Browsing by Subject "STAR-FORMING GALAXIES"

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  • Smolcic, V.; Miettinen, O.; Tomicic, N.; Zamorani, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Lemaux, B. C.; Aravena, M.; Capak, P.; Chiang, Y. -K.; Civano, F.; Delvecchio, I.; Ilbert, O.; Jurlin, N.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; Le Fevre, O.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Tasca, L.; Toft, S. (2017)
    We investigate the environment of 23 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from a signal-to-noise (S/N)-limited sample of SMGs originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey of a Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) subfield and then followed up with the Submillimetre Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 890 mu m and 1.3 mm, respectively. These SMGs already have well-defined multiwavelength counterparts and redshifts. We also analyse the environments of four COSMOS SMGs spectroscopically confirmed to lie at redshifts z(spec) > 4 : 5, and one at z(spec) = 2 : 49 resulting in a total SMG sample size of 28. We search for overdensities using the COSMOS photometric redshifts based on over 30 UV-NIR photometric measurements including the new UltraVISTA data release 2 and Spitzer/SPLASH data, and reaching an accuracy of sigma(Delta z/(1+z)) = (1 + z) = 0 : 0067 (0 : 0155) at z <3 : 5 (> 3.5). To identify overdensities we apply the Voronoi tessellation analysis, and estimate the redshift-space overdensity estimator delta(g) as a function of distance from the SMG and/or overdensity centre. We test and validate our approach via simulations, X-ray detected groups or clusters, and spectroscopic verifications using VUDS and zCOSMOS catalogues which show that even with photometric redshifts in the COSMOS field we can e ffi ciently retrieve overdensities out to z approximate to 5. Our results yield that 11 out of 23 (48%) JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm SMGs occupy overdense environments. Considering the entire JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm S = N >= 4 sample and taking the expected fraction of spurious detections into account, this means that 35-61% of the SMGs in the S/N-limited sample occupy overdense environments. We perform an X-ray stacking analysis in the 0.5-2 keV band using a 32 '' aperture and our SMG positions, and find statistically significant detections. For our z <2 subsample we find an average flux of (4.0 +/- 0.8) x 10(-16) erg s(-1) cm(-2) and a corresponding total mass of M-200 = 2.8 x 10(13) M-circle dot. The z > 2 subsample yields an average flux of (1.3 +/- 0.5) x 10(-16) erg s(-1) cm(-2) and a corresponding total mass of M-200 = 2 x 10(13) M-circle dot. Our results suggest a higher occurrence of SMGs occupying overdense environments at z >= 3 than at z <3. This may be understood if highly star-forming galaxies can only be formed in the highest peaks of the density field tracing the most massive dark matter haloes at early cosmic epochs, while at later times cosmic structure may have matured su ffi ciently that more modest overdensities correspond to su ffi ciently massive haloes to form SMGs.
  • Valentino, Francesco; Daddi, Emanuele; Finoguenov, Alexis; Strazzullo, Veronica; Le Brun, Amandine; Vignali, Cristian; Bournaud, Frederic; Dickinson, Mark; Renzini, Alvio; Bethermin, Matthieu; Zanella, Anita; Gobat, Raphael; Cimatti, Andrea; Elbaz, David; Onodera, Masato; Pannella, Maurilio; Sargent, Mark; Arimoto, Nobuo; Carollo, Marcella; Starck, Jean-Luc (2016)
    We present the discovery of a giant >= 100 kpc Ly alpha nebula detected in the core of the X-ray emitting cluster CL J1449 +0856 at z = 1.99 through Keck/LRIS narrow-band imaging. This detection extends the known relation between Lya nebulae and overdense regions of the universe to the dense core of a 5-7 x 10(13) M-circle dot cluster. The most plausible candidates to power the nebula are two Chandra-detected AGN host cluster members, while cooling from the X-ray phase and cosmological cold flows are disfavored primarily because of the high Ly alpha to X-ray luminosity ratio (L-Ly alpha/L-X approximate to 0.3, greater than or similar to 10-1000 times. higher than in local cool-core clusters) and by current modeling. Given the physical conditions of the Ly alpha-emitting gas and the possible interplay with the X-ray phase, we argue that the Ly alpha nebula would be short-lived (less than or similar to 10 Myr) if not continuously replenished with cold gas at a rate of greater than or similar to 1000 M-circle dot yr(-1). We investigate the possibility that cluster galaxies supply the required gas through outflows and we show that their total mass outflow rate matches the replenishment necessary to sustain the nebula. This scenario directly implies the extraction of energy from galaxies and its deposition in the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), as required to explain the thermodynamic properties of local clusters. We estimate an energy injection of the order of approximate to 2 keV per particle in the ICM over a 2 Gyr interval. In our baseline calculation, AGNs provide up to 85% of the injected energy and two-thirds. of the mass, while the rest is supplied by supernovae-driven winds.
