Browsing by Subject "SPECTRUM DISORDERS"

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  • Appenzeller, Silke; Balling, Rudi; Barisic, Nina; Baulac, Stephanie; Caglayan, Hande; Craiu, Dana; De Jonghe, Peter; Depienne, Christel; Dimova, Petia; Djemie, Tania; Gormley, Padhraig; Guerrini, Renzo; Helbig, Ingo; Hjalgrim, Helle; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Jaehn, Johanna; Klein, Karl Martin; Koeleman, Bobby; Komarek, Vladimir; Krause, Roland; Kuhlenbaeumer, Gregor; Leguern, Eric; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Lemke, Johannes R.; Lerche, Holger; Linnankivi, Tarja; Marini, Carla; May, Patrick; Moller, Rikke S.; Muhle, Hiltrud; Pal, Deb; Palotie, Aarno; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Robbiano, Angela; Roelens, Filip; Rosenow, Felix; Selmer, Kaja; Serratosa, Jose M.; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Stephani, Ulrich; Sterbova, Katalin; Striano, Pasquale; Suls, Arvid; Talvik, Tiina; von Spiczak, Sarah; Weber, Yvonne; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Zara, Federico; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Alldredge, Brian K.; EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium; Epilepsy Phenome Genome Project; Epi4K Consortium (2014)
  • Baryshnikov, I.; Aaltonen, K.; Koivisto, M.; Naatanen, P.; Karpov, B.; Melartin, T.; Heikkinen, M.; Ketokivi, M.; Joffe, G.; Isometsa, E. (2015)
    Background: Differential diagnosis between bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often challenging due to some overlap in symptoms and comorbidity of disorders. We investigated correlations in self-reported symptoms of BD and BPD in screening questionnaires at the levels of both total scores and individual items and explored overlapping dimensions. Methods: The McLean Screening Instrument (MSI) for BPD and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) for BD were filled in by patients with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders (n = 313) from specialized psychiatric care within a pilot study of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium. Pearson's correlation coefficients between total scores and individual items of the MSI and the MDQ were estimated. Relationships between MDQ and MSI were evaluated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Results: The correlation between total scores of the MDQ and MSI was moderate (r = 0.431, P <0.001). Significant correlations were found between the MSI items of "impulsivity'' and "mood instability'' and all MDQ items (P <0.01). In the EFA, the MSI "impulsivity'' and "mood instability'' items had significant cross-loadings (0.348 and 0.298, respectively) with the MDQ factor. The MDQ items of "irritability'', "flight of thoughts'' and "distractibility'' (0.280, 0.210 and 0.386, respectively) cross-loaded on the MSI factor. Conclusions: The MDQ and MSI items of "affective instability'', "impulsivity'', "irritability'', "flight of thoughts'' and "distractibility'' appear to overlap in content. The other scale items are more disorder-specific, and thus, may help to distinguish BD and BPD. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Pesonen, Henri; Itkonen, Tiina; Saha, Mari; Nordahl-Hansen, Anders (2021)
    Purpose Media play a significant role in the process of raising public awareness about autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite an increase in ASD media coverage, there is scarcity of research that examines how the actual frame is constructed and how the news stories are narrated. This study aims to examine the extent to which Finnish print media papers extend medical and societal narration of ASD to other issue domains and the extent to which newspaper stories use a positive, negative or neutral narrative. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyzed 210 full newspaper reports from the largest daily appearing newspaper by circulation in Finland from 1990 to 2016. The authors used the newspaper's electronic database to conduct a systematic papers search. The authors then used coding scheme about news story framing, which was followed by a detailed content analysis of the papers. Findings Approximately two-thirds of the papers consisted of a straightforward informational or clinical lens to educate the public (n= 110). This is in line with international studies. However, the authors' analysis revealed four additional themes of medical and societal ASD reporting. Social implications The study increases understanding about how the media can shape the public perception of ASD, which in turn might influence how autistic individuals are accepted in the society, as well as how they feel that they belong. Originality/value While ASD itself is at the center of neutral news reporting, this study's results imply how to construct ASD from new paradigms. Linking ASD to a culture, and thus extending it to the more commonly accepted notion of deafness as a culture, might shape the public's perceptions about ASD.
