Browsing by Subject "STATEMENT"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 23
  • Kerr, Shona M.; Klaric, Lucija; Halachev, Mihail; Hayward, Caroline; Boutin, Thibaud S.; Meynert, Alison M.; Semple, Colin A.; Tuiskula, Annukka M.; Swan, Heikki; Santoyo-Lopez, Javier; Vitart, Veronique; Haley, Chris; Dean, John; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Aitman, Timothy J.; Wilson, James F. (2019)
    The Viking Health Study Shetland is a population-based research cohort of 2,122 volunteer participants with ancestry from the Shetland Isles in northern Scotland. The high kinship and detailed phenotype data support a range of approaches for associating rare genetic variants, enriched in this isolate population, with quantitative traits and diseases. As an exemplar, the c.1750G > A; p.Gly584Ser variant within the coding sequence of the KCNH2 gene implicated in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), which occurred once in 500 whole genome sequences from this population, was investigated. Targeted sequencing of the KCNH2 gene in family members of the initial participant confirmed the presence of the sequence variant and identified two further members of the same family pedigree who shared the variant. Investigation of these three related participants for whom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array genotypes were available allowed a unique shared haplotype of 1.22 Mb to be defined around this locus. Searching across the full cohort for this haplotype uncovered two additional apparently unrelated individuals with no known genealogical connection to the original kindred. All five participants with the defined haplotype were shown to share the rare variant by targeted Sanger sequencing. If this result were verified in a healthcare setting, it would be considered clinically actionable, and has been actioned in relatives ascertained independently through clinical presentation. The General Practitioners of four study participants with the rare variant were alerted to the research findings by letters outlining the phenotype (prolonged electrocardiographic QTc interval). A lack of detectable haplotype sharing between c.1750G > A; p.Gly584Ser chromosomes from previously reported individuals from Finland and those in this study from Shetland suggests that this mutation has arisen more than once in human history. This study showcases the potential value of isolate population-based research resources for genomic medicine. It also illustrates some challenges around communication of actionable findings in research participants in this context.
  • Padalino, Massimo A.; Franchetti, Nicola; Sarris, George E.; Hazekamp, Mark; Carrel, Thierry; Frigiola, Alessandro; Horer, Jurgen; Roussin, Regine; Cleuziou, Julie; Meyns, Bart; Fragata, Jose; Telles, Helena; Polimenakos, Anastasios C.; Francois, Katrien; Veshti, Altin; Salminen, Jukka; Gonzalez Rocafort, Alvaro; Nosal, Matej; Vedovelli, Luca; Protopapas, Eleftherios; Tumbarello, Roberto; Merola, Assunta; Pegoraro, Cinzia; Motta, Raffaella; Boccuzzo, Giovanna; Sojak, Vladimir; Lo Rito, Mauro; Caldaroni, Federica; Corrado, Domenico; Basso, Cristina; Stellin, Giovanni (2019)
    Background: Anomalous aortic origin of coronary arteries (AAOCA) is a rare abnormality, whose optimal management is still undefined. We describe early outcomes in patients treated with different management strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective clinicalmulticenter study including patients with AAOCA, undergoing or not surgical treatment. Patients with isolated high coronary take off and associated major congenital heart disease were excluded. Preoperative, intraoperative, anatomical and postoperative data were retrieved from a common database. Results: Among 217 patients, 156 underwent Surgical repair (median age 39 years, IQR: 15-53), while 61 were Medical (median age 15 years, IQR: 8-52), inwhomAAOCA was incidentally diagnosed during screening or clinical evaluations. Surgical patients were more often symptomatic when compared to medical ones (87.2% vs 44.3%, p b 0.001). Coronary unroofing was the most frequent procedure (56.4%). Operative mortality was 1.3% (2 patients with preoperative severe heart failure). At a median follow up of 18 months (range 0.1-23 years), 89.9% of survivors are in NYHA Conclusions: Surgery for AAOCA is safe andwith low morbidity. When compared to Medical patients, who remain on exercise restriction and medical therapy, surgical patients have a benefit in terms of symptoms and return to normal life. Since the long term-risk of sudden cardiac death is still unknown, we currently recommend accurate long term surveillance in all patients with AAOCA. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • But, Anna; Wang, Haining; Mannisto, Satu; Pukkala, Eero; Haukka, Jari (2014)
  • Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Bäcklund, Minna; Efendijev, Ilmar; Raj, Rahul; Folger, Daniel; Litonius, Erik; Laitio, Ruut; Bendel, Stepani; Hoppu, Sanna; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Reinikainen, Matti; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2019)
