Browsing by Subject "SPIKE"

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  • Amanat, Fatima; Stadlbauer, Daniel; Strohmeier, Shirin; Nguyen, Thi H. O.; Chromikova, Veronika; McMahon, Meagan; Jiang, Kaijun; Arunkumar, Guha Asthagiri; Jurczyszak, Denise; Polanco, Jose; Bermudez-Gonzalez, Maria; Kleiner, Giulio; Aydillo, Teresa; Miorin, Lisa; Fierer, Daniel S.; Lugo, Luz Amarilis; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Stoever, Jonathan; Liu, Sean T. H.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Felgner, Philip L.; Moran, Thomas; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Caplivski, Daniel; Cheng, Allen C.; Kedzierska, Katherine; Vapalahti, Olli; Hepojoki, Jussi M.; Simon, Viviana; Krammer, Florian (2020)
    Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in human sera and plasma. Here, we describe a serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the screening and identification of human SARS-CoV-2 seroconverters. This assay does not require the handling of infectious virus, can be adjusted to detect different antibody types in serum and plasma and is amenable to scaling. Serological assays are of critical importance to help define previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in populations, identify highly reactive human donors for convalescent plasma therapy and investigate correlates of protection.
  • Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ludovico; Ojha, Ravi; Pedro, Liliana D.; Djannatian, Minou; Franz, Jonas; Kuivanen, Suvi; van der Meer, Franziska; Kallio, Katri; Kaya, Tugberk; Anastasina, Maria; Smura, Teemu; Levanov, Lev; Szirovicza, Leonora; Tobi, Allan; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Österlund, Pamela; Joensuu, Merja; Meunier, Frederic A.; Butcher, Sarah J.; Winkler, Martin Sebastian; Mollenhauer, Brit; Helenius, Ari; Gokce, Ozgun; Teesalu, Tambet; Hepojoki, Jussi; Vapalahti, Olli; Stadelmann, Christine; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Simons, Mikael (2020)
    The causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For many viruses, tissue tropism is determined by the availability of virus receptors and entry cofactors on the surface of host cells. In this study, we found that neuropilin-1 (NRP1), known to bind furin-cleaved substrates, significantly potentiates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, an effect blocked by a monoclonal blocking antibody against NRP1. A SARS-CoV-2 mutant with an altered furin cleavage site did not depend on NRP1 for infectivity. Pathological analysis of olfactory epithelium obtained from human COVID-19 autopsies revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infected NRP1-positive cells facing the nasal cavity. Our data provide insight into SARS-CoV-2 cell infectivity and define a potential target for antiviral intervention.
  • Törnquist, Kid; Asghar, Muhammad Yasir; Srinivasan, Vignesh; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan (2021)
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic with severe consequences for afflicted individuals and the society as a whole. The biology and infectivity of the virus has been intensively studied in order to gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of virus-host cell interactions during infection. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via its spike protein. Priming of the virus by specific proteases leads to viral entry via endocytosis and to the subsequent steps in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2. Sphingosine and ceramide belong to the sphingolipid family and are abundantly present in cell membranes. These lipids were recently shown to interfere with the uptake of virus particles of SARS-CoV-2 into epithelial cell lines and primary human nasal cells in culture. The mechanisms of action were partly different, as sphingosine blocked, whilst ceramide facilitated viral entry. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is vital for the generation of ceramide and functional inhibition of ASM by drugs like amitriptyline reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry into the epithelial cells. Recent data indicates that serum level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a prognostic factor for COVID-2 severity. Further, stimulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) might also constrain the hyper-inflammatory conditions linked to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we review recent exciting findings regarding sphingolipids in the uptake of SARS-CoV-2 and in the course of COVID-19 disease. More studies are required on the mechanisms of action and the potential use of antidepressant drugs and sphingolipid modifiers in SARS-CoV-2 infections and in the treatment of the more serious and fatal consequences of the disease.