  • Strazzullo, V.; Coogan, R. T.; Daddi, E.; Sargent, M. T.; Gobat, R.; Valentino, F.; Bethermin, M.; Pannella, M.; Dickinson, M.; Renzini, A.; Arimoto, N.; Cimatti, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Finoguenov, A.; Liu, D.; Onodera, M. (2018)
    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the 870 mu m continuum and CO(4-3) line emission in the core of the galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2, a near-IR-selected, X-ray-detected system in the mass range of typical progenitors of today's massive clusters. The 870 mu m map reveals six F-870 mu m > 0.5 mJy sources spread over an area of 0.07 arcmin(2), giving an overdensity of a factor of similar to 10 (6) with respect to blank-field counts down to F-870 mu m > 1 mJy (> 0.5 mJy). On the other hand, deep CO(4-3) follow-up confirms membership of three of these sources but suggests that the remaining three, including the brightest 870 mu m sources in the field (F-870 mu m greater than or similar to 2 mJy), are likely interlopers. The measurement of 870 mu m continuum and CO(4-3) line fluxes at the positions of previously known cluster members provides a deep probe of dusty star formation occurring in the core of this high-redshift structure, adding up to a total star formation rate of similar to 700 +/- 100 M-circle dot yr(-1) and yielding an integrated star formation rate density of similar to 10(4) M-circle dot yr(-1) Mpc(-3), five orders of magnitude larger than in the field at the same epoch, due to the concentration of star-forming galaxies in the small volume of the dense cluster core. The combination of these observations with previously available Hubble Space Telescope imaging highlights the presence in this same volume of a population of galaxies with already suppressed star formation. This diverse composition of galaxy populations in Cl J1449+0856 is especially highlighted at the very cluster center, where a complex assembly of quiescent and star-forming sources is likely forming the future brightest cluster galaxy.
  • Wang, Tao; Elbaz, David; Daddi, Emanuele; Finoguenov, Alexis; Liu, Daizhong; Schreiber, Corentin; Martin, Sergio; Strazzullo, Veronica; Valentino, Francesco; van der Burg, Remco; Zanella, Anita; Ciesla, Laure; Gobat, Raphael; Le Brun, Amandine; Pannella, Maurilio; Sargent, Mark; Shu, Xinwen; Tan, Qinghua; Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia (2016)
    We report the discovery of a remarkable concentration of massive galaxies with extended X-ray emission at z(spec) = 2.506, which contains 11 massive (M-* greater than or similar to 10(11) M-circle dot) galaxies in the central 80 kpc region (11.6 sigma overdensity). We have spectroscopically confirmed 17 member galaxies with 11 from CO and the remaining ones from Ha. The X-ray luminosity, stellar mass content, and velocity dispersion all point to a collapsed, cluster-sized dark matter halo with mass M-200c = 10(13.9 +/- 0.2) M-circle dot, making it the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date. Unlike other clusters discovered so far, this structure is dominated by star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the core with only 2 out of the 11 massive galaxies classified as quiescent. The star formation rate (SFR) in the 80 kpc core reaches similar to 3400 M-circle dot yr(-1) with a. gas depletion time of similar to 200 Myr, suggesting that we caught this cluster in rapid build-up of a dense core. The high SFR is driven by both a high abundance of SFGs and a higher starburst fraction (similar to 25%, compared to 3%-5% in the field). The presence of both a collapsed, cluster-sized halo and a predominant population of massive SFGs suggests that this structure could represent an important transition phase between protoclusters and mature clusters. It provides evidence that the main phase of massive galaxy passivization will take place after galaxies accrete onto the cluster, providing new insights into massive cluster formation at early epochs. The large integrated stellar mass at such high redshift challenges our understanding of massive cluster formation.
