Browsing by Subject "SPECTRUM DISORDERS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-9 of 9
  • Koponen, Anne M.; Nissinen, Niina-Maria; Gissler, Mika; Sarkola, Taisto; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Kahila, Hanna (2020)
    Purpose:The need for longitudinal studies on prenatal substance exposure (PSE) extending into adulthood is widely recognised. In particular, studies on the dual effect of exposure to substances and adverse childhood experiences are needed. This register-based matched cohort study investigates the effect of this dual exposure on the health and development of youth with PSE. The follow-up is from birth to young adulthood.Participants:The exposed youth were born in 1992?2001 to mothers with a significant substance misuse problem during pregnancy. The mothers were identified in primary care maternity clinics in the Helsinki metropolitan area and referred for intensified pregnancy follow-up in a tertiary care setting (HAL-clinics). Data from hospital medical records were collected for the mothers during the pregnancy follow-up and linked with register data from multiple national health and social welfare registers obtained for each mother?child dyad from birth until the end of 2015?2018. Similar register data were gathered for three matched mother?child dyads without any evidence of the mother?s substance misuse in national health and social welfare registers. The study consists of 615 exposed and 1787 unexposed youth aged 15?24 years.Findings to date:A majority of the exposed youth (64%) had been in out-of-home care at least once compared with 8% among the unexposed. Outpatient and inpatient hospital care due to mental or behavioural disorders were two to three times more common among the exposed than among the unexposed. The exposed had less often completed secondary school education and had more often needed social assistance.Future plans:The data comprise a wide range of information on infant health, youth?s mental and somatic health and development, out-of-home care history, and mother?s life situation at the delivery and later health. Risk and protective factors for different long-term developmental outcomes in adolescence or in young adulthood will be studied.
  • Appenzeller, Silke; Balling, Rudi; Barisic, Nina; Baulac, Stephanie; Caglayan, Hande; Craiu, Dana; De Jonghe, Peter; Depienne, Christel; Dimova, Petia; Djemie, Tania; Gormley, Padhraig; Guerrini, Renzo; Helbig, Ingo; Hjalgrim, Helle; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Jaehn, Johanna; Klein, Karl Martin; Koeleman, Bobby; Komarek, Vladimir; Krause, Roland; Kuhlenbaeumer, Gregor; Leguern, Eric; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Lemke, Johannes R.; Lerche, Holger; Linnankivi, Tarja; Marini, Carla; May, Patrick; Moller, Rikke S.; Muhle, Hiltrud; Pal, Deb; Palotie, Aarno; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Robbiano, Angela; Roelens, Filip; Rosenow, Felix; Selmer, Kaja; Serratosa, Jose M.; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Stephani, Ulrich; Sterbova, Katalin; Striano, Pasquale; Suls, Arvid; Talvik, Tiina; von Spiczak, Sarah; Weber, Yvonne; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Zara, Federico; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Alldredge, Brian K.; EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium; Epilepsy Phenome Genome Project; Epi4K Consortium (2014)
  • Baryshnikov, I.; Aaltonen, K.; Koivisto, M.; Naatanen, P.; Karpov, B.; Melartin, T.; Heikkinen, M.; Ketokivi, M.; Joffe, G.; Isometsa, E. (2015)
    Background: Differential diagnosis between bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often challenging due to some overlap in symptoms and comorbidity of disorders. We investigated correlations in self-reported symptoms of BD and BPD in screening questionnaires at the levels of both total scores and individual items and explored overlapping dimensions. Methods: The McLean Screening Instrument (MSI) for BPD and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) for BD were filled in by patients with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders (n = 313) from specialized psychiatric care within a pilot study of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium. Pearson's correlation coefficients between total scores and individual items of the MSI and the MDQ were estimated. Relationships between MDQ and MSI were evaluated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Results: The correlation between total scores of the MDQ and MSI was moderate (r = 0.431, P <0.001). Significant correlations were found between the MSI items of "impulsivity'' and "mood instability'' and all MDQ items (P <0.01). In the EFA, the MSI "impulsivity'' and "mood instability'' items had significant cross-loadings (0.348 and 0.298, respectively) with the MDQ factor. The MDQ items of "irritability'', "flight of thoughts'' and "distractibility'' (0.280, 0.210 and 0.386, respectively) cross-loaded on the MSI factor. Conclusions: The MDQ and MSI items of "affective instability'', "impulsivity'', "irritability'', "flight of thoughts'' and "distractibility'' appear to overlap in content. The other scale items are more disorder-specific, and thus, may help to distinguish BD and BPD. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Tuovinen, Soile; Räikkönen, Katri; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa; Hauta-Alus, Helena; Helve, Otto; Rosendahl, Jenni; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valkama, Saara; Viljakainen, Heli; Mäkitie, Outi; Andersson, Sture; Heinonen, Kati (2021)
