Browsing by Subject "SPECTRA"

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  • Baryshnikov, G. V.; Valiev, R. R.; Cherepanov, V. N.; Karaush-Karmazin, N. N.; Minaeva, V. A.; Minaev, B. F.; Ågren, H. (2019)
    The electronic structure, absorption and emission spectra, aromaticity and photophysical behavior of the recently synthesized tetrasilatetrathia[8]circulene and tetragermatetrathia[8]circulene compounds have been studied computationally. Both compounds demonstrate a specific bifacial aromaticity, which is unusual for hetero[8]circulenes; the inner eight-membered core sustains an expected strong paratropic magnetically-induced ring current, while the outer perimeter contains saturated Si(Et)2 and Ge(Et)2 moieties which break the conjugation between the thiophene rings. The overall magnetically-induced ring current for both studied circulenes is close to zero because of the strong local diatropic currents in each thiophene ring that compensate the paratropic counterpart. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of tetrasilatetrathia[8]circulene and tetragermatetrathia[8]circulene demonstrate a clear visible vibronic progression. The 0–0 band is the most active one in the absorption spectra, while in the fluorescence spectra the 0–1 band composed of several normal vibrations is more intense compared with the 0–0 band in excellent agreement with experiment. Accounting for spin–orbit coupling effects, an analysis of the photophysical constants for the two compounds demonstrates: (1) a clear manifestation of the internal heavy atom effect on the inter-system crossing efficiency; (2) one to two order domination of non-radiative rates over the fluorescence rate; and (3) that the S1–S0 internal conversion is extremely slow and can not compete with the fluorescence, while the S1–Tn inter-system crossing is a main deactivation channel of the S1 excited state. These results provide new insight into the electronic structure and photophysics of tetrasilatetrathia[8]circulene and tetragermatetrathia[8]circulene as novel standalone representatives of hetero[8]circulenes – tetraannelated derivatives of tetrathienylene.
  • Saarinen, Jukka Kalle Samuel; Gütter, Friederike; Lindman, Mervi M; Agopov, Mikael; Fraser-Miller, Sara J.; Scherließ, Regina; Jokitalo, Eija; Almeida Santos, Helder; Peltonen, Leena; Isomäki, Antti; Strachan, Clare J. (2019)
    A wide variety of nanoparticles are playing an increasingly important role in drug delivery. Label-free imaging techniques are especially desirable to follow the cellular uptake and intracellular fate of nanoparticles. The combined correlative use of different techniques, each with unique advantages, facilitates more detailed investigation about such interactions. The synergistic use of correlative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and electron microscopy (C-CARS-EM) imaging offers label-free, chemically-specific, and (sub)-nanometer spatial resolution for studying nanoparticle uptake into cells as demonstrated in the current study. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy offers chemically-specific (sub)micron spatial resolution imaging without fluorescent labels while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) offers (sub)-nanometer scale spatial resolution and thus visualization of precise nanoparticle localization at the sub-cellular level. This proof-of-concept imaging platform with unlabeled drug nanocrystals and macrophage cells revealed good colocalization between the CARS signal and electron dense nanocrystals in TEM images. The correlative TEM images revealed subcellular localization of nanocrystals inside membrane bound vesicles, showing multivesicular body (MVB)-like morphology typical for late endosomes (LEs), endolysosomes, and phagolysosomes. C-CARS-EM imaging has much potential to study the interactions between a wide range of nanoparticles and cells with high precision and confidence.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search has been performed for heavy resonances decaying to ZZ or ZW in 2l2q final states, with two charged leptons (l = e, mu) produced by the decay of a Z boson, and two quarks produced by the decay of a W or Z boson. The analysis is sensitive to resonances with masses in the range from 400 to 4500 GeV. Two categories are defined based on the merged or resolved reconstruction of the hadronically decaying vector boson, optimized for high- and low-mass resonances, respectively. The search is based on data collected during 2016 by the CMS experiment at the LHC in proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of root s = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). No excess is observed in the data above the standard model background expectation. Upper limits on the production cross section of heavy, narrow spin-1 and spin-2 resonances are derived as a function of the resonance mass, and exclusion limits on the production of W' bosons and bulk graviton particles are calculated in the framework of the heavy vector triplet model and warped extra dimensions, respectively.