    BackgroundOrgan dysfunction is common after cardiac arrest and associated with worse short-term outcome, but its impact on long-term outcome and treatment costs is unknown.MethodsWe used nationwide registry data from the intensive care units (ICU) of the five Finnish university hospitals to evaluate the association of 24-h extracerebral Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (24h-EC-SOFA) score with 1-year survival and healthcare-associated costs after cardiac arrest. We included adult cardiac arrest patients treated in the participating ICUs between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. We acquired the confirmed date of death from the Finnish Population Register Centre database and gross 1-year healthcare-associated costs from the hospital billing records and the database of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution.ResultsA total of 5814 patients were included in the study, and 2401 were alive 1year after cardiac arrest. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) 24h-EC-SOFA score was 6 (5-8) in 1-year survivors and 7 (5-10) in non-survivors. In multivariate regression analysis, adjusting for age and prior independency in self-care, the 24h-EC-SOFA score had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.18) per point for 1-year mortality.Median (IQR) healthcare-associated costs in the year after cardiac arrest were Euro47,000 (Euro28,000-75,000) in 1-year survivors and Euro12,000 (Euro6600-25,000) in non-survivors. In a multivariate linear regression model adjusting for age and prior independency in self-care, an increase of one point in the 24h-EC-SOFA score was associated with an increase of Euro170 (95% CI Euro150-190) in the cost per day alive in the year after cardiac arrest. In the same model, an increase of one point in the 24h-EC-SOFA score was associated with an increase of Euro4400 (95% CI Euro3300-5500) in the total healthcare-associated costs in 1-year survivors.ConclusionsExtracerebral organ dysfunction is associated with long-term outcome and gross healthcare-associated costs of ICU-treated cardiac arrest patients. It should be considered when assessing interventions to improve outcomes and optimize the use of resources in these patients.
  • PRIAS Study Grp; Drost, Frank-Jan H.; Rannikko, Antti; Valdagni, Riccardo; Pickles, Tom; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Remmers, Sebastiaan; van der Poel, Henk G.; Bangma, Chris H.; Roobol, Monique J. (2018)
    Background: Active surveillance (AS) for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) appears to provide excellent long-term PCa-specific and overall survival. The choice for AS as initial treatment is mainly based on avoiding side effects from invasive treatment; but AS entails regular check-ups and the possibility of still having to switch or deciding to switch to invasive treatment. Here, we assessed the long-term follow-up data from AS in real life clinical practices. Methods: Data from the first 500 men, enrolled in PRIAS before July 2008 by 30 centers across 8 countries, were analyzed to provide long-term follow-up results. Men were advised to be regularly examined with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations, and prostate biopsies. Men were advised to switch to invasive treatment if they had disease reclassification [Gleason score (GS) >= 3+ 4 on biopsy, more than two positive biopsy cores, a stage higher than cT2] or a PSA-doubling time of 0-3 years. We assessed time on AS, outcomes and reasons for discontinuing AS, and rates of potential unnecessary biopsies and treatments. Results: The median follow-up time was 6.5 years. During this period, 325 (65%) men discontinued after a median of 2.3 years and 121 (24%) men had no recent (> 1 year) data-update after a median of 7.3 years. The remaining 54 (11%) men were confirmed to be still on AS. Most men discontinued based on protocol advice; 38% had other reasons. During follow-up, 838 biopsy sessions were performed of which 79% to 90% did not lead to reclassification, depending on the criteria. Of the 325 discontinued men, 112 subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), 126 underwent radiotherapy, 57 switched to watchful waiting (WW) or died, and 30 had another or unknown treatment. RP results were available of 99 men: 34% to 68%, depending on definition, had favorable outcomes; 50% of unfavorable the outcomes occurred in the first 2 years. Of the 30 (6%) men who died, 1 man died due to PCa. Conclusions: These data, reflecting real life clinical practice, show that more than half of men switched to invasive treatment within 2.3 years, indicating limitations to the extent in which AS is able to reduce the adverse effects of overdiagnosis. Therefore, despite guidelines stating that PCa diagnosis must be uncoupled from treatment, it remains important to avoid overdiagnosing PCa as much as possible.
