Browsing by Subject "STANDING TREES"

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  • Torresan, Chiara; Benito Garzón, Marta; O’Grady, Michael; Robson, Thomas Matthew; Picchi, Gianni; Panzacchi, Pietro; Tomelleri, Enrico; Smith, Melanie; Marshall, John; Wingate, Lisa; Tognetti, Roberto; Rustad, Lindsey E.; Kneeshaw, Dan (2021)
    Climate-smart forestry (CSF) is an emerging branch of sustainable adaptive forest management aimed at enhancing the potential of forests to adapt to and mitigate climate change. It relies on much higher data requirements than traditional forestry. These data requirements can be met by new devices that support continuous, in situ monitoring of forest conditions in real time. We propose a comprehensive network of sensors, i.e., a wireless sensor network (WSN), that can be part of a worldwide network of interconnected uniquely addressable objects, an Internet of Things (IoT), which can make data available in near real time to multiple stakeholders, including scientists, foresters, and forest managers, and may partially motivate citizens to participate in big data collection. The use of in situ sources of monitoring data as ground-truthed training data for remotely sensed data can boost forest monitoring by increasing the spatial and temporal scales of the monitoring, leading to a better understanding of forest processes and potential threats. Here, some of the key developments and applications of these sensors are outlined, together with guidelines for data management. Examples are given of their deployment to detect early warning signals (EWS) of ecosystem regime shifts in terms of forest productivity, health, and biodiversity. Analysis of the strategic use of these tools highlights the opportunities for engaging citizens and forest managers in this new generation of forest monitoring.
  • Liu, Jingbin; Liang, Xinlian; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Lehtomäki, Matti; Pyörälä, Jiri; Zhu, Lingli; Wang, Yunsheng; Chen, Ruizhi (2017)
    Terrestrial laser scanning has been widely used to analyze the 3D structure of a forest in detail and to generate data at the level of a reference plot for forest inventories without destructive measurements. Multi-scan terrestrial laser scanning is more commonly applied to collect plot-level data so that all of the stems can be detected and analyzed. However, it is necessary to match the point clouds of multiple scans to yield a point cloud with automated processing. Mismatches between datasets will lead to errors during the processing of multi-scan data. Classic registration methods based on flat surfaces cannot be directly applied in forest environments; therefore, artificial reference objects have conventionally been used to assist with scan matching. The use of artificial references requires additional labor and expertise, as well as greatly increasing the cost. In this study, we present an automated processing method for plot-level stem mapping that matches multiple scans without artificial references. In contrast to previous studies, the registration method developed in this study exploits the natural geometric characteristics among a set of tree stems in a plot and combines the point clouds of multiple scans into a unified coordinate system. Integrating multiple scans improves the overall performance of stem mapping in terms of the correctness of tree detection, as well as the bias and the root-mean-square errors of forest attributes such as diameter at breast height and tree height. In addition, the automated processing method makes stem mapping more reliable and consistent among plots, reduces the costs associated with plot-based stem mapping, and enhances the efficiency. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Pyörälä, Jiri; Kankare, Ville; Vastaranta, Mikko; Rikala, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Sipi, Marketta; Hyyppä, Juha; Uusitalo, Jori (2018)
    While X-ray scanning is increasingly used to measure the interior quality of logs, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) could be used to collect information on external tree characteristics. As branches are one key indicator of wood quality, we compared TLS and X-ray scanning data in deriving whorl locations and each whorl's maximum branch and knot diameters for 162 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) log sections. The mean number of identified whorls per tree was 37.25 and 22.93 using X-ray and TLS data, respectively. The lowest TLS-derived whorl in each sample tree was an average 5.56 m higher than that of the X-ray data. Whorl-to-whorl mean distances and the means of the maximum branch and knot diameters in a whorl measured for each sample tree using TLS and X-ray data had mean differences of -0.12 m and -6.5 mm, respectively. One of the most utilized wood quality indicators, tree-specific maximum knot diameter measured by X-ray, had no statistically significant difference to the tree-specific maximum branch diameter measured from the TLS point cloud. It appears challenging to directly derive comparative branch structure information using TLS and X-ray. However, some features that are extractable from TLS point clouds are potential wood quality indicators.