  • Augustyn, Bozena; Stepien, Piotr; Poojari, Chetan; Mobarak, Edouard; Polit, Agnieszka; Wisniewska-Becker, Anna; Rog, Tomasz (2019)
    Nanodiscs are suitable tools for studies of membrane proteins (MPs) due to their ability to mimic native biological membranes, and several MP structures are solved in nanodiscs. Among the various cell membrane components, cholesterol (CHL) is known to regulate protein function and its concentration can reach up to 50 mol %. However, studies comprising cholesterol are challenging due to its hydrophobic nature, hence, nanodiscs with only a low cholesterol concentration have been studied. To overcome the problem, cholesterol analogs with high solubility in polar solutions are often used, and one of them is cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Nevertheless, in molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, this is not an obstacle. In this study, we performed MD simulations of nanodiscs containing neutral phosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipids, negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) lipids, CHL, or negatively charged cholesterol analog, CHS. Our simulations show that CHS increases the order of lipids in nanodiscs; the effect is, however, weaker than CHL and even smaller in nanodiscs. Furthermore, CHS gathered around scaffold proteins while cholesterol was uniformly distributed in the nanodiscs. Thus, nanodiscs with CHS are heterogeneous and not equivalent to nanodiscs with CHL. Finally, we also observed the increased concentration of POPG near the scaffold proteins, driven by electrostatic interactions. The MD results are experimentally validated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These results show that nanodiscs are, in fact, complex structures not easily comparable with planar lipid bilayers.
  • Vegh, Russell B.; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Bloch, Dmitry A.; Bommarius, Andreas S.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Verkhovsky, Michael; Krylov, Anna I.; Solntsev, Kyril M. (2014)
  • Benatto, L.; Marchiori, C. F. N.; Talka, T.; Aramini, M.; Yamamoto, N. A. D.; Huotari, S.; Roman, L. S.; Koehler, M. (2020)
    The difference in aggregation size of the C-60 and C-70 fullerenes affect the photovoltaic performance of devices assembled in the so-called bilayer architecture with poly [2,7-(9,9- dioctyl- dibenzosilole)- alt-4,7- bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo- 2,1,3- thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) as the electron donor material. Despite the better performance of the C-70 devices, which is related to the high absorption coefficient in the visible range and the superior charge transport properties, the short-circuit current variation upon annealing treatment at 100 degrees C is approximately twice bigger when the C-60 is the acceptor. We attribute this effect to the tendency of C-60 in form smaller aggregate domains relatively to the C-70. The increased roughness on the polymeric surface after annealing results in an enhanced donor/acceptor contact area and assists the fullerene diffusion deeper inside the polymeric layer. This effect leads to a better mixing between donor and acceptor species and create a interpenetrating layer close to the so-called bulk heterojunction. Since C-60 forms smaller aggregates, this mechanism is more pronounced for this molecule. Therefore, a significant variation in the performance of the C-60 devices is observed after this kind of treatment. Density Functional Theory calculations of the potential energy of interaction between two fullerene molecules and X-Ray measurements gives evidences to support this idea. In addition, combining spectrally resolved external quantum efficiency measurements with optical modeling our results also indicate the occurrence of the bilayer interfacial mixing for PSiF-DBT/C-60.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The pseudorapidity distributions of dijets as functions of their average transverse momentum (p(T)(ave)) are measured in proton-lead (pPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions. The data samples were collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. A significant modification of the pPb spectra with respect to the pp spectra is observed in all p(T)(ave) intervals investigated. The ratios of the pPb and pp distributions are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations with unbound nucleon and nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs). These results give the first evidence that the gluon PDF at large Bjorken x in lead ions is strongly suppressed with respect to the PDF in unbound nucleons.
  • V. Baryshnikov, Glib; Valiev, Rashid; Kuklin, Artem; Sundholm, Dage; Ågren, Hans (2019)
    Cyclo[18]carbon (C18) is studied computationally at density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio levels to obtain insights into its electronic structure, aromaticity, and adsorption properties on the NaCl surface. DFT functionals with a small amount of Hartree-Fock exchange as well as XMC-QDPT2 calculations fail to determine the experimentally observed polyyne molecular structure revealing a cumulene-type geometry. Exchange-correlation functionals with a large amount of Hartree-Fock ex-change as well as ab initio CASSCF calculations yield the polyyne structure is a ground state while the cumulene structure corresponds to the transition state between the two inverted polyyne structures through the Kekule distortion. The polyyne and the cumulene structures are found to be doubly Hückel aromatic. The calculated adsorption energy of cyclo[18]carbon on the NaCl surface is small (37 meV/C) and almost the same for both structures implying that the surface does not stabilize a particular geometry.