    IMPORTANCE Vitamin Dmay be important for neurodevelopment. The optimal daily dose of vitamin D for early brain development is not known. OBJECTIVES To test whether a higher (1200 IU) vs standard (400 IU) dose of vitamin D3 has beneficial effects on neurodevelopment in the first 2 years of life and whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is associated with neurodevelopment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This double-blind, interventional randomized clinical trial involved healthy infants born full-term between January 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, at a maternity hospital in Helsinki, Finland, at the 60th northern latitude. Two-year follow-up was conducted by May 30, 2016. Data analysis was by the intention-to-treat principle. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2020, toMay 31, 2021. INTERVENTIONS Randomization of 404 infants to receive 400 IU of oral vitamin D3 supplementation daily and 397 infants to receive 1200 IU of oral vitamin D3 supplementation daily from 2 weeks to 24 months of age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcomes were child total developmental milestone scores at 12 and 24 months of age measured using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (total score is calculated as a mean of the 5 subscale scores: total score range, 0-60, where 0 indicates delay in all developmental domains and 60 indicates that the child can master all age-specific skills) as well as externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation problems and competencies scores at 24 months measured using the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (range 0-2, where 0 indicates no problems or no competencies and 2 indicates a high level of problems or a high level of competencies; variables were standardized to the mean [SD] of 0 [1]). Secondary outcomes were specific skills, problems, and competencies derived from these questionnaires. RESULTS Of the 987 families recruited, 495 children were randomly assigned to receive 400 IU of vitamin D3, and 492 children were randomly assigned to receive 1200 IU of vitamin D3. A total of 801 families participated in the follow-up at 12 and/or 24 months, with 404 children (207 girls [51.2%]) in the 400-IU group and 397 children (198 girls [49.9%]) in the 1200-IU group. All children were of Northern European ethnicity. No differenceswere found between the 400-IU group and the 1200-IU group in the mean (SD) adjusted Ages and Stages Questionnaire total score at 12 months (45.0 [7.1] vs 46.2 [7.9]; mean difference [MD], 1.17 [95% CI, -0.06 to 2.38]) or 24 months (50.9 [5.3] vs 51.5 [5.5]; MD, 0.48 [95% CI, -0.40 to 1.36]). No differences were found between the 400-IU group and the 1200-IU group at 24 months in the mean (SD) adjusted Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment externalizing domain score (-0.07 [1.00] vs 0.07 [0.98]; MD, 0.15 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.31]), internalizing domain score (0.04 [1.06] vs -0.02 [0.98]; MD, -0.07 [95% CI, -0.24 to 0.1.0]), dysregulation domain score (-0.00 [1.04] vs 0.02 [0.96]; MD, 0.02 [95% CI, -0.14 to 0.18]), or competencies score (-0.02 [1.02] vs 0.01 [1.02]; MD, 0.03 [95% CI, -0.13 to 0.20]). The 1200-IU group did have a higher risk in the adjusted model of scoring 1.5 SDs or more on the externalizing domain score (odds ratio, 2.33 [95% CI, 1.19-4.56]; P = .01). Levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were not associated with the primary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Higher-than-standard vitamin D3 doses provide no systematic benefits for child neurodevelopment up to 2 years of age. However, the potential disadvantageous effects of higher doses could not be fully excluded; even if minimal, the potential nonbeneficial effects of higher-than-standard doses warrant further studies in which both safety and benefits should be evaluated.
  • Pesonen, Henri; Itkonen, Tiina; Saha, Mari; Nordahl-Hansen, Anders (2021)
    Purpose Media play a significant role in the process of raising public awareness about autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite an increase in ASD media coverage, there is scarcity of research that examines how the actual frame is constructed and how the news stories are narrated. This study aims to examine the extent to which Finnish print media papers extend medical and societal narration of ASD to other issue domains and the extent to which newspaper stories use a positive, negative or neutral narrative. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyzed 210 full newspaper reports from the largest daily appearing newspaper by circulation in Finland from 1990 to 2016. The authors used the newspaper's electronic database to conduct a systematic papers search. The authors then used coding scheme about news story framing, which was followed by a detailed content analysis of the papers. Findings Approximately two-thirds of the papers consisted of a straightforward informational or clinical lens to educate the public (n= 110). This is in line with international studies. However, the authors' analysis revealed four additional themes of medical and societal ASD reporting. Social implications The study increases understanding about how the media can shape the public perception of ASD, which in turn might influence how autistic individuals are accepted in the society, as well as how they feel that they belong. Originality/value While ASD itself is at the center of neutral news reporting, this study's results imply how to construct ASD from new paradigms. Linking ASD to a culture, and thus extending it to the more commonly accepted notion of deafness as a culture, might shape the public's perceptions about ASD.