  • Rintala, Aki; Päivärinne, Ville; Hakala, Sanna; Paltamaa, Jaana; Heinonen, Ari; Karvanen, Juha; Sjögren, Tuulikki (2019)
    Objective: To study the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical functioning in stroke. Data Sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in 6 databases from January 2000 to May 2018. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria applied the patient, intervention, comparison, outcome, study design framework as follows: (P) stroke; (I) technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions; (C) any comparison without the use of technology; (0) physical functioning; (S) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The search identified in total 693 studies, and the screening of 162 full-text studies revealed 13 eligible studies. Data Extraction: The studies were screened using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines and assessed for methodological quality and quality of evidence. Meta-analysis was performed if applicable. Data Synthesis: A total of 13 studies were included, and online video monitoring was the most used technology. Seven outcomes of physical functioning were identified-activities of daily living (ADL), upper extremity functioning, lower extremity functioning, balance, walking, physical activity, and participation. A meta-analysis of 6 RCTs indicated that technology-based distance physical rehabilitation had a similar effect on ADL (standard mean difference 0.06; 95% confidence interval: -0.22 to 0.35, P=.67) compared to the combination of traditional treatments (usual care, similar and other treatment). Similar results were obtained for other outcomes, except inconsistent findings were noted for walking. Methodological quality of the studies and quality of evidence were considered low. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical functioning might be similar compared to traditional treatments in stroke. Further research should be performed to confirm the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions for improving physical functioning of persons with stroke. (C) 2018 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
  • AANZDEM Study Grp; EURODEM Study Grp; Laribi, Said; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (2019)
    Objective The primary objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and management of dyspneic patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in an international patient population. Our secondary objective was to compare the EURODEM and AANZDEM patient populations. Patients and methods An observational prospective cohort study was carried out in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. The study included consecutive patients presenting to EDs with dyspnea as the main complaint. Data were collected on demographics, comorbidities, chronic treatment, clinical signs and investigations, treatment in the ED, diagnosis, and disposition from ED. Results A total of 5569 patients were included in the study. The most common ED diagnoses were lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (24.9%), heart failure (HF) (17.3%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation (15.8%), and asthma (10.5%) in the overall population. There were more LRTI, HF, and COPD exacerbations in the EURODEM population, whereas asthma was more frequent in the AANZDEM population. ICU admission rates were 5.5%. ED mortality was 0.6%. The overall in-hospital mortality was 5.0%. In-hospital mortality rates were 8.7% for LRTI, 7.6% for HF, and 5.6% for COPD patients. Conclusion Dyspnea as a symptom in the ED has high ward and ICU admission rates. A variety of causes of dyspnea were observed in this study, with chronic diseases accounting for a major proportion.
  • Akinrinade, Oyediran; Ollila, Laura; Vattulainen, Sanna; Tallila, Jonna; Gentile, Massimiliano; Salmenpera, Pertteli; Koillinen, Hannele; Kaartinen, Maija; Nieminen, Markku S.; Myllykangas, Samuel; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Helio, Tiina (2015)
    Aims Genetic analysis among patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is becoming an important part of clinical assessment, as it is in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The genetics of DCM is complex and therefore next-generation sequencing strategies are essential when providing genetic diagnostics. To achieve maximum yield, the diagnostic approach should include comprehensive clinical phenotyping combined with high-quality, high-coverage deep sequencing of DCM-associated genes and clinical variant classification as a basis for defining true yield in genetic testing. Our study has combined a novel sequencing strategy and clinical interpretation to analyse the yield and genotype-phenotype correlations among well-phenotyped Finnish DCM patients.Despite our increased understanding of the genetic basis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the clinical utility and yield of clinically meaningful findings of comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based genetic diagnostics in DCM has been poorly described. We utilized a high-quality oligonucleotide-selective sequencing (OS-Seq)-based targeted sequencing panel to investigate the genetic landscape of DCM in Finnish population and to evaluate the utility of OS-Seq technology as a novel comprehensive diagnostic tool. Methods and results Using OS-Seq, we targeted and sequenced the coding regions and splice junctions of 101 genes associated with cardiomyopathies in 145 unrelated Finnish patients with DCM. We developed effective bioinformatic variant filtering strategy and implemented strict variant classification scheme to reveal diagnostic yield and genotype-phenotype correlations. Implemented OS-Seq technology provided high coverage of the target region (median coverage 410x and 99.42% of the nucleotides were sequenced at least 15x read depth). Diagnostic yield was 35.2% (familial 47.6% and sporadic 25.6%, P = 0.004) when both pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants are considered as disease causing. Of these, 20 (53%) were titin (TTN) truncations (non-sense and frameshift) affecting all TTN transcripts. TTN truncations accounted for 20.6% and 14.6% of the familial and sporadic DCM cases, respectively. Conclusion Panel-based, high-quality NGS enables high diagnostic yield especially in the familial form of DCM, and bioinformatic variant filtering is a reliable step in the process of interpretation of genomic data in a clinical setting.
