Browsing by Subject "SPACE"

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  • Kukkakorpi, Mariia; Pantti, Mervi (2021)
    Virtual reality (VR) and other immersive technologies introduce new opportunities for emotionally compelling narratives and user agency. Virtually mediated environments lie at the heart of immersive journalism (IJ) experiences, foregrounding a sense of presence and bridging the connection between the user and the character. Mediated environments in VR stories provide more than a setting since the user can interact with and respond to the surroundings. Drawing on the theory of spatial narrative, documentary and cinema literature and studies on media morality, this article examines the meaning of place in VR news stories and its ability to engage the user with the story. This study contributes to the discussion of creating and communicating places in journalism studies by examining spatial storytelling in immersive news stories, which are available in the NYT VR smartphone application. This paper argues that spatial storytelling eventually affects what is experienced and how it is experienced either by demonstrating the circumstances with aesthetical elements or via the selection of spaces.
  • Haikala, L. K.; Salinas, R.; Richtler, T.; Gomez, M.; Gahm, G. F.; Mattila, K. (2021)
    Context. An intriguing silhouette of a small dust patch can be seen against the disk of the S0 galaxy NGC 3269 in the Antlia cluster in optical images. The images do not provide any clue as to whether the patch is a local Jupiter mass-scale cloudlet or a large extragalactic dust complex.Aims. We aim to resolve the nature of this object: is it a small Galactic cloudlet or an extragalactic dust complex?Methods. ALMA and APEX spectroscopy and Gemini GMOS long-slit spectroscopy were used to measure the velocity of the patch and the NGC 3269 disk radial velocity curve.Results. A weak 16 2.5 km s(-1) wide (CO)-C-12(2-1) T-MB 19 +/- 2.5. mK line in a 2 .('') . '' 2 by 2 .('') .'' 12 beam associated with the object was detected with ALMA. The observed heliocentric velocity, V-r,V- hel=3878 +/- 5.0 km s(-1), immediately establishes the extragalactic nature of the object. The patch velocity is consistent with the velocity of the nucleus of NGC 3269, but not with the radial velocity of the NGC 3269 disk of the galaxy at its position. The similar to 4 '' angular size of the patch corresponds to a linear size of similar to 1 kpc at the galaxy's Hubble distance of 50.7 Mpc. The mass estimated from the (CO)-C-12(2-1) emission is similar to 1.4x10(6)(d/50.7 Mpc)M-2(circle dot), while the attenuation derived from the optical spectrum implies a dust mass of similar to 2.6x10(4)(d/50.7 Mpc)M-2(circle dot). The derived attenuation ratio A ' (B)/(A ' (B)-A ' (R)) of 1.6 +/- 0.11 is substantially lower than the corresponding value for the mean Milky Way extinction curve for point sources (2.3).Conclusions. We established the extragalactic nature of the patch, but its origin remains elusive. One possibility is that the dust patch is left over from the removal of interstellar matter in NGC 3269 through the interaction with its neighbour, NGC 3268.
  • Soininvaara, Ilppo (2020)
    In this article, I analyze the politics of urbanization and competitiveness-led state spatial transformations through political narratives. By analyzing empirical material, I search for ways of reasoning and rationalities that disclose the dynamics of the depoliticization and politicization of different spatial transformations of urbanization. Based on extensive interviews, I argue that a general understanding of urbanization as an external, global inevitability and as a force prevails among political elites. This key rationality and other sedimented knowledge duly opens up new political debates on the proper political management of urbanization and national adaptation. The order of reasoning is clear: the political elites argue that the perceived inevitability, common good and state of crisis necessitate national spatial transformations in order to secure the competitiveness of the state. As a result, new spatial hierarchies are forming as an adaptive strategy.
