Browsing by Subject "STATE"

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  • Donsbach, Carsten; Reiter, Kevin; Sundholm, Dage; Weigend, Florian; Dehnen, Stefanie (2018)
    The use of ionic liquids (C(n)C(1)Im)[BF4] with long alkyl chains (n=10,12) in the ionothermal treatment of Na-2[HgTe2] led to lamellar crystal structures with molecular macrocyclic anions [Hg8Te16](8-) (1), the heaviest known topological relative of porphyrin. [Hg8Te16](8-) differs from porphyrin by the absence of an electronic pi-system, which prevents a global aromaticity. Quantum chemical studies reveal instead small ring currents in the pyrrole-type five-membered rings that indicate weak local (sigma) aromaticity. As a result of their lamellar nature, the compounds are promising candidates for the formation of sheets containing chalcogenidometalate anions.
  • Poller, Bettina; Strachan, Clare; Broadbent, Roland; Walker, Greg F. (2017)
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate electrospun drug loaded nanofibers as a new matrix for mini tablets. Prednisone, a poorly water-soluble drug, was loaded into povidone (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) nanofibers using the process of electrospinning. The drug-loaded nanofiber mat was compressed into minitablets with a 2 mm diameter and a height of 2.63 0.04 mm. SEM analysis of the minitablet identified a nano-web structure with a nanofiber diameter in the range of 400-500 nm. The minitablets met the requirements of the US Pharmacopeia with respect to content uniformity and friability. DSC and XRPD analysis of the minitablet indicated that the drug-polymer mixture was a one-phase amorphous system. XRPD analysis of the drug loaded nanofiber mat after 10-months of storage at ambient temperature showed no evidence of recrystallization of the drug. Solubility and dissolution properties of the drug formulated into a nanofiber mat and minitablet were evaluated. These results show that electrospun nanofibers may provide a useful matrix for the further development of minitablets. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Soininvaara, Ilppo (2020)
    In this article, I analyze the politics of urbanization and competitiveness-led state spatial transformations through political narratives. By analyzing empirical material, I search for ways of reasoning and rationalities that disclose the dynamics of the depoliticization and politicization of different spatial transformations of urbanization. Based on extensive interviews, I argue that a general understanding of urbanization as an external, global inevitability and as a force prevails among political elites. This key rationality and other sedimented knowledge duly opens up new political debates on the proper political management of urbanization and national adaptation. The order of reasoning is clear: the political elites argue that the perceived inevitability, common good and state of crisis necessitate national spatial transformations in order to secure the competitiveness of the state. As a result, new spatial hierarchies are forming as an adaptive strategy.
  • Taavitsainen, Eveliina; Kortesoja, Maarit; Bruun, Tanja; Johansson, Niklas G; Hanski, Leena (2020)
    Antibiotic-tolerant persister bacteria involve frequent treatment failures, relapsing infections and the need for extended antibiotic treatment. The virulence of an intracellular human pathogen C. pneumoniae is tightly linked to its propensity for persistence and means for its chemosensitization are urgently needed. In the current work, persistence of C. pneumoniae clinical isolate CV6 was studied in THP-1 macrophages using quantitative PCR and quantitative culture. A dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan schisandrin reverted C. pneumoniae persistence and promoted productive infection. The concomitant administration of schisandrin and azithromycin resulted in significantly improved bacterial eradication compared to sole azithromycin treatment. In addition, the closely related lignan schisandrin C was superior to azithromycin in eradicating the C. pneumoniae infection from the macrophages. The observed chemosensitization of C. pneumoniae was associated with the suppression of cellular glutathione pools by the lignans, implying to a previously unknown aspect of chlamydia-host interactions. These data indicate that schisandrin lignans induce a phenotypic switch in C. pneumoniae, promoting the productive and antibiotic-susceptible phenotype instead of persistence. By this means, these medicinal plant -derived compounds show potential as adjuvant therapies for intracellular bacteria resuscitation.