  • Vanninen, Sari U. M.; Leivo, Krista; Seppälä, Eija H.; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Pitkänen, Olli; Suursalmi, Piia; Annala, Antti-Pekka; Anttila, Ismo; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Myllykangas, Samuel; Heliö, Tiina M.; Koskenvuo, Juha W. (2018)
    During the last two decades, mutations in sarcomere genes have found to comprise the most common cause for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but still significant number of patients with dominant HCM in the family are left without molecular genetic diagnosis. Next generation sequencing (NGS) does not only enable evaluation of established HCM genes but also candidate genes for cardiomyopathy are frequently tested which may lead to a situation where conclusive interpretation of the variant requires extensive family studies. We aimed to characterize the phenotype related to a variant in the junctophilin-2 (JPH2) gene, which is less known non-sarcomeric candidate gene. In addition, we did extensive review of the literature and databases about JPH2 variation in association with cardiac disease. We characterize nine Finnish index patients with HCM and heterozygous for JPH2 c.482C>A, p. (Thr161Lys) variant were included and segregation studies were performed. We identified 20 individuals affected with HCM with or without systolic heart failure and conduction abnormalities in the nine Finnish families with JPH2 p.(Thr161Lys) variant. We found 26 heterozygotes with the variant and penetrance was 71% by age 60 and 100% by age 80. Cosegregation of the variant with HCM phenotype was observed in six families. Main clinical features were left ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmia vulnerability and conduction abnormalities including third degree AV-block. In some patients end-stage severe left ventricular heart failure with normal or mildly enlarged diastolic dimensions was detected. In conclusion, we propose that the heterozygous JPH2 p.(Thr161Lys) variant is a new Finnish mutation causing atypical HCM.
  • Dyson, Kylie; Brown, Siobhan P.; May, Susanne; Smith, Karen; Koster, Rudolph W.; Beesems, Stefanie G.; Kuisma, Markku; Salo, Ari; Finn, Judith; Sterz, Fritz; Nuernberger, Alexander; Morrison, Laurie J.; Olasveengen, Theresa M.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Shin, Sang Do; Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Daya, Mohamud; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Herlitz, Johan; Stromsöe, Anneli; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Masterson, Siobhan; Wang, Henry; Christenson, Jim; Stiell, Ian; Vilke, Gary M.; Idris, Ahamed; Nishiyama, Chika; Iwami, Taku; Nichol, Graham (2019)
    Introduction: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival varies greatly between communities. The Utstein template was developed and promulgated to improve the comparability of OHCA outcome reports, but it has undergone limited empiric validation. We sought to assess how much of the variation in OHCA survival between emergency medical services (EMS) across the globe is explained by differences in the Utstein factors. We also assessed how accurately the Utstein factors predict OHCA survival. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patient-level prospectively collected data from 12 OHCA registries from 12 countries for the period 1 Jan 2006 through 31 Dec 2011. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the variation in survival between EMS agencies (n = 232). Results: Twelve registries contributed 86,759 cases. Patient arrest characteristics, EMS treatment and patient outcomes varied across registries. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 10% (range, 6% to 22%). Overall survival with Cerebral Performance Category of 1 or 2 (available for 8/12 registries) was 8%(range, 2% to 20%). The area-under-the-curve for the Utstein model was 0.85 (Wald CI: 0.85-0.85). The Utstein factors explained 51% of the EMS agency variation in OHCA survival. Conclusions: The Utstein factors explained 51%. of the variation in survival to hospital discharge among multiple large geographically separate EMS agencies. This suggests that quality improvement and public health efforts should continue to target modifiable Utstein factors to improve OHCA survival. Further study is required to identify the reasons for the variation that is incompletely understood.