  • Niu, Pingping; Helin, Tapio; Zhang, Zhidong (2020)
    In this work the authors consider an inverse source problem the stochastic fractional diffusion equation. The interested inverse problem is to reconstruct the unknown spatial functions f and g (the latter up to the sign) in the source by the statistics of the final time data u(x, T). Some direct problem results are proved at first, such as the existence, uniqueness, representation and regularity of the solution. Then a reconstruction scheme for f and g up to the sign is given. To tackle the ill-posedness, Tikhonov regularization is adopted and some numerical results are displayed.
  • Asvestari, E.; Willamo, T.; Gil, A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mayorov, A. (2017)
    Nearly 70 Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays have been recorded by the worldwide neutron monitor network since the 1950s depicting a big variety of energy spectra of solar energetic particles (SEP). Here we studied a statistical relation between the event-integrated intensity of GLEs (calculated as count-rate relative excess, averaged over all available polar neutron monitors, and expressed in percent-hours) and the hardness of the solar particle energy spectra. For each event the integral omnidirectional event integrated fluences of particles with energy above 30 MeV (F-30) and above 200 MeV (F-200) were computed using the reconstructed spectra, and the ratio between the two fluences was considered as a simple index of the event's hardness. We also provided a justification of the spectrum estimate in the form of the Band-function, using direct PAMELA data for GLE 71 (17-May-2012). We found that, while there is no clear relation between the intensity and the hardness for weak events, all strong events with the intensity greater 100 % h are characterized by a very hard spectrum. This implies that a hard spectrum can be securely assumed for all extreme GLE events, e.g., those studied using cosmogenic isotope data in the past. (C) 2016 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Jalkanen, Joel; Fabritius, Henna; Vierikko, Kati; Moilanen, Atte; Toivonen, Tuuli (2020)
    Maintaining enough green areas and ensuring fair access to them is a common planning challenge in growing and densifying cities. Evaluations of green area access typically use metrics like population around green areas (within a certain buffer), but these do not fully ensure equitable access. We propose that using systematic and complementarity-driven spatial prioritization, often used in nature conservation planning, could assist in the complex planning challenge. Here, we demonstrate the use of spatial prioritization to identify green areas with highest recreational potential based on their type and their accessibility for the residents of the Helsinki Metropolitan area, the capital district of Finland. We calculated travel times from each city district to each green area. Travel times were calculated separately to local green areas using active travel modes (walking and biking), and to large forests (attracting people from near and far) using public transport. We prioritized the green areas using these multimodal travel times from each district and weighting the prioritization with population data with Zonation, conservation prioritization software. Compared to a typical buffer analysis (population within a 500 m buffer from green areas), our approach identified areas of high recreational potential in different parts of the study area. This approach allows systematic integration of travel-time-based accessibility measures into equitable spatial prioritization of recreational green areas. It can help urban planners to identify sets of green areas that best support the recreational needs of the residents across the city.
  • Liu, Jia; Vanhatalo, Jarno (2020)
    In geostatistics, the spatiotemporal design for data collection is central for accurate prediction and parameter inference. An important class of geostatistical models is log-Gaussian Cox process (LGCP) but there are no formal analyses on spatial or spatiotemporal survey designs for them. In this work, we study traditional balanced and uniform random designs in situations where analyst has prior information on intensity function of LGCP and show that the traditional balanced and random designs are not efficient in such situations. We also propose a new design sampling method, a rejection sampling design, which extends the traditional balanced and random designs by directing survey sites to locations that are a priori expected to provide most information. We compare our proposal to the traditional balanced and uniform random designs using the expected average predictive variance (APV) loss and the expected Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between the prior and the posterior for the LGCP intensity function in simulation experiments and in a real world case study. The APV informs about expected accuracy of a survey design in point-wise predictions and the KL-divergence measures the expected gain in information about the joint distribution of the intensity field. The case study concerns planning a survey design for analyzing larval areas of two commercially important fish stocks on Finnish coastal region. Our experiments show that the designs generated by the proposed rejection sampling method clearly outperform the traditional balanced and uniform random survey designs. Moreover, the method is easily applicable to other models in general. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Kankainen, Matti; Ojala, Teija; Holm, Liisa (2012)