  • Hofmann, F.; Sanders, J. S.; Clerc, N.; Nandra, K.; Ridl, J.; Dennerl, K.; Ramos-Ceja, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Reiprich, T. H. (2017)
    Context. The eROSITA mission will provide the largest sample of galaxy clusters detected in X-ray to date (one hundred thousand expected). This sample will be used to constrain cosmological models by measuring cluster masses. An important mass proxy is the electron temperature of the hot plasma detected in X-rays. Aims. We want to understand the detection properties and possible bias in temperatures due to unresolved substructures in the cluster halos. Methods. We simulated a large number of galaxy cluster spectra with known temperature substructures and compared the results from analysing eROSITA simulated observations to earlier results from Chandra. Results. We were able to constrain a bias in cluster temperatures and its impact on cluster masses, as well as cosmological parameters derived from the survey. We found temperatures in the eROSITA survey to be biased low by about five per cent due to unresolved temperature substructures (compared to emission-weighted average temperatures from the Chandra maps). This bias would have a significant impact on the eROSITA cosmology constraints if not accounted for in the calibration. Conclusions. We isolated the bias effect that substructures in galaxy clusters have on temperature measurements and their impact on derived cosmological parameters in the eROSITA cluster survey.
  • Koskelo, Jaakko; Fugallo, Giorgia; Hakala, Mikko; Gatti, Matteo; Sottile, Francesco; Cudazzo, Pierluigi (2017)
    We present a general picture of the exciton properties of layered materials in terms of the excitations of their single-layer building blocks. To this end, we derive a model excitonic Hamiltonian by drawing an analogy with molecular crystals, which are other prototypical van der Waals materials. We employ this simplified model to analyze in detail the excitation spectrum of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) that we have obtained from the ab initio solution of the many-body Bethe-Salpeter equation as a function of momentum. In this way, we identify the character of the lowest-energy excitons in hBN, discuss the effects of the interlayer hopping and the electron-hole exchange interaction on the exciton dispersion, and illustrate the relation between exciton and plasmon excitations in layered materials.
  • CORE Collaboration; Natoli, P.; Kiiveri, K.; Lindholm, V.; Keihänen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Väliviita, J. (2018)
    We present an analysis of the main systematic effects that could impact the measurement of CMB polarization with the proposed CORE space mission. We employ timeline to-map simulations to verify that the CORE instrumental set-up and scanning strategy allow us to measure sky polarization to a level of accuracy adequate to the mission science goals. We also show how the CORE observations can be processed to mitigate the level of contamination by potentially worrying systematics, including intensity-to-polarization leakage due to bandpass mismatch, asymmetric main beams, pointing errors and correlated noise. We use analysis techniques that are well validated on data from current missions such as Planck to demonstrate how the residual contamination of the measurements by these effects can be brought to a level low enough not to hamper the scientific capability of the mission, nor significantly increase the overall error budget. We also present a prototype of the CORE photometric calibration pipeline, based on that used for Planck, and discuss its robustness to systematics, showing how CORE can achieve its calibration requirements. While a fine-grained assessment of the impact of systematics requires a level of knowledge of the system that can only be achieved in a future study phase, the analysis presented here strongly suggests that the main areas of concern for the CORE mission can be addressed using existing knowledge, techniques and algorithms.
  • Valiev, R. R.; Cherepanov, V. N.; Baryshnikov, G. V.; Sundholm, D. (2018)
    A method for calculating the rate constants for internal-conversion (k(IC)) and intersystem-crossing (k(ISC)) processes within the adiabatic and Franck-Condon (FC) approximations is proposed. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by calculation of k(IC) and k(ISC) for a set of organic and organometallic compounds with experimentally known spectroscopic properties. The studied molecules were pyrromethene-567 dye, psoralene, hetero[8]circulenes, free-base porphyrin, naphthalene, and larger polyacenes. We also studied fac-Alq(3) and fac-Ir(ppy)(3), which are important molecules in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The excitation energies were calculated at the multi-configuration quasi-degenerate second-order perturbation theory (XMC-QDPT2) level, which is found to yield excitation energies in good agreement with experimental data. Spin-orbit coupling matrix elements, non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements, Huang-Rhys factors, and vibrational energies were calculated at the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) levels. The computed fluorescence quantum yields for the pyrromethene-567 dye, psoralene, hetero[8]circulenes, fac-Alq(3) and fac-Ir(ppy)(3) agree well with experimental data, whereas for the free-base porphyrin, naphthalene, and the polyacenes, the obtained quantum yields significantly differ from the experimental values, because the FC and adiabatic approximations are not accurate for these molecules.
