for forestry over several tree-stand rotations.