Browsing by Subject "SPP."

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  • Elina, Felin; Outi, Hälli; Mari, Heinonen; Jukola, Elias; Maria, Fredriksson-Ahomaa (2019)
    Current macroscopic meat inspection cannot detect the most common pork-borne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii). Furthermore, food chain information (FCI) may not provide sufficient data for visual-only inspection, which is supposed to be the common way of inspection of pigs in the European Union. Our observational study aimed to evaluate the serological monitoring and the clinical evaluation of on-farm health status of pigs and assess the feasibility of these data as part of the FCI in meat inspection. We studied the serological status of Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp. and T. gondii in pigs during the fattening period. Additionally, we evaluated the association between on-farm health status and meat inspection findings. On 57 indoor fattening pig farms in Finland, we collected blood samples (mean of 20 pigs/farm) and assessed the on-farm health (coughing, tail biting, lameness) at the end of the fattening period. We visited 34 of these farms also at the beginning of the fattening for sampling and on-farm health evaluation of the same pigs. Meat inspection results were obtained after slaughter for all 57 farms. Salmonella seroprevalence was low at the end of the fattening period: it was 17.6%, 10.6% or 1.9%, with the cut-off values of OD15% (recommended by the test manufacturer), OD20% (used by Danish monitoring programme) and OD40% (used by German monitoring programme), respectively. The overall seroprevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. increased significantly (P 
  • Malkamäki, Sanna; Näreaho, Anu Susanna; Oksanen, Antti; Sukura, Antti Kalle Kalervo (2019)
    Potential role of wild forest berries as a transmission vehicle for taeniid eggs was examined using non-zoonotic Taenia laticollis eggs as a model. The berries studied were bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) (1 m(2) plot, n = 10) and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) (1 m(2) plot, n = 11). The plots in the managed forest were evenly sprayed with 30,000 or 60,000 T. laticollis eggs suspended in water, and berries were collected 24 h after spraying. The berries were rinsed with water, and the water was sieved through a 1-mm and a 63-mu m sieve to remove coarse material and through a 20-mu m sieve to collect possible eggs. A small proportion of the sieved material was examined by microscopy after treatment with fluorescent Calcofluor White stain, which binds to eggshell chitin. In the recovery tests in artificially spiked samples, the detection limit was 5 eggs in 100 g of commercial frozen bilberries and lingonberries. Taeniid eggs were detected in all of the 10 experimentally contaminated bilberry samples and in 10 of 11 lingonberry samples. The sieved debris was also analyzed for T. laticollis DNA using semiquantitative PCR. All samples were positive in quantitative SYBR Green real-time PCR using a T. laticollis-specific primer pair amplifying a short fragment of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene. This indicates that forest berries contaminated in shrubs contained T. laticollis eggs, and that berries can serve as a vehicle for taeniid eggs and may pose a possible risk to humans.
  • Jaakkonen, Anniina; Castro, Hanna; Hallanvuo, Saija; Ranta, Jukka; Rossi, Mirko; Isidro, Joana; Lindström, Miia; Hakkinen, Marjaana (2019)
    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Campylobacter jejuni are notable health hazards associated with the consumption of raw milk. These bacteria may colonize the intestines of asymptomatic cattle and enter bulk tank milk via fecal contamination during milking. We studied the frequency of STEC O157:H7 and C. jejuni contamination in tank milk (n = 785) and the in-line milk filters of milking machines (n = 631) versus the frequency of isolation from cattle feces (n = 257) on three Finnish dairy farms for 1 year. Despite simultaneous isolation of STEC O157:H7 (17%) or C. jejuni (53%) from cattle, these bacteria were rarely isolated from milk filters (2% or = 11 months, and several other C. jejuni types were detected sporadically. The stx gene carried by STEC was detected more frequently from milk filters (37%) than from milk (7%), suggesting that milk filters are more suitable sampling targets for monitoring than milk. A questionnaire of on-farm practices suggested lower stx contamination of milk when major cleansing in the barn, culling, or pasturing of dairy cows was applied, while a higher average outdoor temperature was associated with higher stx contamination. Because pathogen contamination occurred despite good hygiene and because pathogen detection from milk and milk filters proved challenging, we recommend heat treatment for raw milk before consumption. The increased popularity of raw milk consumption has created demand for relaxing legislation, despite the risk of contamination by pathogenic bacteria, notably STEC and C. jejuni. However, the epidemiology of these milk-borne pathogens on the herd level is still poorly understood, and data are lacking on the frequency of milk contamination on farms with cattle shedding these bacteria in their feces. This study suggests (i) that STEC contamination in milk can be reduced, but not prevented, by on-farm hygienic measures while fecal shedding is observable, (ii) that milk filters are more suitable sampling targets for monitoring than milk although pathogen detection from both sample matrices may be challenging, and (iii) that STEC and C. jejuni genotypes may persist in cattle herds for several months. The results can be utilized in developing and targeting pathogen monitoring and risk management on the farm level and contributed to the revision of Finnish legislation in 2017.