  • Rojalin, Tatu; Kurki, Lauri; Laaksonen, Timo; Viitala, Tapani; Kostamovaara, Juha; Gordon, Keith C.; Galvis, Leonardo; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Strachan, Clare J.; Yliperttula, Marjo (2016)
    In this work, we utilize a short-wavelength, 532-nm picosecond pulsed laser coupled with a time-gated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector to acquire Raman spectra of several drugs of interest. With this approach, we are able to reveal previously unseen Raman features and suppress the fluorescence background of these drugs. Compared to traditional Raman setups, the present time-resolved technique has two major improvements. First, it is possible to overcome the strong fluorescence background that usually interferes with the much weaker Raman spectra. Second, using the high photon energy excitation light source, we are able to generate a stronger Raman signal compared to traditional instruments. In addition, observations in the time domain can be performed, thus enabling new capabilities in the field of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. With this system, we demonstrate for the first time the possibility of recording fluorescence-suppressed Raman spectra of solid, amorphous and crystalline, and non-photoluminescent and photoluminescent drugs such as caffeine, ranitidine hydrochloride, and indomethacin (amorphous and crystalline forms). The raw data acquired by utilizing only the picosecond pulsed laser and a CMOS SPAD detector could be used for identifying the compounds directly without any data processing. Moreover, to validate the accuracy of this time-resolved technique, we present density functional theory (DFT) calculations for a widely used gastric acid inhibitor, ranitidine hydrochloride. The obtained time-resolved Raman peaks were identified based on the calculations and existing literature. Raman spectra using non-time-resolved setups with continuous-wave 785- and 532-nm excitation lasers were used as reference data. Overall, this demonstration of time-resolved Raman and fluorescence measurements with a CMOS SPAD detector shows promise in diverse areas, including fundamental chemical research, the pharmaceutical setting, process analytical technology (PAT), and the life sciences.
  • Juvonen, Minna Katriina; Kotiranta, Markus; Jokela, Jouni Kalevi; Tuomainen, Päivi; Tenkanen, Tiina Maija (2019)
    Recent works provide evidence of the prebiotic potential of arabinoxylan-derived oligosaccharides (A)XOS. In this study, we developed a structural analysis for cereal-derived (A)XOS by negative ionization HILIC-MS/MS. Initially, we assessed twelve (A)XOS samples of known structures with different linkage positions and branching points by direct-infusion negative ESI-MSn. We subsequently developed the negative ion HILIC-MS/MS with a post-column addition of ammonium chloride. The selected (A)XOS represented both linear (arabinofuranosyl residue linked to the non-reducing end of xylooligosaccharide) and branched structures. Each (A)XOS sample produced a specific spectrum in negative ion ESI-MSn. By analyzing cross-ring fragment ions, we determined the linkage positions of linear (A)XOS. The presence or absence of diagnostic ions in the MS3 allowed us to detect different branches (O-2- or/and O-3-linked arabinofuranosyl with/or without O-4-linked xylopyranosyl at the non-reducing end). Furthermore, we could identify all analyzed samples by HILIC-MS/MS, based on the formed spectral library and chromatographic retention times.