  • CORE Collaboration; Remazeilles, M.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Väliviita, J. (2018)
    We demonstrate that, for the baseline design of the CORE satellite mission, the polarized foregrounds can be controlled at the level required to allow the detection of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization with the desired accuracy at both reionization and recombination scales, for tensor-to-scalar ratio values of r greater than or similar to 5 x 10(-3). We consider detailed sky simulations based on state-of-the-art CMB observations that consist of CMB polarization with tau = 0.055 and tensor-to-scalar values ranging from r = 10(-2) to 10(-3), Galactic synchrotron, and thermal dust polarization with variable spectral indices over the sky, polarized anomalous microwave emission, polarized infrared and radio sources, and gravitational lensing effects. Using both parametric and blind approaches, we perform full component separation and likelihood analysis of the simulations, allowing us to quantify both uncertainties and biases on the reconstructed primordial B-modes. Under the assumption of perfect control of lensing effects, CORE would measure an unbiased estimate of r = (5 +/- 0.4) x 10(-3) after foreground cleaning. In the presence of both gravitational lensing effects and astrophysical foregrounds, the significance of the detection is lowered, with CORE achieving a 4 sigma-measurement of r = 5 x 10(-3) after foreground cleaning and 60% de lensing. For lower tensor-to-scalar ratios (r = 10(-3)) the overall uncertainty on r is dominated by foreground residuals, not by the 40% residual of lensing cosmic variance. Moreover, the residual contribution of unprocessed polarized point-sources can be the dominant foreground contamination to primordial B-modes at this r level, even on relatively large angular scales, l similar to 50. Finally, we report two sources of potential bias for the detection of the primordial B-modes by future CMB experiments: (i) the use of incorrect foreground models, e.g. a modelling error of Delta beta(s) = 0.02 on the synchrotron spectral indices may result in an excess in the recovered reionization peak corresponding to an effective Delta r > 10(-3); (ii) the average of the foreground line-of-sight spectral indices by the combined effects of pixelization and beam convolution, which adds an effective curvature to the foreground spectral energy distribution and may cause spectral degeneracies with the CMB in the frequency range probed by the experiment.
  • Furnell, Kate E.; Collins, Chris A.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Clerc, Nicolas; Baldry, Ivan K.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Erfanianfar, Ghazaleh; Comparat, Johan; Schneider, Donald P. (2018)
    We present a sample of 329 low-to intermediate-redshift (0.05 <z
  • Kalita, Boris S.; Daddi, Emanuele; Coogan, Rosemary T.; Delvecchio, Ivan; Gobat, Raphael; Valentino, Francesco; Strazzullo, Veronica; Tremou, Evangelia; Gomez-Guijarro, Carlos; Elbaz, David; Finoguenov, Alexis (2021)
    We report the detection of multiple faint radio sources, that we identify as active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets, within CLJ1449+0856 at z = 2 using 3 GHz Very Large Array observations. We study the effects of radio-jet-based kinetic feedback at high redshifts, which has been found to be crucial in low-redshift clusters to explain the observed thermodynamic properties of their intracluster medium (ICM). We investigate this interaction at an epoch featuring high levels of AGN activity and a transitional phase of ICM in regards to the likelihood of residual cold gas accretion. We measure a total flux of 30.6 +/- 3.3 mu Jy from the six detected jets. Their power contribution is estimated to be 1.2 (+/- 0.6) x 10(44) erg s(-1), although this value could be up to 4.7 x 10(44) erg s(-1). This is a factor of similar to 0.25-1.0 of the previously estimated instantaneous energy injection into the ICM of CLJ1449+0856 from AGN outflows and star formation that have already been found to be sufficient in globally offsetting the cooling flows in the cluster core. In line with the already detected abundance of star formation, this mode of feedback being distributed over multiple sites, contrary to a single central source observed at low redshifts, points to accretion of gas into the cluster centre. This also suggests a 'steady state' of the cluster featuring non-cool-core-like behaviour. Finally, we also examine the total infrared-radio luminosity ratio for the known sample of galaxies within the cluster core and find that dense environments do not have any serious consequence on the compliance of galaxies to the infrared-radio correlation.