  • Nygaard, Malene; Kemppainen, Petri; Speed, James D. M.; Elven, Reidar; Flatberg, Kjell Ivar; Galten, Leif P.; Yousefi, Narjes; Solstad, Heidi; Bendiksby, Mika (2021)
    Carex section Ceratocystis (Cyperaceae) is a group of recently evolved plant species, in which hybridization is frequent, introgression is documented, taxonomy is complex, and morphological boundaries are vague. Within this section, a unified taxonomic treatment of the Carex jemtlandica-Carex lepidocarpa species complex does not exist, and Norway may currently be the sole country accepting species rank for both. Carex jemtlandica is mainly confined to Fennoscandia and is thus a Fennoscandian conservation responsibility. This motivated us to test the principal hypothesis that both C. jemtlandica and C. lepidocarpa represent evolutionary significant units, and that both deserve their current recognition at species level. We investigated their evolutionary distinctiveness in Norway, using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and ecological niche modeling. Our genomic results reveal two genetic clusters, largely corresponding to C. jemtlandica and C. lepidocarpa that also remain distinct in sympatry, despite clear indications of ongoing hybridization and introgression. The ecological niche modeling suggests that they occupy different environmental niches. Jointly, our results clearly show that C. jemtlandica and C. lepidocarpa represent separately evolving entities that should qualify recognition as evolutionary significant units. Given the high level of introgression compared to other hybridizing species pairs in Carex we recommend treating C. jemtlandica as a subspecies of C. lepidocarpa.
  • Sabater, Neus; Vicent, Jorge; Alonso, Luis; Verrelst, Jochem; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Moreno, José (2018)
    Estimates of Sun–Induced vegetation chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) using remote sensing techniques are commonly determined by exploiting solar and/or telluric absorption features. When SIF is retrieved in the strong oxygen (O 2 ) absorption features, atmospheric effects must always be compensated. Whereas correction of atmospheric effects is a standard airborne or satellite data processing step, there is no consensus regarding whether it is required for SIF proximal–sensing measurements nor what is the best strategy to be followed. Thus, by using simulated data, this work provides a comprehensive analysis about how atmospheric effects impact SIF estimations on proximal sensing, regarding: (1) the sensor height above the vegetated canopy; (2) the SIF retrieval technique used, e.g., Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) family or Spectral Fitting Methods (SFM); and (3) the instrument’s spectral resolution. We demonstrate that for proximal–sensing scenarios compensating for atmospheric effects by simply introducing the O 2 transmittance function into the FLD or SFM formulations improves SIF estimations. However, these simplistic corrections still lead to inaccurate SIF estimations due to the multiplication of spectrally convolved atmospheric transfer functions with absorption features. Consequently, a more rigorous oxygen compensation strategy is proposed and assessed by following a classic airborne atmospheric correction scheme adapted to proximal sensing. This approach allows compensating for the O 2 absorption effects and, at the same time, convolving the high spectral resolution data according to the corresponding Instrumental Spectral Response Function (ISRF) through the use of an atmospheric radiative transfer model. Finally, due to the key role of O 2 absorption on the evaluated proximal–sensing SIF retrieval strategies, its dependency on surface pressure (p) and air temperature (T) was also assessed. As an example, we combined simulated spectral data with p and T measurements obtained for a one–year period in the Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station in Finland. Of importance hereby is that seasonal dynamics in terms of T and p, if not appropriately considered as part of the retrieval strategy, can result in erroneous SIF seasonal trends that mimic those of known dynamics for temperature–dependent physiological responses of vegetation.
