Browsing by Subject "SP-NOV"

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  • Salonen, Iines S.; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Nomaki, Hidetaka; Langlet, Dewi; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Koho, Karoliina A. (2021)
    Foraminifera are unicellular eukaryotes that are an integral part of benthic fauna in many marine ecosystems, including the deep sea, with direct impacts on benthic biogeochemical cycles. In these systems, different foraminiferal species are known to have a distinct vertical distribution, i.e., microhabitat preference, which is tightly linked to the physico-chemical zonation of the sediment. Hence, foraminifera are well-adapted to thrive in various conditions, even under anoxia. However, despite the ecological and biogeochemical significance of foraminifera, their ecology remains poorly understood. This is especially true in terms of the composition and diversity of their microbiome, although foraminifera are known to harbor diverse endobionts, which may have a significant meaning to each species' survival strategy. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding to investigate the microbiomes of five different deep-sea benthic foraminiferal species representing differing microhabitat preferences. The microbiomes of these species were compared intra- and inter-specifically, as well as with the surrounding sediment bacterial community. Our analysis indicated that each species was characterized with a distinct, statistically different microbiome that also differed from the surrounding sediment community in terms of diversity and dominant bacterial groups. We were also able to distinguish specific bacterial groups that seemed to be strongly associated with particular foraminiferal species, such as the family Marinilabiliaceae for Chilostomella ovoidea and the family Hyphomicrobiaceae for Bulimina subornata and Bulimina striata. The presence of bacterial groups that are tightly associated to a certain foraminiferal species implies that there may exist unique, potentially symbiotic relationships between foraminifera and bacteria that have been previously overlooked. Furthermore, the foraminifera contained chloroplast reads originating from different sources, likely reflecting trophic preferences and ecological characteristics of the different species. This study demonstrates the potential of 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding in resolving the microbiome composition and diversity of eukaryotic unicellular organisms, providing unique in situ insights into enigmatic deep-sea ecosystems.
  • Kaasalainen, Ulla Susanna; Heinrichs, Jochen; Renner, Matthew; Hedenäs, Lars; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Lee, Gaik; Ignatov, Michael; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander (2018)
    Fossil tree resins preserve a wide range of animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms in microscopic fidelity. Fossil organisms preserved in an individual piece of amber lived at the same time in Earth history and mostly even in the same habitat, but they were not necessarily parts of the same interacting community. Here, we report on an in situ preserved corticolous community from a piece of Miocene Dominican amber which is composed of a lichen, a moss and three species of leafy liverworts. The lichen is assigned to the extant genus Phyllopsora (Ramalinaceae, Lecanoromycetes) and is described as P. magna Kaasalainen, Rikkinen & A. R. Schmidt sp. nov. The moss, Aptychellites fossilis Schaf.-Verw., Hedenas, Ignatov & Heinrichs gen. & sp. nov., closely resembles the extant genus Aptychella of the family Pylaisiadelphaceae. The three leafy liverworts comprise the extinct Lejeuneaceae species Cheilolejeunea antiqua (Grolle) Ye & Zhu, 2010 and Lejeunea miocenica Heinrichs, Schaf.-Verw., M. A. M. Renner & G. E. Lee sp. nov. and the extinct Radulaceae species Radula intecta M. A. M. Renner, Schaf.-Verw. & Heinrichs sp. nov. The presence of five associated extinct cryptogam species, four of which belong to extant genera, further substantiates the notion of a stasis in morphotype diversity, but a certain turnover of species, in the Caribbean since the early Miocene.
  • Zhao, Ke; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Maoke; Ao, Xiaolin; Gu, Yunfu; Liao, Decong; Xu, Kaiwei; Ma, Monggeng; Yu, Xiumei; Xiang, Quanju; Chen, Ji; Zhang, Xiaoping; Penttinen, Petri (2018)
    Many of the plant associated microbes may directly and indirectly contribute to plant growth and stress resistance. Our aim was to assess the plant growth-promoting and antimicrobial activities of actinobacteria isolated from Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. plants to find strains that could be applied in agricultural industry, for example in reclaiming saline soils. We isolated 36 and 52 strains that showed morphological characteristics of actinobacteria from one year old and three year old G. inflata plants, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strains represented ten actinobacterial genera. Most of the strains had plant growth promoting characteristics in vitro, tolerated 200 mM NaCl and inhibited the growth of at least one indicator organism. The eight selected Streptomyces strains increased the germination rate of G. inflata seeds under salt stress. In addition, the four best seed germination promoters promoted the growth of G. inflata in vivo. The best promoters of G. inflata growth, strains SCAU5283 and SCAU5215, inhibited a wide range of indicator organisms, and may thus be considered as promising candidates to be applied in inoculating G. inflata.