  • Hanninen, Timo; Parkkari, Jari; Tuominen, Markku; Iverson, Grant L.; Ohman, Juha; Vartiainen, Matti; Luoto, Teemu M. (2017)
    Objectives: To examine test-retest reliability of the. SCAT3 for two consecutive seasons using a large sample of professional male ice hockey players, and to make recommendations for interpreting change on the test. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methods: Preseason baseline testing was administered in the beginning of the seasons 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 to 179 professional male hockey players in rink side settings. Results: The test-retest reliabilities of the SCAT3 components were uniformly low. However, the majority of athletes remained grossly within their own individual performance range when two pre-season SCAT3 baseline scores were compared to published normative reference values. Being tested by the same person or a different person did not influence the results. It was uncommon for the Symptom score to worsen by >= 3 points, the Symptom Severity score to worsen by >= 5 points, SAC total score to worsen by >= 3 points, M-BESS total error points to increase by >= 3, or the time to complete Tandem Gait to increase by >= 4s; each occurred in less than 10% of the sample. Conclusions: The SCAT3 has low test-retest reliability. Change scores should be interpreted with caution, and more research is needed to determine the clinical usefulness of the SCAT3 for diagnosing concussion and monitoring recovery. Careful examination of the natural distributions of difference scores provides clinicians with useful information on how to interpret change on the test. (C) 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Gellerfors, M.; Fevang, E.; Bäckman, A.; Krüger, A.; Mikkelsen, S.; Nurmi, J.; Rognås, L.; Sandström, E.; Skallsjö, G.; Svensén, C.; Gryth, D.; Lossius, H.M. (2018)
    Background: Pre-hospital tracheal intubation success and complication rates vary considerably among provider categories. The purpose of this study was to estimate the success and complication rates of pre-hospital tracheal intubation performed by physician anaesthetist or nurse anaesthetist pre-hospital critical care teams. Methods: Data were prospectively collected from critical care teams staffed with a physician anaesthetist or a nurse anaesthetist according to the Utstein template for pre-hospital advanced airway management. The patients served by six ambulance helicopters and six rapid response vehicles in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from May 2015 to November 2016 were included. Results: The critical care teams attended to 32 007 patients; 2028 (6.3%) required pre-hospital tracheal intubation. The overall success rate of pre-hospital tracheal intubation was 98.7% with a median intubation time of 25 s and an on-scene time of 25 min. The majority (67.0%) of the patients' tracheas were intubated by providers who had performed >2500 tracheal intubations. The success rate of tracheal intubation on the first attempt was 84.5%, and 95.9% of intubations were completed after two attempts. Complications related to pre-hospital tracheal intubation were recorded in 10.9% of the patients. Intubations after rapid sequence induction had a higher success rate compared with intubations without rapid sequence induction (99.4% vs 98.1%; P=0.02). Physicians had a higher tracheal intubation success rate than nurses (99.0% vs 97.6%; P=0.03). Conclusions: When performed by experienced physician anaesthetists and nurse anaesthetists, pre-hospital tracheal intubation was completed rapidly with high success rates and a low incidence of complications.
  • CardShock Investigators; Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Pulkki, Kari; Turkia, Heidi; Sabell, Tuija; Tolppanen, Heli; Jurkko, Raija; Hongisto, Mari; Kataja, Anu; Sionis, Alessandro; Silva-Cardoso, Jose; Banaszewski, Marek; DiSomma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Haapio, Mikko; Lassus, Johan (2021)
    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent form of organ injury in cardiogenic shock. However, data on AKI markers such as plasma proenkephalin (P-PENK) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (P-NGAL) in cardiogenic shock populations are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of P-PENK and P-NGAL to predict acute kidney injury and mortality in cardiogenic shock. Results: P-PENK and P-NGAL were measured at different time points between baseline and 48 h in 154 patients from the prospective CardShock study. The outcomes assessed were AKI defined by an increase in creatinine within 48 h and all-cause 90-day mortality. Mean age was 66 years and 26% were women. Baseline levels of P-PENK and P-NGAL (median [interquartile range]) were 99 (71-150) pmol/mL and 138 (84-214) ng/mL. P-PENK > 84.8 pmol/mL and P-NGAL > 104 ng/mL at baseline were identified as optimal cut-offs for AKI prediction and independently associated with AKI (adjusted HRs 2.2 [95% CI 1.1-4.4, p = 0.03] and 2.8 [95% CI 1.2-6.5, p = 0.01], respectively). P-PENK and P-NGAL levels at baseline were also associated with 90-day mortality. For patients with oliguria <0.5 mL/kg/h for > 6 h before study enrollment, 90-day mortality differed significantly between patients with low and high P-PENK/P-NGAL at baseline (5% vs. 68%, p <0.001). However, the biomarkers provided best discrimination for mortality when measured at 24 h. Identified cut-offs of P-PENK24h > 105.7 pmol/L and P-NGAL(24h) > 151 ng/mL had unadjusted hazard ratios of 5.6 (95% CI 3.1-10.7, p <0.001) and 5.2 (95% CI 2.8-9.8, p <0.001) for 90-day mortality. The association remained significant despite adjustments with AKI and two risk scores for mortality in cardiogenic shock. Conclusions: High levels of P-PENK and P-NGAL at baseline were independently associated with AKI in cardiogenic shock patients. Furthermore, oliguria before study inclusion was associated with worse outcomes only if combined with high baseline levels of P-PENK or P-NGAL. High levels of both P-PENK and P-NGAL at 24 h were found to be strong and independent predictors of 90-day mortality.