  • Leppänen, Marja H.; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Ray, Carola; Hiltunen, Pauliina; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Sajaniemi, Nina; Roos, Eva (2020)
    Screen time is increasing rapidly in young children. The aim of this study was to examine associations of long-term stress and temperament with screen time in Finnish preschool children and the moderating role of socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional DAGIS data were utilized. Long-term stress was assessed using hair cortisol concentration, indicating values of the past 2 months. Temperament was reported by the parents using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (the Very Short Form), and three broad temperament dimensions were constructed: surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control. Screen time was reported by the parents over 7 days. The highest education level in the household was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status. In total, 779 children (mean age, 4.7 +/- 0.9 years, 52% boys) were included in the study. Of the temperament dimensions, a higher effortful control was associated with less screen time (B = - 6.70, p = 0.002). There was no evidence for an association between hair cortisol concentration and screen time nor a moderating role of socioeconomic status in the associations (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that preschool children with a higher score in effortful control had less screen time. Because effortful control reflects general self-regulatory abilities, promoting these skills may be effective in reducing screen time in young children.What is Known: center dot Screen time has increased rapidly during the last decades, and higher screen time has been linked with numerous adverse health consequences in children. center dot There are no previous studies investigating associations of long-term stress and temperament with screen time in young children.What is New: center dot Of the temperament dimensions, effortful control was associated with higher screen time in preschool children, but there was no association found between long-term stress and screen time. center dot Since effortful control reflects general self-regulatory abilities, promoting these skills may be effective in reducing screen time in young children.
  • Nygren, Anja Kaarina; Wayessa, Gutu Olana (2018)
    This article examines the politics of institutional governance of displacements and the intersecting experiences of environmental justice, drawing on case studies of flood disasters and urban displacements in Villahermosa, Mexico, and government-sponsored displacements and resettlements in rural Oromia, Ethiopia. We argue that a fuller understanding of how institutional governance produces multiple marginalisations requires political-ecological and intersectional analyses of residents' experiences of injustices that encompass interlinkages between social position, gender and political power. The analysis is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Mexico and Ethiopia, comprising interviews, participant observation, document analysis and surveys. The study shows similarities and differences in patterns of governance, mechanisms of marginalisation and relations of authority and power concerning differentiated displacements and everyday vulnerabilities in different contexts of the global South. Our analysis enriches theoretical understanding of governance and justice, demonstrating how multiple marginalities are produced, reinforced and contested through political processes imbricated with forms of governance characterised by institutional intrusion and absence.
  • Kumar, Arjun; Hoque, Mohammad Ashraful; Nurmi, Petteri; Pecht, Michael G.; Tarkoma, Sasu; Song, Junehwa (ACM, 2020)
    Deployments of battery-powered IoT devices have become ubiquitous, monitoring everything from environmental conditions in smart cities to wildlife movements in remote areas. How to manage the life-cycle of sensors in such large-scale deployments is currently an open issue. Indeed, most deployments let sensors operate until they fail and fix or replace the sensors post-hoc. In this paper, we contribute by developing a new approach for facilitating the life-cycle management of large-scale sensor deployments through online estimation of battery health. Our approach relies on so-called V-edge dynamics which capture and characterize instantaneous voltage drops. Experiments carried out on a dataset of battery discharge measurements demonstrate that our approach is capable of estimating battery health with up to 80% accuracy, depending on the characteristics of the devices and the processing load they undergo. Our method is particularly well-suited for the sensor devices, operating dedicated tasks, that have constant discharge during their operation.
  • Di Gregorio, Monica; Massarella, Kate; Schroeder, Heike; Brockhaus, Maria; Pham, Thuy Thu (2020)
    Transnational climate change initiatives have increased in number and relevance within the global climate change regime. Despite being largely welcomed, there are concerns about their ability to deliver ambitious climate action and about their democratic legitimacy. This paper disentangles the nature of both authority and legitimacy of a specific form of transnational networks, transgovernmental networks of subnational governments. It then investigates how a major transgovernmental initiative focusing on tropical forests, the Governors Climate and Forest Task Force, attempts to command authority and to build and maintain its legitimacy. The paper illustrates the particular challenges faced by initiatives formed primarily by jurisdictions from the Global South. Three major trade-offs related to authority and legitimacy dimensions are identified: first, the difficulty of balancing the need for increased representation with performance on ambitious climate goals; second, the need to deliver effectiveness while ensuring transparency of governance processes; and third, the limited ability to leverage formal authority of members to deliver climate action in local jurisdictions, while depending on external funds from the Global North.