  • Vardoulaki, E.; Jimenez Andrade, E. F.; Delvecchio, I.; Zagreb, University; Schinnerer, E.; Sargent, M. T.; Gozaliasl, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Bondi, M.; Zamorani, G.; Badescu, T.; Leslie, S. K.; Ceraj, L.; Tisanic, K.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Romano-Diaz, E.; Harrington, K. (2021)
    Context. Radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) are traditionally separated into two Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type classes, edge-brightened FRII sources or edge-darkened FRI sources. With the discovery of a plethora of radio AGN of different radio shapes, this dichotomy is becoming too simplistic in linking the radio structure to the physical properties of radio AGN, their hosts, and their environment.Aims. We probe the physical properties and large-scale environment of radio AGN in the faintest FR population to date, and link them to their radio structure. We use the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (3 GHz VLA-COSMOS), with a resolution and sensitivity of 75 0 75 and 2.3 mu Jy beam(-1) to explore the FR dichotomy down to mu Jy levels.Methods. We classified objects as FRIs, FRIIs, or hybrid FRI/FRII based on the surface-brightness distribution along their radio structure. Our control sample was the jet-less/compact radio AGN objects (COM AGN), which show excess radio emission at 3 GHz VLA-COSMOS exceeding what is coming from star-formation alone; this sample excludes FRs. The largest angular projected sizes of FR objects were measured by a machine-learning algorithm and also by hand, following a parametric approach to the FR classification. Eddington ratios were calculated using scaling relations from the X-rays, and we included the jet power by using radio luminosity as a probe. Furthermore, we investigated their host properties (star-formation ratio, stellar mass, morphology), and we explore their incidence within X-ray galaxy groups in COSMOS, and in the density fields and cosmic-web probes in COSMOS.Results. Our sample is composed of 59 FRIIs, 32 FRI/FRIIs, 39 FRIs, and 1818 COM AGN at 0.03 (238.2)(36.9) 36.9 238.2 kpc, larger than that of FRI/FRIIs and FRIs by a factor of 2-3. The COM AGN have sizes smaller than 30 kpc, with a median value of 1.7 (4.7)(1.5) 1.5 4.7 kpc. The median Eddington ratio of FRIIs is 0.006 (0.007)(0.005) 0.005 0.007 , a factor of 2.5 less than in FRIs and a factor of 2 higher than in FRI/FRII. When the jet power is included, the median Eddington ratios of FRII and FRI/FRII increase by a factor of 12 and 15, respectively. FRs reside in their majority in massive quenched hosts (M-*>10(10.5) M-circle dot), with older episodes of star-formation linked to lower X-ray galaxy group temperatures, suggesting radio-mode AGN quenching. Regardless of their radio structure, FRs and COM AGN are found in all types and density environments (group or cluster, filaments, field).Conclusions. By relating the radio structure to radio luminosity, size, Eddington ratio, and large-scale environment, we find a broad distribution and overlap of FR and COM AGN populations. We discuss the need for a different classification scheme, that expands the classic FR classification by taking into consideration the physical properties of the objects rather than their projected radio structure which is frequency-, sensitivity- and resolution-dependent. This point is crucial in the advent of current and future all-sky radio surveys.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bemard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L. -Y; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bemardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Homtrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, Reijo Tapani; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; krieiss, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereaun, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Tuerler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A. (2014)
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L. -Y; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Desert, F. -X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A. (2014)
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Tuovinen, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Aghanim, N.; Altieri, B.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Beelen, A.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Canameras, R.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Danese, L.; Dassas, K.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Keihänen, Elina; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Valiviita, J. (2015)
    We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These "cold" Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353-857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z = 2-4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background. With a 4.'5 beam at the four highest frequencies, our sample is expected to include overdensities of galaxies in groups or clusters, lensed galaxies, and chance line-of-sight projections. We perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500 mu m sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94% of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350 mu m, with 3% peaking at 500 mu m, and none peaking at 250 mu m. About 3% are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing them at redshifts z > 2.2. Only four targets are Galactic cirrus, yielding a success rate in our search strategy for identifying extragalactic sources within the Planck beam of better than 98%. The galaxy overdensities are detected with high significance, half of the sample showing statistical significance above 10 sigma. The SPIRE photometric redshifts of galaxies in overdensities suggest a peak at z similar or equal to 2, assuming a single common dust temperature for the sources of T-d = 35 K. Under this assumption, we derive an infrared (IR) luminosity for each SPIRE source of about 4x10(12) L-circle dot, yielding star formation rates of typically 700 M-circle dot yr(-1). If the observed overdensities are actual gravitationally-bound structures, the total IR luminosity of all their SPIRE-detected sources peaks at 4 x 10(13) L-circle dot, leading to total star formation rates of perhaps 7 x 10(3) M-circle dot yr(-1) per overdensity. Taken together, these sources show the signatures of high-z (z > 2) protoclusters of intensively star-forming galaxies. All these observations confirm the uniqueness of our sample compared to reference samples and demonstrate the ability of the all-sky Planck-HFI cold sources to select populations of cosmological and astrophysical interest for structure formation studies.