  • Gurarie, Eliezer; Fleming, Christen H.; Fagan, William F.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Hernandez-Pliego, Jesus; Ovaskainen, Otso (2017)
    Background: Continuous time movement models resolve many of the problems with scaling, sampling, and interpretation that affect discrete movement models. They can, however, be challenging to estimate, have been presented in inconsistent ways, and are not widely used. Methods: We review the literature on integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck velocity models and propose four fundamental correlated velocity movement models (CVM's): random, advective, rotational, and rotational-advective. The models are defined in terms of biologically meaningful speeds and time scales of autocorrelation. We summarize several approaches to estimating the models, and apply these tools for the higher order task of behavioral partitioning via change point analysis. Results: An array of simulation illustrate the precision and accuracy of the estimation tools. An analysis of a swimming track of a bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) illustrates their robustness to irregular and sparse sampling and identifies switches between slower and faster, and directed vs. random movements. An analysis of a short flight of a lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) identifies exact moments when switches occur between loopy, thermal soaring and directed flapping or gliding flights. Conclusions: We provide tools to estimate parameters and perform change point analyses in continuous time movement models as an R package (smoove). These resources, together with the synthesis, should facilitate the wider application and development of correlated velocity models among movement ecologists.
  • Caro, Pedro; Helin, Tapio; Kujanpää, Antti; Lassas, Matti (2019)
    Scattering from a non-smooth random field on the time domain is studied for plane waves that propagate simultaneously through the potential in variable angles. We first derive sufficient conditions for stochastic moments of the field to be recovered from empirical correlations between amplitude measurements of the leading singularities, detected in the exterior of a region where the potential is almost surely supported. The result is then applied to show that if two sufficiently regular random fields yield the same correlations, they have identical laws as function-valued random variables.
  • Halonen, Jaana; Pulakka, Anna; Pentti, Jaana; Kallio, Minna; Koskela, Sofia; Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2020)
    Objective Neighbourhood characteristics may affect the level of physical activity (PA) of the residents. Few studies have examined the combined effects of distinctive neighbourhood characteristics on PA using objective data or differentiated between activity during working or non-working days. We examined the associations of socioeconomic disadvantage and greenness with accelerometer-measured leisure-time PA during working and non-working days. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Finnish Retirement and Aging (FIREA) study. Participants 708 workers (604 women, mean age 62.4 ranging from 58 to 64 years,) participating in the FIREA study who provided PA measurement data for at least 1 working and non-working day. Primary and secondary outcomes PA was measured with wrist-worn accelerometer on average of 4 working and 2 non-working days. Outcomes were total PA, light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). These measurements were linked to data on neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and greenness within the home neighbourhood (750x750 m). Generalised linear models were adjusted for possible confounders. Results On non-working days, higher neighbourhood disadvantage associated with lower levels of total PA (p value=0.07) and higher level of neighbourhood greenness associated with higher level of total PA (p value=0.04). Neighbourhood disadvantage and greenness had an interaction (p value=0.02); in areas of low disadvantage higher greenness did not associate with the level of total PA. However, in areas of high disadvantage, 2 SD higher greenness associated with 46 min/day (95% CI 8.4 to 85) higher total PA. Slightly stronger interaction was observed for LPA (p=0.03) than for the MVPA (p=0.09). During working days, there were no associations between neighbourhood characteristics and leisure-time total PA. Conclusions Of the disadvantaged neighbourhoods, those characterised by high levels of greenness seem to associate with higher levels of leisure-time PA during non-working days. These findings suggest that efforts to add greenness to socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods might reduce inequalities in PA.
  • Quist, Liina-Maija; Nygren, Anja (2019)
    Marine extraction accounts for one third of the world's hydrocarbon production. Several analyses suggest that seismic surveys employed in oil exploration harm marine life; however, their long-term impacts have not been extensively studied. We examine debates between fishers, the oil industry, and governmental authorities over the effects of oil explorations in Tabasco, Mexico. The study employs ideas from historical ontology in tracing the contested production of truth-claims about exploration in the context of scientific uncertainty. It shows how actors, through their different engagements with the sea, and with different degrees of power, frame claims about the relations between exploration and fish. We argue that fishers, through their efforts to "think like fish" produce situated knowledges about the effects of oil exploration. They explain a disappearance of fish by their understanding that seismic surveys disturb fish migration, impair the hearing of fish and cause fish death. Oil company and governmental representatives frame the impacts of oil exploration as insignificant by separating environmental and social dimensions, by isolating individual exploration events, and by arguing that possible effects are transitional. Due to scientific indeterminacy, oil exploration is malleable in the hands of powerful political representations that understate its possible impacts on marine socio-environments.