  • Jääskeläinen, Elina; Jakobsen, Louise M.A.; Hultman, Jenni; Eggers, Nina; Bertram, Hanne C.; Björkroth, Johanna (2019)
    Microbial (colony counts, 16S rRNA gene amplification), chemical (pH, 1H NMR spectroscopy) and sensory changes in raw Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) fillets stored under vacuum at 3 °C were evaluated over a period of 12 days. Both species of fish are globally important and among the ten most consumed fishes in the world. Although the sensory analyses showed a decrease in the quality of both fish species, only the salmon fillets were considered spoiled at the end of the storage period. In salmon, trimethylamine was the main spoilage product and bacterial colony counts reached an average of 7.3 log10 cfu/g. The concentration of glucose decreased and the concentration of organic acids increased during storage revealing glucose fermentation. Photobacterium was the dominating genus in the salmon studied. In the tuna studied, the bacterial colony counts reached only an average of 4.6 log10 cfu/g. The dominating bacteria in tuna were Pseudomonas spp. Glucose levels did not decrease, suggesting that amino acids and lactate most likely acted as carbon sources for bacteria in tuna. In conclusion, the study revealed that salmon was clearly a more perishable fish than tuna.
  • Wysok, Beata; Wojtacka, Joanna; Kivistö, Rauni (2020)
    The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenic markers associated with Campylobacter infection in humans. A total of 104 Campylobacter isolates obtained from poultry and humans were examined for the presence of nine virulence genes and their ability to adhere to, invade and produce cytotoxin were defined using HeLa cells. The diversity of the Campylobacter spp. isolates was studied based on sequencing of the SVR-region of flaA gene. Altogether 45 flaA-SVR alleles were identified among 104 Campylobacter isolates of poultry and human origin. All Campylobacter isolates possessed flaA, cadF and racR genes involved in adherence. Accordingly, all poultry and human isolates exhibited adherence towards HeLa cells at mean levels of 0.95% and 0.82% of starting viable inoculum, respectively. The genes involved in invasion (iam and pldA) and cytotoxin production (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) were also widely distributed among the human and poultry Campylobacter isolates. Significantly higher invasiveness was observed for poultry isolates (mean level of 0.002% of starting bacterial inoculum) compared to human isolates (0.0005%). Interestingly the iam gene, associated with invasion, was more common in human (100%) than poultry (84%) isolates, and the poultry isolates lacking the iam gene showed a marked reduction in their ability to invade HeLa cells. Moreover, virB11 was present in 22% of the poultry and 70.4% of the human isolates. Strains lacking virB11 showed a slight reduction in invasion, however in the absence of iam even the poultry isolates containing virB11 were unable to invade HeLa cells. The mean cytotoxicity of Campylobacter isolates from poultry and human was 26.7% and 38.7%, respectively. Strains missing both the cdtB and cdtC genes were non-cytotoxic compared to strains containing all three cdtABC genes, which were the most cytotoxic among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from both sources. No cytotoxic effect was observed in only 4% of poultry and 5.6% of human isolates.
  • Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Huneau, Adeline; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa (2015)
  • Koskinen, Juho; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Virtanen, Sonja; Vilar, Maria J.; Korkeala, Hannu (2019)
    Pigs are considered the main reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica, and hence, understanding the ecology of this foodborne pathogen at the farm level is crucial. We calculated Bayesian estimates for the ability of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic test kit to detect antibodies against pathogenic Yersinia in pigs. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 75.4% and 98.1%, respectively. We also studied the dynamics of Y. enterocolitica infection in 3 farrow-to-finish pig farms by following the same 30 pens of pigs through their lifetime from farrowing unit to slaughterhouse. Each farm was sampled 4 times, and 864 fecal and 730 serum samples were collected altogether. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was isolated from 31.6% of the fecal samples by culturing, and Yersinia antibodies were detected in 38.2% of the serum samples with the commercial ELISA test. The pathogen was not isolated from farrowing units or all-in/all-out weaning units. However, in the weaning and fattening units using continuous management systems, the pathogen was isolated from every pen at some point of the study. After the pigs were transported into slaughterhouse, 150 tonsils were collected and 96.7% were positive by culturing. Among the strains isolated from feces and tonsils, 56 different genotypes of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 were found by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Finally, we collected tonsils of 266 sows from 115 farrowing farms, and Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 6.0% of the samples by the culture method, whereas 77.1% of the tonsils were serologically positive; the estimate for true seroprevalence was 95.8%. In conclusion, sows may not be the main source of Y. enterocolitica for piglets, although sows may still play a role in maintaining Y. enterocolitica in pig farms. Instead, pigs appear to get this foodborne pathogen mainly during the fattening period, especially if continuous management is applied.
  • Vera, Cristina Perez; Kapiainen, Suvi; Junnikkala, Sami; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli (2014)