  • Paukkunen, Juho; Berg, Alexander; Soon, Villu; Odegaard, Frode; Rosa, Paolo (2015)
    The Chrysididae are a group of cleptoparasitic and parasitoid aculeate wasps with a large number of rare and endangered species. The taxonomy of this group has long been confusing due to the similarity of species and extensive intraspecific variation. We present for the first time a comprehensive dichotomous key for all 74 species found in the Nordic and Baltic countries. In addition to diagnostic characters, information on the distribution and biology of each species is also presented. A new species, Chrysis borealis Paukkunen, Odegaard & Soon, sp.n. is described on the basis of specimens collected from Fennoscandia. Chrysis gracillima Forster, 1853 is recorded as new to the Nordic and Baltic countries.
  • Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar (2017)
    As an ecological niche, the mammalian intestine provides the ideal habitat for a variety of bacterial microorganisms. Purportedly, some commensal genera and species offer a beneficial mix of metabolic, protective, and structural processes that help sustain the natural digestive health of the host. Among these sort of gut inhabitants is the Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus ruminis, a strict anaerobe with both pili and flagella on its cell surface, but also known for being autochthonous (indigenous) to the intestinal environment. Given that the molecular basis of gut autochthony for this species is largely unexplored and unknown, we undertook a study at the genome level to pinpoint some of the adaptive traits behind its colonization behavior. In our pan-genomic probe of L. ruminis, the genomes of nine different strains isolated from human, bovine, porcine, and equine host guts were compiled and compared for in silico analysis. For this, we conducted a geno-phenotypic assessment of protein-coding genes, with an emphasis on those products involved with cell-surface morphology and anaerobic fermentation and respiration. We also categorized and examined the core and accessory genes that define the L. ruminis species and its strains. Here, we made an attempt to identify those genes having ecologically relevant phenotypes that might support or bring about intestinal indigenousness.
  • Atanasova, Nina S.; Demina, Tatiana A.; Buivydas, Andrius; Bamford, Dennis H.; Oksanen, Hanna M. (2015)
    Hypersaline environments around the world are dominated by archaea and their viruses. To date, very little is known about these viruses and their interaction with the host strains when compared to bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. We performed the first culture-dependent temporal screening of haloarchaeal viruses and their hosts in the saltern of Samut Sakhon, Thailand, during two subsequent years (2009, 2010). Altogether we obtained 36 haloarchaeal virus isolates and 36 archaeal strains, significantly increasing the number of known archaeal virus isolates. Interestingly, the morphological distribution of our temporal isolates (head-tailed, pleomorphic, and icosahedral membrane-containing viruses) was similar to the outcome of our previous spatial survey supporting the observations of a global resemblance of halophilic microorganisms and their viruses. Myoviruses represented the most abundant virus morphotype with strikingly broad host ranges. The other viral morphotypes (siphoviruses, as well as pleomorphic and icosahedral internal membrane-containing viruses) were more host-specific. We also identified a group of Halorubrum strains highly susceptible to numerous different viruses (up to 26). This high virus sensitivity, the abundance of broad host range viruses, and the maintenance of infectivity over a period of one year suggest constant interplay of halophilic microorganisms and their viruses within an extreme environment.