  • Timr, Stepan; Kadlec, Jan; Srb, Pavel; Ollila, O. H. Samuli; Jungwirth, Pavel (2018)
    The detailed functional mechanism of recoverin, which acts as a myristoyl switch at the rod outer-segment disk membrane, is elucidated by direct and replica-exchange molecular dynamics. In accord with NMR structural evidence and calcium binding assays, simulations point to the key role of enhanced calcium binding to the EF3 loop of the semiopen state of recoverin as compared to the closed state. This 2-4-order decrease in calcium dissociation constant stabilizes the semiopen state in response to the increase of cytosolic calcium concentration in the vicinity of recoverin. A second calcium ion then binds to the EF2 loop and, consequently, the structure of the protein changes from the semiopen to the open state. The latter has the myristoyl chain extruded to the cytosol, ready to act as a membrane anchor of recoverin.
  • Jonas, Andrew E. G.; Moisio, Sami (2018)
    This article sets out a new conceptual framework for investigating how city regionalism is constituted as a variegated set of geopolitical processes operating within and beyond the national state. Our approach highlights: (1) the different forms of territorial politics through which city regionalism is conjoined with broader visions of the national state; (2) the material and territorial arrangements which support such a conjuncture; and (3) the political actors enabling city regionalism and the national state to come together within a geopolitical frame of reference.
  • Fellman, Susanna (2019)
    Prior to the modern welfare state, many large companies provided extensive welfare programmes for their employees. In this article, such welfare programmes - or corporate welfarism - in Finnish manufacturing firms in the early 20th century are the focus of attention. I analyse the content of these programmes and how they changed over time as part of the modernization and professionalization of management and industrial and societal change. I also discuss how company managers perceived the role of welfare provisions in corporate development and what happened with these programmes when the first steps towards the modern welfare state were taken. I show that these programmes started as a necessity and part of industrial paternalism, but gradually became part of labour management, in particular for the creation of a loyal workforce and productivity improvements. These programmes often developed in collaboration with local municipalities, which led to intertwined relationships at the local level, marked by both trust and tension in local communities. Once general welfare reforms emerged, companies often abandoned their voluntary programmes, while some services were taken over by the municipalities. I also ask to what extent these programmes were managerial strategies to counteract growing state involvement in their affairs.
  • Gorbikova, Elena; Kalendar, Ruslan (2020)
    Cytochrome c oxidase is terminal enzyme in the respiratory chain of mitochondria and many aerobic bacteria. It catalyzes reduction of oxygen to water. During its catalysis, CcO proceeds through several quite stable intermediates (R, A, PR/M, O/OH, E/EH). This work is concentrated on the elucidation of the differences between structures of oxidized intermediates O and OH in different CcO variants and at different pH values. Oxidized intermediates of wild type and mutated CcO from Paracoccus denitrificans were studied by means of static and time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in acidic and alkaline conditions in the infrared region 1800–1000 cm−1. No reasonable differences were found between all variants in these conditions, and in this spectral region. This finding means that the binuclear center of oxygen reduction keeps a very similar structure and holds the same ligands in the studied conditions. The further investigation in search of differences should be performed in the 4000–2000 cm−1 IR region where water ligands absorb.
