Browsing by Subject "STATES"

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  • Ranta, Jukka; Airaksinen, Manu; Kirjavainen, Turkka; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Stevenson, Nathan J. (2021)
    Objective To develop a non-invasive and clinically practical method for a long-term monitoring of infant sleep cycling in the intensive care unit. Methods Forty three infant polysomnography recordings were performed at 1-18 weeks of age, including a piezo element bed mattress sensor to record respiratory and gross-body movements. The hypnogram scored from polysomnography signals was used as the ground truth in training sleep classifiers based on 20,022 epochs of movement and/or electrocardiography signals. Three classifier designs were evaluated in the detection of deep sleep (N3 state): support vector machine (SVM), Long Short-Term Memory neural network, and convolutional neural network (CNN). Results Deep sleep was accurately identified from other states with all classifier variants. The SVM classifier based on a combination of movement and electrocardiography features had the highest performance (AUC 97.6%). A SVM classifier based on only movement features had comparable accuracy (AUC 95.0%). The feature-independent CNN resulted in roughly comparable accuracy (AUC 93.3%). Conclusion Automated non-invasive tracking of sleep state cycling is technically feasible using measurements from a piezo element situated under a bed mattress. Significance An open source infant deep sleep detector of this kind allows quantitative, continuous bedside assessment of infant's sleep cycling.
  • Lu, Yiqun; Liu, Ling; Ning, An; Yang, Gan; Liu, Yiliang; Kurten, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Zhang, Xiuhui; Wang, Lin (2020)
    Sulfuric acid (SA)-dimethylamine (DMA)-H2O cluster formation has been proven to be responsible for a significant part of new particle formation (NPF) in a Chinese megacity. However, the possible involvement of common atmospheric acids in the subsequent growth of SA-DMA clusters remains elusive. We simulated formation and growth of clusters using atmospheric relevant concentrations of SA, DMA, and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a commonly observed atmospheric perfluorocarboxylic acid, using Density Functional Theory combined with Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code. The presence of TFA leads to complex cluster formation routes and an enhancement of NPF rates by up to 2.3 ([TFA] = 5.0 x 10(6) molecules cm(-3), [SA] = 1.0 x 10(6) molecules cm(-3), and [DMA] = 1.5 x 10(9) molecules cm(-3)). The agreement of (SA)(1)center dot(DMA)(1-2)center dot(TFA)(1) concentrations between simulations and ambient measurements during NPF events validates model predictions and implies that perfluorocarboxylic acids could potentially boost atmospheric SA-DMA NPF rates.
  • Deshpande, Swapna; Kinnunen, Tarja; Kulathinal, Sangita (2022)
    Objective: To explore long-term trends in height, weight and BMI across birth cohorts among Indian women aged 15-30 years. Design: Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. Setting: Data from three National Family Health Surveys were conducted in 1998-1999, 2005-2006 and 2015-2016. Height and weight were modelled jointly, employing a multivariate regression model with age and birth cohorts as explanatory variables. The largest birth cohort (born 1988-1992) was the reference cohort. Stratified analyses by place of residence and by marital status and dichotomised parity were also performed. Participants: 437 753 non-pregnant women aged 15-30 years. Results: The rate of increase in height, weight and BMI differed across birth cohorts. The rate of increase was much lower for height than weight, which was reflected in an increasing trend in BMI across all birth cohorts. In the stratified analyses, increase in height was found to be similar across urban and rural areas. Rural women born in the latest birth cohort (1998-2001) were lighter, whereas urban women were heavier compared to the reference cohort. A relatively larger increase in regression coefficients was observed among women born between 1978 and 1982 compared to women born between 1973 and 1977 when considering unmarried and nulliparous ever-married women and, one cohort later (1983-1987 v. 1978-1982), among parous ever-married women. Conclusion: As the rate of increase was much larger for weight than for height, increasing trends in BMI were observed across the birth cohorts. Thus, cohort effects show an important contributory role in explaining increasing trends in BMI among young Indian women.