  • Järv, Olle; Tenkanen, Henrikki Toivo Olavi; Salonen, Maria Pauliina; Ahas, Rein; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina (2018)
    The concept of accessibility – the potential of opportunities for interaction – binds together the key physical components of urban structure: people, transport and social activity locations. Most often these components are dynamic in nature and hence the accessibility landscape changes in space and time based on people's mobilities and the temporality of the transport network and activity locations (e.g. services). Person-based accessibility approaches have been successful in incorporating time and space in the analyses and models. Still, the more broadly applied location-based accessibility modelling approaches have, on the other hand, often been static/atemporal in their nature. Here, we present a conceptual framework of dynamic location-based accessibility modelling that captures the dynamic temporality of all three accessibility components. Furthermore, we empirically test the proposed framework using novel data sources and tools. We demonstrate the impact of temporal aspects in accessibility modelling with two examples: by investigating food accessibility and its spatial equity. Our case study demonstrates how the conventional static location-based accessibility models tend to overestimate the access of people to potential opportunities. The proposed framework is universally applicable beyond the urban context, from local to global scale and on different temporal scales and multimodal transport systems. It also bridges the gap between location-based accessibility and person-based accessibility research.
  • Kazemi, Ali (2020)
    This study examines the sequential and situated organization associated with framing locational formulations by dislocated parties to mobile phone calls for the joint accomplishment of location-related social action. The data come from 22 mundane Farsi mobile phone calls involving location inquiring and/or reporting. The analysis of the data, informed by conversational analysis and Levinson's conceptual framework of perspective-taking, adds frame of reference (hereafter, FoR) to Schegloff's location, membership, and topic or activity analyses operative in the selection of locational formulations. The trajectory plotted for location-related action indicates the contingent roles which material, linguistic and semiotic resources play in the selection of locational formulations deployed for co-presence purposes. The findings suggest consequentiality of the-relevant-next action for the framing of locational descriptions and provide insight into how conversationalists interact with their physical environment in a wider social context.
  • Hayden, B.; Harrod, C.; Thomas, S. M.; Eloranta, A. P.; Myllykangas, J.-P.; Siwertsson, A.; Praebel, K.; Knudsen, R.; Amundsen, P-A; Kahilainen, K. K. (2019)
    Climate change and the intensification of land use practices are causing widespread eutrophication of subarctic lakes. The implications of this rapid change for lake ecosystem function remain poorly understood. To assess how freshwater communities respond to such profound changes in their habitat and resource availability, we conducted a space-for-time analysis of food-web structure in 30 lakes situated across a temperature-productivity gradient equivalent to the predicted future climate of subarctic Europe (temperature +3 degrees C, precipitation +30% and nutrient +45 mu g L-1 total phosphorus). Along this gradient, we observed an increase in the assimilation of pelagic-derived carbon from 25 to 75% throughout primary, secondary and tertiary consumers. This shift was overwhelmingly driven by the consumption of pelagic detritus by benthic primary consumers and was not accompanied by increased pelagic foraging by higher trophic level consumers. Our data also revealed a convergence of the carbon isotope ratios of pelagic and benthic food web endmembers in the warmest, most productive lakes indicating that the incorporation of terrestrial derived carbon into aquatic food webs increases as land use intensifies. These results, reflecting changes along a gradient characteristic of the predicted future environment throughout the subarctic, indicate that climate and land use driven eutrophication and browning are radically altering the function and fuelling of aquatic food webs in this biome.