  • Väisänen, Petri; Reunanen, Juha; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Johansson, Peter H.; Ramphul, Rajin; Romero-Canizales, Cristina; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo (2017)
    We present new SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) optical long-slit spectroscopy characterizing the history of a nearby merging luminous infrared galaxy, dubbed the Bird (IRAS19115-2124). TheNIR line-ratio maps of the IFU data cubes and stellar population fitting of the SALT spectra now allow dating of the star formation (SF) over the triple system uncovered from our previous adaptive optics data. The distinct components separate clearly in line-ratio diagnostic diagrams, both thermal and non-thermal excitation is present. An off-nuclear starburst dominates the current SF of the Bird with 60-70 per cent of the total, with a 4-7 Myr age. The most massive nucleus, in contrast, is quenched with a starburst age of >40 Myr and shows hints of budding active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. The secondary massive nucleus is at an intermediate stage. The two major components have signs of an older stellar population, consistent with a starburst triggered 1 Gyr ago in a first encounter. The simplest explanation of the history is that of a triple merger, where the strongly star-forming component has joined later. We detect multiple gas flows. The Bird offers an opportunity to witness multiple stages of galaxy evolution in the same system; triggering as well as very recent quenching of SF, and, perhaps, an early appearance of AGN activity. It also serves as a cautionary note on interpretations of observations with lower spatial resolution and/or without infrared data. At high redshift the system would look like a clumpy starburst with crucial pieces of its puzzle hidden in danger of misinterpretations.
  • Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hasinger, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Cappelluti, N.; Cardamone, C.; Finoguenov, A.; Griffiths, R. E.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; LaMassa, S. M.; Jahnke, K.; Ranalli, P.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Smolcic, V.; Suh, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B. (2016)
    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra. COSMOS-Legacy. Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra. program on the 2.2 deg(2) of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 mu m identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 mu 3m information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while; similar or equal to 54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2-10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.
  • Marchesi, S.; Lanzuisi, G.; Civano, F.; Iwasawa, K.; Suh, H.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Griffiths, R.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Schawinski, K.; Silverman, J.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Vignali, C. (2016)
    We present the X-ray spectral analysis of the 1855 extragalactic sources in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey catalog having more than 30 net counts in the 0.5-7 keV band. A total of 38% of the sources are optically classified type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 60% are type 2 AGNs, and 2% are passive, low-redshift galaxies. We study the distribution of AGN photon index Gamma and of the intrinsic absorption N-H,N-z based on the sources' optical classification: type 1 AGNs have a slightly steeper mean photon index Gamma than type 2 AGNs, which, on the other hand, have average N-H,N-z similar to 3 times higher than type 1 AGNs. We find that similar to 15% of type 1 AGNs have N-H,N-z > 10(22) cm(-2), i.e., are obscured according to the X-ray spectral fitting; the vast majority of these sources have L2-10 (keV) > 10(44) erg s(-1). The existence of these objects suggests that optical and X-ray obscuration can be caused by different phenomena, the X-ray obscuration being, for example, caused by dust-free material surrounding the inner part of the nuclei. Approximately 18% of type 2 AGNs have N-H,N-z <10(22) cm(-2), and most of these sources have low X-ray luminosities (L2-10 (keV) <10(43) erg s(-1)). We expect a part of these sources to be low-accretion, unobscured AGNs lacking broad emission lines. Finally, we also find a direct proportional trend between N-H,N-z and host-galaxy mass and star formation rate, although part of this trend is due to a redshift selection effect.