  • Liuhanen, Johanna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Kajantie, Eero; Miettunen, Jouko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Paunio, Tiina (2018)
    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disease, but despite extensive study, its genetic background remains unresolved. The lack of environmental measures in genetic studies may offer some explanation. In recent Finnish studies, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for familial schizophrenia. We examined the interaction between a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia and high birth weight on social anhedonia and schizophrenia in a general population birth cohort. The study sample included 4223 participants from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. As a replication sample we used 256 participants from a systematically collected sample of Finnish schizophrenia families. The polygenic risk score comprised of variants published in the large genome-wide meta analysis for schizophrenia. We found the association between the polygenic risk score and social anhedonia stronger among those with high birth weight, and the same phenomenon was seen for schizophrenia among women, suggesting a gene-environment interaction. Similar results were found within the replication sample. Our results suggest a role for gene-environment interactions in assessing the risk of schizophrenia. Failure to take environmental effects into account may be one of the reasons why identifying significant SNPs for schizophrenia in genome-wide studies has been challenging.
  • Lehikoinen, Anni; Orden, Maija-Riitta; Heinonen, Seppo Tapani; Voutilainen, Raimo (2016)
    AimMaternal alcohol abuse is poorly recognised and causes developmental problems. This study explored the foetal central nervous systems (CNS), head circumference and psychomotor development of children exposed to drugs or alcohol during pregnancy up to 2.5years of age. MethodsWe recruited 23 pregnant women referred to Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, by their family doctor because of drug or alcohol abuse, and 22 control mothers. Foetal CNS parameters were measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography at the mean gestational age of 20weeks and the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS), and anthropometric measurements were carried out at the mean ages of one and 2.5years. ResultsThe exposed foetuses had decreased biparietal and occipito-frontal distances and head circumferences, but unchanged cerebellar volume at 20weeks, and decreased head circumferences and length and height at birth, one and 2.5years of age. They scored lower than the controls on the GMDS general quotient and the hearing, language and locomotor subscales at 2.5years of age. ConclusionMaternal alcohol or drug exposure was associated with decreased head size from mid-pregnancy to childhood and reduced development at 2.5years. Foetal head circumference at mid-pregnancy was a useful indicator of substance abuse affecting theCNS.
  • Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Sailas, Eila; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina (2018)
    Background: The objectives of this study were to investigate, in women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the number and incidence of induced abortions (= pregnancy terminations performed by a physician), their demographic characteristics, use of contraceptives, plus indications of and complications related to pregnancy termination. Methods: Using the Care Register for Health Care, we identified Finnish women born between the years 19651980 who were diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder during the follow-up period ending 31.122013. For each case, five age- and place-of-birth- matched controls were obtained from the Population Register of Finland. Information about births and induced abortions were obtained from the Medical Birth Register and the Induced Abortion Register. Results: The number and incidence of induced abortions per 1000 follow-up years did not differ between cases and their controls. However, due to fewer pregnancies, cases exhibited an over 2-fold increased risk of pregnancy termination (RR 228; 95% CI 2.20-2.36). Cases were younger, were more often without a partner at the time of induced abortion, and their pregnancies resulted more often from a lack of contraception. Among cases, the indication for pregnancy termination was more often mother-to-be's medical condition. Induced abortions after 12 weeks gestation were more common among cases. However, cases had no more complications related to termination. Conclusions: The incidence of induced abortions among Finnish women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder is similar to the general population, but their risk per pregnancy over two-fold. They need effective, affordable family planning services and long-term premeditated contraception. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Wallén, Essi Merma Aurora; Auvinen, Pauliina; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina (2021)
    Prenatal alcohol exposure is one of the most significant causes of developmental disability in the Western world. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to an increased risk of neurological deficits and developmental abnormalities in the fetus. Over the past decade, several human and animal studies have demonstrated that alcohol causes alterations in epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. There is an increasing amount of evidence that early pregnancy is a sensitive period for environmental-induced epigenetic changes. It is a dynamic period of epigenetic reprogramming, cell divisions, and DNA replication and, therefore, a particularly interesting period to study the molecular changes caused by alcohol exposure as well as the etiology of alcohol-induced developmental disorders. This article will review the current knowledge about the in vivo and in vitro effects of alcohol exposure on the epigenome, gene regulation, and the phenotype during the first weeks of pregnancy.