  • Stepien, Piotr; Augustyn, Bozena; Poojari, Chetan; Galan, Wojciech; Polit, Agnieszka; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Wisnieska-Becker, Anna; Rog, Tomasz (2020)
    Lipid nanodiscs are macromolecular assemblies, where a scaffold protein is wrapped around a nanosized disc of a lipid bilayer, thus protecting the hydrocarbon chains at the disc edges from unfavorable interactions with water. These nanostructures have numerous applications in, e.g., nanotechnology and pharmaceutics, and in investigations of membrane proteins. Here, we present results based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations combined with electron paramagnetic spectroscopy measurements on the structure and dynamics of lipids in single-component nanodiscs. Our data highlight the existence of three distinctly different lipid fractions: central lipids residing in the center of a nanodisc, boundary lipids in direct contact with a scaffold protein, and intermediate lipids between these two regions. The central lipids are highly ordered and characterized by slow diffusion. In this part of the nanodisc, the membrane is the thickest and characterized by a gel-like or liquid-ordered phase, having features common to cholesterol-rich membranes. The boundary lipids in direct contact with the scaffold protein turned out to be less ordered and characterized by faster diffusion, and they remained in the liquid-disordered phase even at temperatures that were somewhat below the main phase transition temperature (Tm). The enthalpies associated with the central-boundary and central-intermediate transitions were similar to those observed for lipids going through the main phase transition. Overall, the study reveals lipid nanodiscs to be characterized by a complex internal structure, which is expected to influence membrane proteins placed in nanodiscs.
  • Toivo, Terhi; Dimitrow, Maarit; Puustinen, Juha; Savela, Eeva; Pelkonen, Katariina; Kiuru, Valtteri; Suominen, Tuula; Kinnunen, Sirkka; Uunimäki, Mira; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Leikola, Saija; Airaksinen, Marja (2018)
    Background: The magnitude of safety risks related to medications of the older adults has been evidenced by numerous studies, but less is known of how to manage and prevent these risks in different health care settings. The aim of this study was to coordinate resources for prospective medication risk management of home care clients >= 65 years in primary care and to develop a study design for demonstrating effectiveness of the procedure. Methods: Health care units involved in the study are from primary care in Lohja, Southern Finland: home care (191 consented clients), the public healthcare center, and a private community pharmacy. System based risk management theory and action research method was applied to construct the collaborative procedure utilizing each profession's existing resources in medication risk management of older home care clients. An inventory of clinical measures in usual clinical practice and systematic review of rigorous study designs was utilized in effectiveness study design. Discussion: The new coordinated medication management model (CoMM) has the following 5 stages: 1) practical nurses are trained to identify clinically significant drug-related problems (DRPs) during home visits and report those to the clinical pharmacist. Clinical pharmacist prepares the cases for 2) an interprofessional triage meeting (50-70 cases/meeting of 2 h) where decisions are made on further action, e.g., more detailed medication reviews, 3) community pharmacists conduct necessary medication reviews and each patients' physician makes final decisions on medication changes needed. The final stages concern 4) implementation and 5) follow-up of medication changes. Randomized controlled trial (RCT) was developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure. The developed procedure is feasible for screening and reviewing medications of a high number of older home care clients to identify clients with severe DRPs and provide interventions to solve them utilizing existing primary care resources.
  • Minoia, Paola (2020)
    In this paper, the focus is on land dispossession instigated by large corporations, and the way they produce spaces of colonial persistence through particular structures and sovereignty systems that differ from the state-based administrative settings in which they are located. The study looks at phenomena that can be observed on large agricultural estates, particularly in the Teita sisal plantation in Taita-Taveta county in Kenya. This is one of the largest sisal estates in the world, established during colonial times. It is a corporation that uses migrant workers to avoid potential conflicts with the neighbouring communities which still consider those fields to be their own ancestral land. Different working tasks are racialized, and functioning bodies are exploited as resources that have to be maximised. Inside the camp, life and work are regulated with meticulous biopolitical order in restricted conditions. Patrolled borders and gates maintain distance from the local communities who claim the estate is expanding, dispossessing them of land, roads and the river, and repositioning them as squatters on what they see as their ancestral land. In relation to this private company, the national state values its taxation contributions and does not question the exceptional conditions of exploitation of human and environmental resources occurring within that space. The estate was accessed in 2013 and interviews took place then and later. This case study reveals situations of oppression on both sides of the estate borders, including struggles that remain fragmented and hidden. There is a need for new solidarity linkages between groups confronting land and other resource dispossession on a wider scale, to support their political empowerment and rights to human and environmental justice.