  • Jankowiak, Robert; Strzalka, Beata; Bilanski, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Magdalena; Lukasova, Karolina; Linnakoski, Riikka; Matwiejczuk, Sebastian; Misztela, Marcin; Rossa, Robert (2017)
    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are commonly recognised as important agents of tree mortality in coniferous forests of the Western Carpathians. They, together with weevils, are consistently associated with ophiostomatoid fungi. Information regarding conifer beetle-associated fungi in the Western Carpathians remains incomplete and unreliable, particularly with respect to fir-infesting bark beetles. This study aims to clarify associations between fungi in the genera Graphilbum, Leptographium, Ophiostoma and Sporothrix (Ophiostomatales) and their beetle vectors in Norway spruce (Picea abies), European larch (Larix decidua) and silver fir (Abies alba). Samples associated with 20 bark beetle species and weevils were collected from nine stands in Poland and the Czech Republic. Fungi were isolated from adult beetles and galleries. Isolates were identified based on morphology, DNA sequence comparisons for four gene regions (ITS, LSU, -tubulin, TEF 1-alpha) and phylogenetic analyses. In total, 46 distinct taxa were identified, including 25 known and 21 currently unknown species. Several associations between fungi and subcortical insects were recorded for the first time. In addition, O. borealis and O. quercus were detected from A. alba for the first time. The composition of the fungal communities varied among the studied tree species and to a lesser degree among the beetle species. The spruce-infesting bark beetles were commonly associated with species of Leptographium s. l. and Ophiostoma s. str.; the larch-infesting bark beetles were often associated with Ophiostoma s. str. and Sporothrix, while the fir-infesting bark beetles were commonly associated with Ophiostoma s. str. and Graphilbum. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the examined insects were (a) Grosmannia cucullata, G. piceiperda, Grosmannia sp. 1, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and O. piceae with the spruce-infesting bark beetles; (b) O. pseudocatenulatum and Sporothrix sp. 1 with the larch-infesting bark beetles; and (c) O. piceae, Ophiostoma sp. 2 and Graphilbum sp. 2 with the fir-infesting bark beetles. The differences in fungal associates among the bark beetle species occurring on P. abies, L. decidua and A. alba could be linked to the different habitats that these beetles occupy.
  • Wang, Jinhui; Haapalainen, Minna Liisa; Schott, Thomas; Thompson, Sarah; Smith, Grant; Nissinen, Anne; Pirhonen, Minna Ursula (2017)
    Haplotypes A and B of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso) are associated with diseases of solanaceous plants, especially Zebra chip disease of potato, and haplotypes C, D and E are associated with symptoms on apiaceous plants. To date, one complete genome of haplotype B and two high quality draft genomes of haplotype A have been obtained for these unculturable bacteria using metagenomics from the psyllid vector Bactericera cockerelli. Here, we present the first genomic sequences obtained for the carrot-associated CLso. These two genomic sequences of haplotype C, FIN114 (1.24 Mbp) and FIN111 (1.20 Mbp), were obtained from carrot psyllids (Trioza apicalis) harboring CLso. Genomic comparisons between the haplotypes A, B and C revealed that the genome organization differs between these haplotypes, due to large inversions and other recombinations. Comparison of protein-coding genes indicated that the core genome of CLso consists of 885 ortholog groups, with the pan-genome consisting of 1327 ortholog groups. Twenty-seven ortholog groups are unique to CLso haplotype C, whilst 11 ortholog groups shared by the haplotypes A and B, are not found in the haplotype C. Some of these ortholog groups that are not part of the core genome may encode functions related to interactions with the different host plant and psyllid species.
  • Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Stenroos, Soili (2021)
    The diversity of lichen photobionts is not fully known. We studied here the diversity of the photobionts associated with Cladonia, a sub-cosmopolitan genus ecologically important, whose photobionts belong to the green algae genus Asterochloris. The genetic diversity of Asterochloris was screened by using the ITS rDNA and actin type I regions in 223 specimens and 135 species of Cladonia collected all over the world. These data, added to those available in GenBank, were compiled in a dataset of altogether 545 Asterochloris sequences occurring in 172 species of Cladonia. A high diversity of Asterochloris associated with Cladonia was found. The commonest photobiont lineages associated with this genus are A. glomerata, A. italiana, and A. mediterranea. Analyses of partitioned variation were carried out in order to elucidate the relative influence on the photobiont genetic variation of the following factors: mycobiont identity, geographic distribution, climate, and mycobiont phylogeny. The mycobiont identity and climate were found to be the main drivers for the genetic variation of Asterochloris. The geographical distribution of the different Asterochloris lineages was described. Some lineages showed a clear dominance in one or several climatic regions. In addition, the specificity and the selectivity were studied for 18 species of Cladonia. Potentially specialist and generalist species of Cladonia were identified. A correlation was found between the sexual reproduction frequency of the host and the frequency of certain Asterochloris OTUs. Some Asterochloris lineages co-occur with higher frequency than randomly expected in the Cladonia species.
  • Natsume, Masahiro; Nagagata, Asaho; Aittamaa, Marja; Okaniwa, Naoko; Somervuo, Panu; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Kreuze, Jan F.; Rokka, Veli-Matti; Bang, Hans; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2018)
    Streptomyces spp. are a highly diverse group of bacteria most of which are soil-inhabiting saprophytes. A few are plant pathogens that produce a family of phytotoxins called thaxtomins and cause significant economic losses, e.g., by reducing the marketability of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). In northern Europe, S. scabies, S. turgidiscabies and S. europaeiscabiei are the most common plant pathogenic species. In this study, a Streptomyces strain isolated from a netted scab lesion on a tuber of potato cv. Bintje in northern Sweden was identified as S. turgidiscabies but was found to differ in the genomic region carrying genes required for thaxtomin biosynthesis. Our results showed that the strain did not produce thaxtomin but rather phytotoxin fridamycin E, which is an anthraquinone novel to plant pathogenic Streptomyces spp. Fridamycin E was shown to reduce or inhibit sprouting of potato microtubers in vitro. While fridamycin E is known to have antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria, the inhibitory activity of fridamycin E on plant growth is a novel finding.