  • Strazzullo, V.; Daddi, E.; Gobat, R.; Valentino, F.; Pannella, M.; Dickinson, M.; Renzini, A.; Brammer, G.; Onodera, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Cimatti, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Arimoto, N. (2016)
    We use. Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging to study the red population in the IR-selected, X-ray detected, low-mass cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2, one of the few bona fide established clusters discovered at this redshift, and likely a typical progenitor of an average massive cluster today. This study explores the presence and significance of an early red sequence in the core of this structure, investigating the nature of red-sequence galaxies, highlighting environmental effects on cluster galaxy populations at high redshift, and at the same time underlining similarities and differences with other distant dense environments. Our results suggest that the red population in the core of Cl J1449+0856 is made of a mixture of quiescent and dusty star-forming galaxies, with a seedling of the future red sequence already growing in the very central cluster region, and already characterizing the inner cluster core with respect to lower-density environments. On the other hand, the color-magnitude diagram of this cluster is definitely different from that of lower-redshift z less than or similar to 1 clusters, as well as of some rare particularly evolved massive clusters at similar redshift, and it is suggestive of a transition phase between active star formation and passive evolution occurring in the protocluster and established lower-redshift cluster regimes.
  • Daddi, E.; Valentino, F.; Rich, R. M.; Neill, J. D.; Gronke, M.; O'Sullivan, D.; Elbaz, D.; Bournaud, F.; Finoguenov, A.; Marchal, A.; Delvecchio, I.; Jin, S.; Liu, D.; Strazzullo, V.; Calabro, A.; Coogan, R.; D'Eugenio, C.; Gobat, R.; Kalita, B. S.; Laursen, P.; Martin, D. C.; Puglisi, A.; Schinnerer, E.; Wang, T. (2021)
    We have discovered a 300 kpc-wide giant Lyman-alpha (Ly alpha) nebula centered on the massive galaxy group RO-1001 at z=2.91 in the Cosmic Evolution Survey field. Keck Cosmic Web Imager observations reveal three cold gas filaments converging into the center of the potential well of its similar to 4x10(13)M(circle dot) dark matter halo, hosting 1200 M-circle dot yr(-1) of star formation as probed by Atacama Large Millimeter Array and NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array observations. The nebula morphological and kinematics properties and the prevalence of blueshifted components in the Ly alpha spectra are consistent with a scenario of gas accretion. The upper limits on active galactic nuclei activity and overall energetics favor gravity as the primary Ly alpha powering source and infall as the main source of gas flows to the system. Although interpretational difficulties remain, with outflows and likely also photoionization with ensuing recombination still playing a role, this finding provides arguably an ideal environment to quantitatively test models of cold gas accretion and galaxy feeding inside an actively star-forming massive halo at high redshift.
  • Suh, Hyewon; Civano, Francesca; Hasinger, Guenther; Lusso, Elisabeta; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Marchesi, Stefano; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Allevato, Viola; Cappelluti, Nico; Capak, Peter L.; Elvis, Martin; Griffiths, Richard E.; Laigle, Clotilde; Lira, Paulina; Riguccini, Laurie; Rosario, David J.; Salvato, Mara; Schawinski, Kevin; Vignali, Cristian (2017)
    We investigate the star formation properties of a large sample of similar to 2300 X-ray-selected Type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) host galaxies out to z similar to 3 in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey in order to understand the connection between the star formation and nuclear activity. Making use of the existing multi-wavelength photometric data available in the COSMOS field, we perform a multi-component modeling from far-infrared to near-ultraviolet using a nuclear dust torus model, a stellar population model and a starburst model of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Through detailed analyses of SEDs, we derive the stellar masses and the star formation rates (SFRs) of Type 2 AGN host galaxies. The stellar mass of our sample is in the range of 9 <logM(stellar)/M-circle dot <12 with uncertainties of similar to 0.19 dex. We find that Type 2 AGN host galaxies have, on average, similar SFRs compared to the normal star-forming galaxies with similar M-stellar and redshift ranges, suggesting no significant evidence for enhancement or quenching of star formation. This could be interpreted in a scenario, where the relative massive galaxies have already experienced substantial growth at higher redshift (z > 3), and grow slowly through secular fueling processes hosting moderate-luminosity AGNs.