  • Hinke Dobrochinski Candido, Helena (2020)
    This paper investigates datafication in schools through an analysis of the enactments of quality assurance and evaluation (QAE) policies in Brazil. In doing so, I question how data permeates and changes school environments, school actors’ conduct and their imaginaries. QAE policies encompass largescale assessments, indicators, rankings and other steering mechanisms, but importantly connect data to quality in education. Here, I analyse the discourses of school actors (principals, coordinators, supervisors, teachers, students and parents) from three Brazilian public schools collected through semi-structured interviews (n = 28). Data manifests in those schools as a technology of government. Schools enact QAE policies in distinct ways, incorporating the idea of governmentality, but also proposing alternative patterns of action.
  • Toivanen, Mari; Baser, Bahar (2020)
    Diasporas can play multiple roles in both the host country and the homeland, and their activities can varyingly contribute towards peace-building processes or perpetuate conflict back home. In this article, we wish to reflect upon the current discussions in this field, while considering the heterogeneity between and within diaspora communities as well as the generational dynamics of diaspora activism. We discuss intra-diaspora group relations as potential avenues of conflict and peace-building that transcend nation-states’ borders. Moreover, we consider how the dynamics of peace-building and conflict perpetuation can transform over time with subsequent generations. We also discuss the role the second generation can play in relation to peace and conflict.
  • Palomäki, Emmi A. K.; Yliruusi, Jouko K.; Ehlers, Henrik (2019)
    In this paper, the effect of the gaseous environment on recrystallization of amorphous paracetamol was investigated. The experiments were conducted with a headspace gas consisting of dry air, dry carbon dioxide, dry nitrogen and humid air in four temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C below onset of T-g to 5 degrees C above onset of T-g. The recrystallization was monitored using Raman spectroscopy and subsequent multivariate analysis. In temperatures below onset of T-g, the presence of oxygen delayed the onset of recrystallization, with an increasing delay with lower temperature. When comparing samples exposed to dry headspace gases, the crystallization was fastest below onset of Tg when exposed to nitrogen. Being an inert gas, nitrogen did not seem to interfere with the molecules allowing them to freely find their inherent arrangement, whereas the presence of oxygen delayed the formation of stabile nuclei. Above onset of T-g, no differences in onset of crystallization was detected between dry gas atmospheres. Amorphous paracetamol crystallized to form II in all measurements and the samples did not reach full crystallinity within the duration of the experiments. The results show that the headspace gas has an effect on nucleation in the amorphous sample.
  • Salminen, K. S.; Suominen, M. H.; Kautiainen, H.; Roitto, H. M.; Pitkala, K. H. (2019)
    Our aim was to investigate how energy intake modifies the association of the stage of dementia with health related quality of life (HRQoL) among institutionalized older people. A cross-sectional sample of 538 older long-term care residents with dementia in Helsinki, Finland were assessed with HRQoL (15D), energy intake (from one to two days), and the stage of dementia by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. The energy intakes were standardized by z-scores to include both men and women in the same analyses. Severity of dementia was associated with HRQoL (15D index in CDR 0.5-1: 0.65 (0.11), CDR 2: 0.60 (0.10), CDR 3: 0.52 (0.10)). When the three groups of dementia severity were divided according to their energy intake quartiles, there was an association between the HRQoL and the stage of dementia (p <0.001) and energy intake (p = 0.013); however, no interaction was observed (p = 0.30). While partial correlation analysis showed that energy intake correlated with HRQoL among residents with very mild/mild or moderate dementia, this was not observed among those with severe dementia. In moderate dementia, the dimensions of mobility and usual activities correlated significantly with higher energy intake. Both energy intake and severity of dementia are associated with HRQoL.