  • Renk, Janina; Zumalacarregui, Miguel; Montanari, Francesco; Barreira, Alexandre (2017)
    Cosmological models with Galileon gravity are an alternative to the standard ACDM paradigm with testable predictions at the level of its self-accelerating solutions for the expansion history, as well as large-scale structure formation. Here, we place constraints on the full parameter space of these models using data from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) (including lensing), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the Integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect. We pay special attention to the ISW effect for which we use the cross spectra, C-l(Tg), of CMB temperature maps and foreground galaxies from the WISE survey. The sign of C-l(Tg) is set by the time evolution of the lensing potential in the redshift range of the galaxy sample: it is positive if the potential decays (like in ACDM), negative if it deepens. We constrain three subsets of Galileon gravity separately known as the Cubic, Quartic and Quintic Galileons. The cubic Galileon model predicts a negative C-l(Tg) and exhibits a 7.8 sigma tension with the data, which effectively rules it out. For the quartic and quintic models the ISW data also rule out a significant portion of the parameter space but permit regions where the goodness-of-fit is comparable to ACDM. The data prefers a non zero sum of the neutrino masses (Sigma m(v) approximate to 0.5eV) with similar to 5 sigma significance in these models. The best-fitting models have values of Ho consistent with local determinations, thereby avoiding the tension that exists in ACDM. We also identify and discuss a similar to 2 sigma tension that Galileon gravity exhibits with recent BAO measurements. Our analysis shows overall that Galileon cosmologies cannot be ruled out by current data but future lensing, BAO and ISW data hold strong potential to do so.
  • Mattlin, Mikael; Wigell, Mikael (2016)
    Geoeconomic power and its use appear to be a crucial, albeit understudied aspect of today's international relations. Traditionally, international power has been thought of in geopolitical rather than geoeconomic terms. Indeed, ever since the famous debate about sea power and land power between Alfred Thayer Mahan and Halford MacKinder at the cusp of the twentieth century, scholars have linked geography with the pursuit of political and military power. However, the term "geoeconomics" is of a more recent origin, and also more vexing than geopolitics. The term is commonly associated with Edward Luttwak's writings in the early 1990s Luttwak (Natl Interes 20:17-24, 1990, Int Econ 7/5:18-67, 1993), although it did not spin a major scholarly discussion at the time. For Luttwak, geoeconomics denoted the successor system of interstate rivalry that emerged in the aftermath of Cold War geopolitics. As a consequence of the rise of major new economic powers, such as China, India and Brazil, there is renewed interest in the concept. Yet, an overview of the literature indicates that there seems to be no agreement on what exactly the term means. This special issue tackles the different ways in which the term geoeconomics is used, in the context of the policies pursued by major regional powers (e.g. China, Russia and Germany). How are we to understand the actions of these regional powers in contexts where economic interests, political power and geography intersect? In the introductory article, we overview the literature and summarise the main arguments of the individual papers.
  • Wang, Yonghong; Wang, Yuesi; Wang, Lili; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zha, Qiaozhi; Gong, Chongshui; Li, Sixuan; Pan, Yuepeng; Hu, Bo; Xin, Jinyuan; Kulmala, Markku (2019)
    The detailed formation mechanism of an increased number of haze events in China is still not very clear. Here, we found that reduced surface visibility from 1980 to 2010 and an increase in satellite-derived columnar concentrations of inorganic precursors from 2002 to 2012 are connected with each other. Typically, higher inorganic mass fractions lead to increased aerosol water uptake and light-scattering ability in elevated relative humidity. Satellite observation of aerosol precursors of NO2 and SO2 showed increased concentrations during the study period. Our in situ measurement of aerosol chemical composition in Beijing also confirmed increased contribution of inorganic aerosol fraction as a function of the increased particle pollution level. Our investigations demonstrate that the increased inorganic fraction in the aerosol particles is a key component in the frequently occurring haze days during the study period, and particularly the reduction of nitrate, sulfate and their precursor gases would contribute towards better visibility in China.