  • Saarinen, Sini; Kamarainen, Antti; Silfvast, Tom; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Virkkunen, Ilkka (2012)
  • RIPTRANS Study Grp Collaborators; Uutela, Aki; Helanterä, Ilkka; Lemström, Karl; Passov, Arie; Syrjälä, Simo; Åberg, Fredrik; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Lempinen, Marko; Sallinen, Ville (2020)
    Introduction Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) using a non-invasive pneumatic tourniquet is a potential method for reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury. RIPC has been extensively studied in animal models and cardiac surgery, but scarcely in solid organ transplantation. RIPC could be an inexpensive and simple method to improve function of transplanted organs. Accordingly, we aim to study whether RIPC performed in brain-dead organ donors improves function and longevity of transplanted organs. Methods and analyses RIPTRANS is a multicentre, sham-controlled, parallel group, randomised superiority trial comparing RIPC intervention versus sham-intervention in brain-dead organ donors scheduled to donate at least one kidney. Recipients of the organs (kidney, liver, pancreas, heart, lungs) from a randomised donor will be included provided that they give written informed consent. The RIPC intervention is performed by inflating a thigh tourniquet to 300 mm Hg 4 times for 5 min. The intervention is done two times: first right after the declaration of brain death and second immediately before transferring the donor to the operating theatre. The sham group receives the tourniquet, but it is not inflated. The primary endpoint is delayed graft function (DGF) in kidney allografts. Secondary endpoints include short-term functional outcomes of transplanted organs, rejections and graft survival in various time points up to 20 years. We aim to show that RIPC reduces the incidence of DGF from 25% to 15%. According to this, the sample size is set to 500 kidney transplant recipients. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by Helsinki University Hospital Ethics Committee and Helsinki University Hospital's Institutional Review Board. The study protocol was be presented at the European Society of Organ Transplantation congress in Copenhagen 14-15 September 2019. The study results will be submitted to an international peer-reviewed scientific journal for publication.