  • Sahle, Christoph J.; Kujawski, Simon; Remhof, Arndt; Yan, Yigang; Stadie, Nicholas P.; Al-Zein, Ali; Tolan, Metin; Huotari, Simo; Krisch, Michael; Sternemann, Christian (2016)
    We present an in situ study of the thermal decomposition of Mg(BH4)(2) in a hydrogen atmosphere of up to 4 bar and up to 500 degrees C using X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at the boron K-edge and the magnesium L2,3-edges. The combination of the fingerprinting analysis of both edges yields detailed quantitative information on the reaction products during decomposition, an issue of crucial importance in determining whether Mg(BH4)(2) can be used as a next-generation hydrogen storage material. This work reveals the formation of reaction intermediate(s) at 300 degrees C, accompanied by a significant hydrogen release without the occurrence of stable boron compounds such as amorphous boron or MgB12H12. At temperatures between 300 degrees C and 400 degrees C, further hydrogen release proceeds via the formation of higher boranes and crystalline MgH2. Above 400 degrees C, decomposition into the constituting elements takes place. Therefore, at moderate temperatures, Mg(BH4)(2) is shown to be a promising high-density hydrogen storage material with great potential for reversible energy storage applications.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Kral, J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J.; Räsänen, Sami Sakari; The ALICE collaboration (2015)
    We report the measurement of a new observable of jet quenching in central Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV, based on the semi-inclusive rate of charged jets recoiling from a high transverse momentum (high-p T) charged hadron trigger. Jets are measured using collinear-safe jet reconstruction with infrared cutoff for jet constituents of 0.15 GeV, for jet resolution parameters R = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.5. Underlying event background is corrected at the event-ensemble level, without imposing bias on the jet population. Recoil jet spectra are reported in the range 20 <p(T,jet)(ch) <100 GeV. Reference distributions for pp collisions at root s = 2.76TeV are calculated using Monte Carlo and NLO pQCD methods, which are validated by comparing with measurements in pp collisions at root s = 7TeV. The recoil jet yield in central Pb-Pb collisions is found to be suppressed relative to that in pp collisions. No significant medium-induced broadening of the intra-jet energy profile is observed within 0.5 radians relative to the recoil jet axis. The angular distribution of the recoil jet yield relative to the trigger axis is found to be similar in central Pb-Pb and pp collisions, with no significant medium-induced acoplanarity observed. Large-angle jet deflection, which may provide a direct probe of the nature of the quasi-particles in hot QCD matter, is explored.
  • Antchev, G.; Brucken, E.; Garcia, F.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Kurvinen, Leo Kari-Pekka; Lauhakangas, R.; Mäki, T.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Österberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Welti, J.; TOTEM Collaboration (2012)
    The TOTEM experiment has measured the charged-particle pseudorapidity density dNch/dη in pp collisions at \sqrt{s} = 7\,{\rm TeV} for 5.3<|η|<6.4 in events with at least one charged particle with transverse momentum above 40 MeV/c in this pseudorapidity range. This extends the analogous measurement performed by the other LHC experiments to the previously unexplored forward η region. The measurement refers to more than 99% of non-diffractive processes and to single and double diffractive processes with diffractive masses above ~3.4 GeV/c2, corresponding to about 95% of the total inelastic cross-section. The dNch/dη has been found to decrease with |η|, from 3.84 ± 0.01(stat) ± 0.37(syst) at |η|=5.375 to 2.38±0.01(stat)±0.21(syst) at |η|=6.375. Several MC generators have been compared to data; none of them has been found to fully describe the measurement.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of root s = 13 TeV is presented. The analysis is based on events with energy deposits in the forward calorimeters, which cover pseudorapidities of -6.6 < eta < -3.0 and +3.0 < eta < +5.2. An inelastic cross section of 68.6 +/- 0.5(syst) +/- 1.6(lumi) mb is obtained for events with M-x > 4.1 GeV and/or M-Y > 13 GeV, where M-x and M-Y are the masses of the diffractive dissociation systems at negative and positive pseudorapidities, respectively. The results are compared with those from other experiments as well as to predictions from high-energy hadron-hadron interaction models.
  • Brown, Steven G.; Eberly, Shelly; Paatero, Pentti; Norris, Gary A. (2015)
    The new version of EPA's positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF) software, 5.0, includes three error estimation (EE) methods for analyzing factor analytic solutions: classical bootstrap (BS), displacement of factor elements (DISP), and bootstrap enhanced by displacement (BS-DISP). These methods capture the uncertainty of PMF analyses due to randomerrors and rotational ambiguity. To demonstrate the utility of the EEmethods, results are presented for three data sets: (1) speciated PM2.5 data froma chemical speciation network (CSN) site in Sacramento, California (2003-2009); (2) trace metal, ammonia, and other species inwater quality samples taken at an inline storage system (ISS) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (2006); and (3) an organic aerosol data set from high- resolution aerosolmass spectrometer (HR-AMS) measurements in Las Vegas, Nevada (January 2008). We present an interpretation of EE diagnostics for these data sets, results fromsensitivity tests of EE diagnostics using additional and fewer factors, and recommendations for reporting PMF results. BS-DISP and BS are found useful in understanding the uncertainty of factor profiles; they also suggest if the data are over-fitted by specifying toomany factors. DISP diagnosticswere consistently robust, indicating its use for understanding rotational uncertainty and as a first step in assessing a solution's viability. The uncertainty of each factor's identifying species is shown to be a useful gauge for evaluating multiple solutions, e.g., with a different number of factors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (