Browsing by Subject "SPME Arrow"

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  • Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Zanca, Nicola; Lan, Hangzhen; Jussila, Matti; Hartonen, Kari; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2019)
    The applicability of an aerial drone as a carrier for new passive and active miniaturized air sampling systems, including solid phase microextration Arrow (SPME Arrow) and in-tube extraction (ITEX), was studied in this research. Thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected by the sampling systems. The direct comparison of the profiles of VOCs, simultaneously sampled in air by SPME Arrow system including four different coatings, allowed the elucidation of their adsorption selectivity. A more complex experimental design, involving 20 samples (10 flights) and non-supervised pattern recognition techniques, was needed for the clarification of the same sampling parameters in the case of five ITEX sorbent materials. In addition, ITEX sampling accessories, such as particle, water and ozone traps, were evaluated by comparing the results obtained for air samples simultaneously collected by two ITEX systems, packed with the same sorbent and furnished or not with sampling accessories. The effect of the aerial drone horizontal displacement (HD) on the sampling efficiency was clear in the case of SPME Arrow. The number of detected compounds and their relative peak area values (RPA) revealed a clear increase (4 and 43%, respectively) in comparison with samples collected without drone HD. However, just minor differences were observed in the case of ITEX (2 compounds and 9% of the Sigma RPA). In addition, the system was able to provide almost simultaneous passive (SPME Arrow) and active (ITEX) samplings at different altitudes (5 and 50 m), being a good tool for low cost vertical profiling studies (Sigma RPA decreased over 35% for the samples collected at 50 m). Finally, the successful simultaneous air sampling by SPME Arrow and ITEX systems in two difficult access places, such as boreal forest and wetlands, was demonstrated, resulting in 21 and 31 detected compounds in forest and wetlands by SPME Arrow, and 27 and 39 compounds by ITEX. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Heiskanen, Ilmari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Interest towards indoor air quality has increased for several decades from human health perspective. In order to evaluate the quality of indoor air in terms of volatile organic compound (VOC) levels, robust analytical procedures and techniques must be used for indoor air VOC measurements. Since indoor building materials are the greatest source of indoor VOC emissions, same kind of procedures must be used for analysis of emission rates from building materials and their surfaces. Theory part of this thesis reviews background of VOCs and human health, legislation and guideline values, common building materials with emissions and used sampling techniques/approaches for indoor air sampling and surface material emission rate sampling & analysis. Discussed sampling techniques include, for example, material emission test chambers, field and laboratory test emission cells, solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibre applications and Radiello passive samplers. Also new innovative approaches are discussed. Used common analysis instruments are Gas Chromatography (GC) with Mass Spectrometer (MS) or Flame Ionization Detector (FID) for VOCs and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ultraviolet/Visible light detector (HPLC-UV/VIS) for carbonyl VOCs (e.g. formaldehyde) after suitable derivatization. Analytical procedures remain highly ISO 16000 standard series orientated even in recent studies. In addition, potential usage of new modern miniaturized sample collection devices SPME Arrow and In-tube extraction (ITEX) used in experimental part of this thesis are discussed as an addition to indoor air and VOC emission studies. The aim of the experimental part of this thesis was to develop calibrations for selected organic nitrogen compounds with SPME Arrow and ITEX sampling techniques and test the calibration with indoor and outdoor samples. A calibration was successfully carried out with SPME Arrow (MCM-41 sorbent), ITEX (MCM-TP sorbent) and ITEX (Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 10 % sorbent) with permeation system combined with GC-MS for the following selected organic nitrogen compounds: triethylamine, pyridine, isobutyl amine, allylamine, trimethylamine, ethylenediamine, dipropyl amine, hexylamine, 1,3-diaminopropane, 1-methyl-imidazole, N, N-dimethylformamide, 1,2-diaminocyclohexane, 1-nitropropane and formamide. The overall quality of the calibration curves was evaluated, and the calibrations were compared in terms of linear range, relative standard deviation (RSD) % for accepted calibration levels and obtained Limits of Detection (LOD) values. Also, ways to improve the calibrations were discussed. The calibration curves were tested with real indoor and outdoor samples and quantitative, as well as semi-quantitative, results were obtained.
  • Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Lan, Hangzhen; Leleev, Yevgeny; Hartonen, Kari; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2020)
    Several calibration approaches were evaluated for the quantitation of volatile organic compounds in air using miniaturized exhaustive and non-exhaustive sampling techniques, such as in-tube extraction (ITEX) and solid phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow. Eleven compounds, 2-ethyl-hexanol, hexanal, nonanal, toluene, ethyl-benzene, methyl isobutyl ketone, acetophenone, p-cymene, alpha-pinene, trimethylamine and triethylamine, all them found in the natural air samples, were selected as model analytes. Liquid injection, liquid standard addition to the sorbent bed and gas phase standards provided by an automatic permeation system, were evaluated in the case of ITEX packed with laboratory-made 10% polyacrylonitrile (PAN) material. Two different approaches, based on sampling of gas phase compounds from the permeation system and from sample vial containing gas phase standards, were evaluated for SPME Arrow with two different coatings, commercial divinylbenzene-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (DVB-PDMS) and laboratory-made mesoporous Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 (MCM-41). In addition, interface model approach was used for the calculation of the real concentration of the target analytes in the sample from the total amount of analytes injected into the GC-MS in the case of SPME Arrow. Similar results were obtained with the different approaches used for the quantitation by ITEX and SPME Arrow. However, the use of gas phase standards with sample matrix similar to the natural samples, allowed the permeation system to provide the most reliable results for the quantitation of the target analytes. For this approach, linearity (expressed as r(2) values) ranged between 0.991 and 0.999. The limit of detection ranged from 0.5 mu g/m(3) (trimethylamine, MCM-41) to 2.2 x 10(-4) mu g/m(3) (methyl isobutyl ketone, MCM-41). In addition, the use of the fully automated permeation system provided good reproducibility values that were between 1.4% (acetophenone, MCM-41) and 7.8% (methyl isobutyl ketone, 10% PAN). The linear ranges were at least 3 order of magnitude for all the studied analytes with the exception of the calibration curve developed for trimethylamine with SPME Arrow (linear ranges between LOQ and 4.9 mu g/m(3) (DVB-PDMS) and LOQ and 9.8 mu g/m(3) (MCM-41)). (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.