  • Kankare, Ville; Joensuu, Marianna; Vauhkonen, Jari; Holopainen, Markus; Tanhuanpaa, Topi; Vastaranta, Mikko; Hyyppa, Juha; Hyyppa, Hannu; Alho, Petteri; Rikala, Juha; Sipi, Marketta (2014)
  • Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Vastaranta, Mikko; Luoma, Ville; Pyörälä, Jiri; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Liang, Xinlian; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Yu, Xiaowei; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha (2017)
    Interest in measuring forest biomass and carbon stock has increased as a result of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and sustainable planning of forest resources is therefore essential. Biomass and carbon stock estimates are based on the large area estimates of growing stock volume provided by national forest inventories (NFIs). The estimates for growing stock volume based on the NFIs depend on stem volume estimates of individual trees. Data collection for formulating stem volume and biomass models is challenging, because the amount of data required is considerable, and the fact that the detailed destructive measurements required to provide these data are laborious. Due to natural diversity, sample size for developing allometric models should be rather large. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has proved to be an efficient tool for collecting information on tree stems. Therefore, we investigated how TLS data for deriving stem volume information from single trees should be collected. The broader context of the study was to determine the feasibility of replacing destructive and laborious field measurements, which have been needed for development of empirical stem volume models, with TLS. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the TLS data captured at various distance (i.e. corresponding 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of tree height) on the accuracy of the stem volume derived. In addition, we examined how multiple TLS point cloud data acquired at various distances improved the results. Analysis was carried out with two ways when multiple point clouds were used: individual tree attributes were derived from separate point clouds and the volume was estimated based on these separate values (multiple scan A), and point clouds were georeferenced as a combined point cloud from which the stem volume was estimated (multiple-scan B). This permitted us to deal with the practical aspects of TLS data collection and data processing for development of stem volume equations in boreal forests. The results indicated that a scanning distance of approximately 25% of tree height would be optimal for stem volume estimation with TLS if a single scan was utilized in boreal forest conditions studied here and scanning resolution employed. Larger distances increased the uncertainty, especially when the scanning distance was greater than approximately 50% of tree height, because the number of successfully measured diameters from the TLS point cloud was not sufficient for estimating the stem volume. When two TLS point clouds were utilized, the accuracy of stem volume estimates was improved: RMSE decreased from 12.4% to 6.8%. When two point clouds were processed separately (i.e. tree attributes were derived from separate point clouds and then combined) more accurate results were obtained; smaller RMSE and relative error were achieved compared to processing point clouds together (i.e. tree attributes were derived from a combined point cloud). TLS data collection and processing for the optimal setup in this study required only one sixth of time that was necessary to obtain the field reference. These results helped to further our knowledge on TLS in estimating stem volume in boreal forests studied here and brought us one step closer in providing best practices how a phase-shift TLS can be utilized in collecting data when developing stem volume models. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).
  • Liang, Xinlian; Kankare, Ville; Hyyppä, Juha; Wang, Yunsheng; Kukko, Antero; Haggren, Henrik; Yu, Xiaowei; Kaartinen, Harri; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Guan, Fengying; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko (2016)
    Decision making on forest resources relies on the precise information that is collected using inventory. There are many different kinds of forest inventory techniques that can be applied depending on the goal, scale, resources and the required accuracy. Most of the forest inventories are based on field sample. Therefore, the accuracy of the forest inventories depends on the quality and quantity of the field sample. Conventionally, field sample has been measured using simple tools. When map is required, remote sensing materials are needed. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides a measurement technique that can acquire millimeter-level of detail from the surrounding area, which allows rapid, automatic and periodical estimates of many important forest inventory attributes. It is expected that TLS will be operationally used in forest inventories as soon as the appropriate software becomes available, best practices become known and general knowledge of these findings becomes more wide spread. Meanwhile, mobile laser scanning, personal laser scanning, and image-based point clouds became capable of capturing similar terrestrial point cloud data as TLS. This paper reviews the advances of applying TLS in forest inventories, discusses its properties with reference to other related techniques and discusses the future prospects of this technique. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licensesiby-nc-nd/11.0/).