  • Vilhunen, Elisa; Turkkila, Miikka; Lavonen, Jari; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Juuti, Kalle (2022)
    Epistemic emotions (surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration and boredom) have an object focus on knowledge or knowledge construction and are thus hypothesized to affect learning outcomes. In the context of upper secondary school science, the present study clarifies this relation by examining the students' pre- and posttest performance (n = 148 students) and their experiences of situational epistemic emotions (n = 1801 experience sampling method observations). As expected, epistemic emotions correlated with both pre- and posttest performance: curiosity and enjoyment correlated positively, and frustration and boredom correlated negatively with the performance. However, based on structural equation modeling, after controlling for the pretest performance, only boredom was found to have a significant negative effect on posttest performance. The findings underline the complexity of the interplay between emotions and learning. Thus, the state versus trait nature of epistemic emotions, and the implications for research and practice are being discussed.
  • Tauriainen, Asta; Hyvarinen, Anna; Raitio, Arimatias; Sankilampi, Ulla; Gärding, Mikko; Tauriainen, Tuomas; Helenius, Ilkka; Vanamo, Kari (2021)
  • Bijwaard, Govert E.; Myrskylä, Mikko; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn (2017)
    A negative educational gradient has been found for many causes of death. This association may be partly explained by confounding factors that affect both educational attainment and mortality. We correct the cause-specific educational gradient for observed individual background and unobserved family factors using an innovative method based on months lost due to a specific cause of death re-weighted by the probability of attaining a higher educational level. We use data on men with brothers from the Swedish Military Conscription Registry (1951-1983), linked to administrative registers. This dataset of some 700,000 men allows us to distinguish between five education levels and many causes of death. The empirical results reveal that raising the educational level from primary to tertiary would result in an additional 20 months of survival between ages 18 and 63. This improvement in mortality is mainly attributable to fewer deaths from external causes. The highly educated gain more than nine months due to the reduction in deaths from external causes, but gain only two months due to the reduction in cancer mortality and four months due to the reduction in cardiovascular mortality. Ignoring confounding would lead to an underestimation of the gains by educational attainment, especially for the less educated. Our results imply that if the education distribution of 50,000 Swedish men from the 1951 cohort were replaced with that of the corresponding 1983 cohort, 22% of the person-years that were lost to death between ages 18 and 63 would have been saved for this cohort. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • MINIBALL Collaboration; HIE-ISOLDE Collaboration; Rosiak, D.; Seidlitz, M.; Reiter, P.; Naidja, H.; Tsunoda, Y.; Togashi, T.; Nowacki, F.; Otsuka, T.; Colo, G.; Arnswald, K.; Berry, T.; Blazhev, A.; Borge, M. J. G.; Cederkall, J.; Cox, D. M.; De Witte, H.; Gaffney, L. P.; Henrich, C.; Hirsch, R.; Huyse, M.; Illana, A.; Johnston, K.; Kaya, L.; Kroell, Th.; Benito, M. L. Lozano; Ojala, J.; Pakarinen, J.; Queiser, M.; Rainovski, G.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Siebeck, B.; Siesling, E.; Snall, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Vogt, A.; von Schmid, M.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Zell, K. O. (2018)
    The first 2(+) and 3(-) states of the doubly magic nucleus Sn-132 are populated via safe Coulomb excitation employing the recently commissioned HIE-ISOLDE accelerator at CERN in conjunction with the highly efficient MINIBALL array. The Sn-132 ions are accelerated to an energy of 5.49 MeV/nucleon and impinged on a Pb-206 target. Deexciting gamma rays from the low-lying excited states of the target and the projectile are recorded in coincidence with scattered particles. The reduced transition strengths are determined for the transitions 0(g.s)(+) -> 2(1)(+), 0(g.s)(+) -> 3(1)(-), and 2(1)(+) -> 3(1)(-) in Sn-132. The results on these states provide crucial information on cross-shell configurations which are determined within large-scale shell-model and Monte Carlo shell-model calculations as well as from random-phase approximation and relativistic random-phase approximation. The locally enhanced B(E2; 0(g.s)(+) -> 2(1)(+)) strength is consistent with the microscopic description of the structure of the respective states within all theoretical approaches. The presented results of experiment and theory can be considered to be the first direct verification of the sphericity and double magicity of Sn-132.