  • Runnel, Kadri; Miettinen, Otto; Lohmus, Asko (2021)
    Polyporous fungi, a morphologically delineated group of Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota), are considered well studied in Europe and used as model group in ecological studies and for conservation. Such broad interest, including widespread sampling and DNA based taxonomic revisions, is rapidly transforming our basic understanding of polypore diversity and natural history. We integrated over 40,000 historical and modern records of polypores in Estonia (hemiboreal Europe), revealing 227 species, and including Polyporus submelanopus and P. ulleungus as novelties for Europe. Taxonomic and conservation problems were distinguished for 13 unresolved subgroups. The estimated species pool exceeds 260 species in Estonia, including at least 20 likely undescribed species (here documented as distinct DNA lineages related to accepted species in, e.g., Ceriporia, Coltricia, Physisporinus, Sidera and Sistotrema). Four broad ecological patterns are described: (1) polypore assemblage organization in natural forests follows major soil and tree-composition gradients; (2) landscape-scale polypore diversity homogenizes due to draining of peatland forests and reduction of nemoral broad-leaved trees (wooded meadows and parks buffer the latter); (3) species having parasitic or brown-rot life-strategies are more substrate-specific; and (4) assemblage differences among woody substrates reveal habitat management priorities. Our update reveals extensive overlap of polypore biota throughout North Europe. We estimate that in Estonia, the biota experienced ca. 3-5% species turnover during the twentieth century, but exotic species remain rare and have not attained key functions in natural ecosystems. We encourage new regional syntheses on long studied fungal groups to obtain landscape-scale understanding of species pools, and for elaborating fungal indicators for biodiversity assessments.
  • Amesbury, Matthew J.; Booth, Robert K.; Roland, Thomas P.; Bunbury, Joan; Clifford, Michael J.; Charman, Dan J.; Elliot, Suzanne; Finkelstein, Sarah; Garneau, Michelle; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Lamarre, Alexandre; Loisel, Julie; Mackay, Helen; Magnan, Gabriel; Markel, Erin R.; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Payne, Richard J.; Pelletier, Nicolas; Roe, Helen; Sullivan, Maura E.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Talbot, Julie; van Bellen, Simon; Warner, Barry G. (2018)
    Fossil testate amoeba assemblages have been used to reconstruct peatland palaeohydrology for more than two decades. While transfer function training sets are typically of local-to regional-scale in extent, combining those data to cover broad ecohydrological gradients, from the regional-to continental- and hemispheric-scales, is useful to assess if ecological optima of species vary geographically and therefore may have also varied over time. Continental-scale transfer functions can also maximise modern analogue quality without losing reconstructive skill, providing the opportunity to contextualise understanding of purely statistical outputs with greater insight into the biogeography of organisms. Here, we compiled, at moderate taxonomic resolution, a dataset of nearly 2000 modern surface peatland testate amoeba samples from 137 peatlands throughout North America. We developed transfer functions using four model types, tested them statistically and applied them to independent palaeoenvironmental data. By subdividing the dataset into eco-regions, we examined biogeographical patterns of hydrological optima and species distribution across North America. We combined our new dataset with data from Europe to create a combined transfer function. The performance of our North-American transfer function was equivalent to published models and reconstructions were comparable to those developed using regional training sets. The new model can therefore be used as an effective tool to reconstruct peatland palaeohydrology throughout the North American continent. Some eco-regions exhibited lower taxonomic diversity and some key indicator taxa had restricted ranges. However, these patterns occurred against a background of general cosmopolitanism, at the moderate taxonomic resolution used. Likely biogeographical patterns at higher taxonomic resolution therefore do not affect transfer function performance. Output from the combined North American and European model suggested that any geographical limit of scale beyond which further compilation of peatland testate amoeba data would not be valid has not yet been reached, therefore advocating the potential for a Holarctic synthesis of peatland testate amoeba data. Extending data synthesis to the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere would be more challenging due to higher regional endemism in those areas. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.