  • Liuhanen, Johanna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Kajantie, Eero; Miettunen, Jouko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Paunio, Tiina (2018)
    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disease, but despite extensive study, its genetic background remains unresolved. The lack of environmental measures in genetic studies may offer some explanation. In recent Finnish studies, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for familial schizophrenia. We examined the interaction between a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia and high birth weight on social anhedonia and schizophrenia in a general population birth cohort. The study sample included 4223 participants from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. As a replication sample we used 256 participants from a systematically collected sample of Finnish schizophrenia families. The polygenic risk score comprised of variants published in the large genome-wide meta analysis for schizophrenia. We found the association between the polygenic risk score and social anhedonia stronger among those with high birth weight, and the same phenomenon was seen for schizophrenia among women, suggesting a gene-environment interaction. Similar results were found within the replication sample. Our results suggest a role for gene-environment interactions in assessing the risk of schizophrenia. Failure to take environmental effects into account may be one of the reasons why identifying significant SNPs for schizophrenia in genome-wide studies has been challenging.
  • Lehikoinen, Anni; Orden, Maija-Riitta; Heinonen, Seppo Tapani; Voutilainen, Raimo (2016)
    AimMaternal alcohol abuse is poorly recognised and causes developmental problems. This study explored the foetal central nervous systems (CNS), head circumference and psychomotor development of children exposed to drugs or alcohol during pregnancy up to 2.5years of age. MethodsWe recruited 23 pregnant women referred to Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, by their family doctor because of drug or alcohol abuse, and 22 control mothers. Foetal CNS parameters were measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography at the mean gestational age of 20weeks and the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS), and anthropometric measurements were carried out at the mean ages of one and 2.5years. ResultsThe exposed foetuses had decreased biparietal and occipito-frontal distances and head circumferences, but unchanged cerebellar volume at 20weeks, and decreased head circumferences and length and height at birth, one and 2.5years of age. They scored lower than the controls on the GMDS general quotient and the hearing, language and locomotor subscales at 2.5years of age. ConclusionMaternal alcohol or drug exposure was associated with decreased head size from mid-pregnancy to childhood and reduced development at 2.5years. Foetal head circumference at mid-pregnancy was a useful indicator of substance abuse affecting theCNS.
  • Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Sailas, Eila; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina (2018)
    Background: The objectives of this study were to investigate, in women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the number and incidence of induced abortions (= pregnancy terminations performed by a physician), their demographic characteristics, use of contraceptives, plus indications of and complications related to pregnancy termination. Methods: Using the Care Register for Health Care, we identified Finnish women born between the years 19651980 who were diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder during the follow-up period ending 31.122013. For each case, five age- and place-of-birth- matched controls were obtained from the Population Register of Finland. Information about births and induced abortions were obtained from the Medical Birth Register and the Induced Abortion Register. Results: The number and incidence of induced abortions per 1000 follow-up years did not differ between cases and their controls. However, due to fewer pregnancies, cases exhibited an over 2-fold increased risk of pregnancy termination (RR 228; 95% CI 2.20-2.36). Cases were younger, were more often without a partner at the time of induced abortion, and their pregnancies resulted more often from a lack of contraception. Among cases, the indication for pregnancy termination was more often mother-to-be's medical condition. Induced abortions after 12 weeks gestation were more common among cases. However, cases had no more complications related to termination. Conclusions: The incidence of induced abortions among Finnish women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder is similar to the general population, but their risk per pregnancy over two-fold. They need effective, affordable family planning services and long-term premeditated contraception. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Wallén, Essi Merma Aurora; Auvinen, Pauliina S; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina (2021)
    Prenatal alcohol exposure is one of the most significant causes of developmental disability in the Western world. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to an increased risk of neurological deficits and developmental abnormalities in the fetus. Over the past decade, several human and animal studies have demonstrated that alcohol causes alterations in epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. There is an increasing amount of evidence that early pregnancy is a sensitive period for environmental-induced epigenetic changes. It is a dynamic period of epigenetic reprogramming, cell divisions, and DNA replication and, therefore, a particularly interesting period to study the molecular changes caused by alcohol exposure as well as the etiology of alcohol-induced developmental disorders. This article will review the current knowledge about the in vivo and in vitro effects of alcohol exposure on the epigenome, gene regulation, and the phenotype during the first weeks of pregnancy.