  • Kauppila, Timo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Honkasalo, Mikko; Raina, Marko; Laine, Merja K. (2019)
    Aim: Previous study findings have shown that more frequent contacts with the diabetes care team predict better diabetes control. It is unknown whether this is true also for previous dropouts with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to evaluate if those previous dropouts with T2D who succeeded to improve their glycaemic control had more frequent contacts with health care professionals in the public primary diabetes health care system than those dropouts who did not show improvement. Methods: In this "real life" retrospective cohort study, we identified 115 dropouts with T2D who were contacted by trained diabetes nurses and who returned to a public T2D-care system. Those previous dropouts who had baseline haemoglobin A(1c) >= 53 mmoVmol (7%) and had a reduction in HbA(1c) >= 6 mmol/mol (0.5%) during the follow-up were compared with those with unsatisfactory change in HbA(1c) (baseline HbA(1c) >= 53 mmoVmol and change Results: Previous dropouts showing improvement had more visits to the diabetes nurse (p = 0.003) and other nurses (p <0.001) than those with no improvement or those with satisfactory glycaemic control. Telephone calls not focusing on diabetes (p <0.001) were also more frequent among previous dropouts with improvement than among the others. Conclusions: Especially previous dropouts with T2D who had poor glycaemic control, may benefit from more frequent contacts including visits and telephone calls. Recalling dropouts does not seem to lead to overuse of the T2D care-system by those recalled patients whose glycaemic control does not require special care. (C) 2019 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Multinatl COVID-19 Stroke Study Gr; Shahjouei, Shima; Naderi, Soheil; Li, Jiang; Niemelä, Mika; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Janbakhsh, Alireza (2020)
    Background: There is an increased attention to stroke following SARS-CoV-2. The goal of this study was to better depict the short-term risk of stroke and its associated factors among SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. Methods: This multicentre, multinational observational study includes hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from North and South America (United States, Canada, and Brazil), Europe (Greece, Italy, Finland, and Turkey), Asia (Lebanon, Iran, and India), and Oceania (New Zealand). The outcome was the risk of subsequent stroke. Centres were included by non-probability sampling. The counts and clinical characteristics including laboratory findings and imaging of the patients with and without a subsequent stroke were recorded according to a predefined protocol. Quality, risk of bias, and heterogeneity assessments were conducted according to ROBINS-E and Cochrane Q-test. The risk of subsequent stroke was estimated through meta-analyses with random effect models. Bivariate logistic regression was used to determine the parameters with predictive outcome value. The study was reported according to the STROBE, MOOSE, and EQUATOR guidelines. Findings: We received data from 26,175 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from 99 tertiary centres in 65 regions of 11 countries until May 1st, 2020. A total of 17,799 patients were included in meta-analyses. Among them, 156(0.9%) patients had a stroke-123(79%) ischaemic stroke, 27(17%) intracerebral/subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 6(4%) cerebral sinus thrombosis. Subsequent stroke risks calculated with meta-analyses, under low to moderate heterogeneity, were 0.5% among all centres in all countries, and 0.7% among countries with higher health expenditures. The need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.9, 95% CI:1.1-3.5, p = 0.03) and the presence of ischaemic heart disease (OR: 2.5, 95% CI:1.4-4.7, p = 0.006) were predictive of stroke. Interpretation: The results of this multi-national study on hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection indicated an overall stroke risk of 0.5%(pooled risk: 0.9%). The need for mechanical ventilation and the history of ischaemic heart disease are the independent predictors of stroke among SARS-CoV-2 patients. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Peuraharju, Elin; Saarinen, Riitta; Aro, Katri; Mäkinen, Laura K.; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Mäkitie, Antti; Haglund, Caj; Hagström, Jaana; Atula, Timo (2020)
    Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis may represent one of many manifestations of an immunoglobulin G4-related disease. However, existing studies typically consist of small patient cohorts rarely conducted in Western populations. The clinical behavior of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, including follow-up data, warrants further study. Thus, we aimed to determine whether chronic sclerosing sialadenitis always presents as IgG4-related disease or associates with autoimmune diseases and to determine which additional examinations patients may require. Between 2000 and 2017, 51 patients undergoing submandibular gland resection within the Helsinki University Hospital area were diagnosed with chronic sclerosing sialadenitis. We re-evaluated all specimens and performed immunostaining for IgG4. IgG and CD31 stainings were performed for IgG4-positive specimens. IgG4-related disease diagnosis was defined by the Boston consensus statement criteria. We revised clinical data, distributing a follow-up questionnaire to patients to register symptoms of IgG4-related disease or autoimmune disease during follow-up. The chronic sclerosing sialadenitis criteria were fulfilled in 34 patients, whereby 17 were diagnosed as non-sclerosing chronic sialadenitis. In 19 cases, a sialolith associated with a salivary gland lesion. In total, 12 of 51 cases were recognized as IgG4-positive, while two met the criteria for IgG4-related disease. These two cases belonged to the non-sclerosing chronic sialadenitis group, and both involved other organs. The histopathological features between chronic sclerosing sialadenitis and non-sclerosing chronic sialadenitis overlapped regarding the degree of fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. In the Finnish population, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the submandibular gland does not appear to present as IgG4-related disease. Non-sclerosing chronic sialadenitis can associate with IgG4-related disease. A histopathological distinction between chronic sclerosing sialadenitis and non-sclerosing chronic sialadenitis is not always unequivocal and the presence of a sialolith does not exclude IgG4-positivity. Therefore, immunostaining for IgG4 should be performed when dense plasma cell infiltration is present in either non-sclerosing chronic sialadenitis or chronic sclerosing sialadenitis.
  • Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Neumann, Ignacio; Akl, Elie A.; Vernooij, Robin W. M.; Johnston, Brad C.; Sun, Xin; Briel, Matthias; Busse, Jason W.; Ebrahim, Shanil; Granados, Carlos E.; Iorio, Alfonso; Irfan, Affan; Martinez Garcia, Laura; Mustafa, Reem A.; Ramirez-Morera, Anggie; Selva, Anna; Sola, Ivan; Juliana Sanabria, Andrea; Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Vandvik, Per Olav; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhou, Qi; Schuenemann, Holger; Guyatt, Gordon H. (2016)
    Objectives: Expressing treatment effects in relative terms yields larger numbers than expressions in absolute terms, affecting the judgment of the clinicians and patients regarding the treatment options. It is uncertain how authors of systematic reviews (SRs) absolute effect estimates are reported in. We therefore undertook a systematic survey to identify and describe the reporting and methods for calculating absolute effect estimates in SRs. Study Design and Setting: Two reviewers independently screened title, abstract, and full text and extracted data from a sample of Cochrane and non-Cochrane SRs. We used regression analyses to examine the association between study characteristics and the reporting of absolute estimates for the most patient-important outcome. Results: We included 202 SRs (98 Cochrane and 104 non-Cochrane), most of which (92.1%) included standard meta-analyses including relative estimates of effect. Of the 202 SRs, 73 (36.1%) reported absolute effect estimates for the most patient-important outcome. SRs with statistically significant effects were more likely to report absolute estimates (odds ratio, 2.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.74). The most commonly reported absolute estimates were: for each intervention, risk of adverse outcomes expressed as a percentage (41.1%); number needed to treat (26.0%); and risk for each intervention expressed as natural units or natural frequencies (24.7%). In 12.3% of the SRs that reported absolute effect estimates for both benefit and harm outcomes, harm outcomes were reported exclusively as absolute estimates. Exclusively reporting of beneficial outcomes as absolute estimates occurred in 6.8% of the SRs. Conclusions: Most SRs do not report absolute effects. Those that do often report them inadequately, thus requiring users of SRs to generate their own estimates of absolute effects. For any apparently effective or harmful intervention, SR authors should report both absolute and relative estimates to optimize the interpretation of their findings. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Saviluoto, Anssi; Björkman, Johannes; Olkinuora, Anna; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Kirves, Hetti; Setala, Piritta; Pulkkinen, Ilkka; Laukkanen-Nevala, Paivi; Raatiniemi, Lasse; Jäntti, Helena; Iirola, Timo; Nurmi, Jouni (2020)
    Background: Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) play an important role in prehospital care of the critically ill. Differences in funding, crew composition, dispatch criteria and mission profile make comparison between systems challenging. Several systems incorporate databases for quality control, performance evaluation and scientific purposes. FinnHEMS database was incorporated for such purposes following the national organization of HEMS in Finland 2012. The aims of this study are to describe information recorded in the database, data collection, and operational characteristics of Finnish HEMS during 2012-2018. Methods: All dispatches of the six Finnish HEMS units recorded in the national database from 2012 to 2018 were included in this observational registry study. Five of the units are physician staffed, and all are on call 24/7. The database follows a template for uniform reporting in physician staffed pre-hospital services, exceeding the recommended variables of relevant guidelines. Results: The study included 100,482 dispatches, resulting in 33,844 (34%) patient contacts. Variables were recorded with little or no missing data. A total of 16,045 patients (16%) were escorted by HEMS to hospital, of which 2239 (2%) by helicopter. Of encountered patients 4195 (4%) were declared deceased on scene. The number of denied or cancelled dispatches was 66,638 (66%). The majority of patients were male (21,185, 63%), and the median age was 57.7 years. The median American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Scale classification was 2 and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance class 0. The most common reason for response was trauma representing 26% (8897) of the patients, followed by out-of-hospital cardiac arrest 20% (6900), acute neurological reason excluding stroke 13% (4366) and intoxication and related psychiatric conditions 10% (3318). Blunt trauma (86%, 7653) predominated in the trauma classification. Conclusions: Gathering detailed and comprehensive data nationally on all HEMS missions is feasible. A national database provides valuable insights into where the operation of HEMS could be improved. We observed a high number of cancelled or denied missions and a low percentage of patients transported by helicopter. The medical problem of encountered patients also differs from comparable systems.