  • IDS Collaboration; Lica, R.; Greenlees, P. T.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P. (2018)
    The occurrence of octupolar shapes in the Ba isotopic chain was recently established experimentally up to N = 90. To further extend the systematics, the evolution of shapes in the most neutron-rich members of the Z = 56 isotopic chain accessible at present, Ba-148,Ba-150, has been studied via beta decay at the ISOLDE Decay Station. This paper reports on the first measurement of the positive-and negative-parity low-spin excited states of 150Ba and presents an extension of the beta-decay scheme of Cs-148. Employing the fast timing technique, half-lives for the 2(1)(+) level in both nuclei have been determined, resulting in T-1/2 = 1.51(1) ns for Ba-148 and T-1/2 = 3.4(2) ns for Ba-150. The systematics of low-spin states, together with the experimental determination of the B(E2 : 2(+) -> 0(+)) transition probabilities, indicate an increasing collectivity in Ba148-150, towards prolate deformed shapes. The experimental data are compared to symmetry conserving configuration mixing (SCCM) calculations, confirming an evolution of increasingly quadrupole deformed shapes with a definite octupolar character.
  • Äystö, J.; Behr, K. -H.; Benlliure, J.; Bracco, A.; Egelhof, P.; Fomichev, A.; Gales, S.; Geissel, H.; Grahn, T.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hayano, R.; Heinz, S.; Itahashi, K.; Jokinen, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Lenske, H.; Mukha, I.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Pfutzner, M.; Plass, W.; Prochazka, A.; Purushothaman, S.; Saito, T.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Toki, H.; Trache, L.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Winkler, M.; Zamfir, V.; Super-FRS Collaboration NUSTAR (2016)
    The physics program at the super-conducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) at FAIR, being operated in a multiple-stage, high-resolution spectrometer mode, is discussed. The Super-FRS will produce, separate and transport radioactive beams at high energies up to 1.5 AGeV, and it can be also used as a stand-alone experimental device together with ancillary detectors. Various combinations of the magnetic sections of the Super-FRS can be operated in dispersive, achromatic or dispersion-matched spectrometer ion-optical modes, which allow measurements of momentum distributions of secondary-reaction products with high resolution and precision. A number of unique experiments in atomic, nuclear and hadron physics are suggested with the Super-FRS as a stand-alone device, in particular searches for new isotopes, studies of hyper-nuclei, delta-resonances in exotic nuclei and spectroscopy of atoms characterized by bound mesons. Rare decay modes like multiple-proton or neutron emission and the nuclear tensor force observed in high momentum regime can be also addressed. The in-flight radioactivity measurements as well as fusion, transfer and deep-inelastic reaction mechanisms with the slowed-down and energy-bunched fragment beams are proposed for the high-resolution and energy buncher modes at the Super-FRS. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • ARISE Investigators; Luethi, Nora; Bailey, Michael; Harjola, V-P; Okkonen, M.; Pettilä, V.; Sutinen, E.; Wilkman, E. (2020)
    Purpose: To assess the impact of gender and pre-menopausal state on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with septic shock. Material and methods: Cohort study of the Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) trial, an international randomized controlled trial comparing early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) to usual care in patients with early septic shock, conducted between October 2008 and April 2014. The primary exposure in this analysis was legal gender and the secondary exposure was pre-menopausal state defined by chronological age ( Results: 641 (40.3%) of all 1591 ARISE trial participants in the intention-to-treat population were females and overall, 337 (21.2%) (146 females) patients were 50 years of age or younger. After risk-adjustment, we could not identify any survival benefit for female patients at day 90 in the younger (50 years) age-group (aOR: 1.10 (0.81-1.49), p = .56). Similarly, there was no gender-difference in ICU, hospital, 1-year mortality nor quality of life measures. Conclusions: This post-hoc analysis of a large multi-center trial in early septic shock has shown no short- or long-term survival effect for women overall as well as in the pre-menopausal age-group. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Leikas, Sointu; Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani (2017)
    ObjectiveExperience sampling studies on Big Five-related behavior show that people display the whole spectrum of each trait in their daily behavior, and that desirable Big Five statesespecially state Extraversionare related to positive mood. However, other research lines suggest that extraverted and conscientious behavior may be mentally depleting. The present research examined this possibility by extending the time frame of the measured personality processes. MethodA 12-day experience sampling study (N=48; observations=2,328) measured Big Five states, mood, stress, and fatigue five times a day. ResultsExtraverted and conscientious behavior were concurrently related to positive mood and lower fatigue, but to higher fatigue after a 3-hour delay. These relations were not moderated by personality traits. The relation between extraverted behavior and delayed fatigue was mediated by the number of people the person had encountered. Whether the person had a goal mediated the relation between conscientious behavior and delayed fatigue. ConclusionExtraverted and conscientious behavior predict mental depletion after a 3-hour delay. The results help reconcile previous findings regarding the consequences of state Extraversion and provide novel information about the consequences of state Conscientiousness.
  • Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar; Dieperink, Hans; Honkanen, Eero; Melin, Jan; Selvig, Kristian; Lundberg, Johan (2017)
    Background. A limited number of studies have assessed health related quality of life (HRQoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Results to date have been conflicting and studies have generally focused on patients with later stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess HRQoL in ADPKD across all stages of the disease, from patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) to patients with end-stage renal disease. Methods. A study involving cross-sectional patient-reported outcomes and retrospective clinical data was undertaken April December 2014 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Patients were enrolled into four mutually exclusive stages of the disease: CKD stages 1-3; CKD stages 4-5; transplant recipients; and dialysis patients. Results. Overall HRQoL was generally highest in patients with CKD stages 1-3, followed by transplant recipients, patients with CKD stages 4-5 and patients on dialysis. Progressive disease predominately had an impact on physical health, whereas mental health showed less variation between stages of the disease. A substantial loss in quality of life was observed as patients progressed to CKD stages 4-5. Conclusions. Later stages of ADPKD are associated with reduced physical health. The value of early treatment interventions that can delay progression of the disease should be considered.
  • Takala, Jukka; Moser, André; Reinikainen, Matti; Varpula, Tero; Raj, Rahul; Jakob, Stephan M. (2022)
    Purpose: The resource use of cardiac surgery and neurosurgery patients likely differ from other ICU patients. We evaluated the relevance of these patient groups on overall ICU resource use. Methods: Secondary analysis of 69,862 patients in 17 ICUs in Finland, Estonia, and Switzerland in 2015–2017. Direct costs of care were allocated to patients using daily Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS) scores and ICU length of stay (LOS). The ratios of observed to severity-adjusted expected resource use (standardized resource use ratios; SRURs), direct costs and outcomes were assessed before and after excluding cardiac surgery or cardiac and neurosurgery. Results: Cardiac surgery and neurosurgery, performed only in university hospitals, represented 22% of all ICU admissions and 15–19% of direct costs. Cardiac surgery and neurosurgery were excluded with no consistent effect on SRURs in the whole cohort, regardless of cost separation method. Excluding cardiac surgery or cardiac surgery plus neurosurgery had highly variable effects on SRURs of individual university ICUs, whereas the non-university ICU SRURs decreased. Conclusions: Cardiac and neurosurgery have major effects on the cost structure of multidisciplinary ICUs. Extending SRUR analysis to patient subpopulations facilitates comparison of resource use between ICUs and may help to optimize resource allocation.
  • GBD 2016 Healthcare Access & Qua (2018)
    Background A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016. Methods Drawing from established methods and updated estimates from GBD 2016, we used 32 causes from which death should not occur in the presence of effective care to approximate personal health-care access and quality by location and over time. To better isolate potential effects of personal health-care access and quality from underlying risk factor patterns, we risk-standardised cause-specific deaths due to non-cancers by location-year, replacing the local joint exposure of environmental and behavioural risks with the global level of exposure. Supported by the expansion of cancer registry data in GBD 2016, we used mortality-to-incidence ratios for cancers instead of risk-standardised death rates to provide a stronger signal of the effects of personal health care and access on cancer survival. We transformed each cause to a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the first percentile (worst) observed between 1990 and 2016, and 100 as the 99th percentile (best); we set these thresholds at the country level, and then applied them to subnational locations. We applied a principal components analysis to construct the HAQ Index using all scaled cause values, providing an overall score of 0-100 of personal health-care access and quality by location over time. We then compared HAQ Index levels and trends by quintiles on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary measure of overall development. As derived from the broader GBD study and other data sources, we examined relationships between national HAQ Index scores and potential correlates of performance, such as total health spending per capita. Findings In 2016, HAQ Index performance spanned from a high of 97.1 (95% UI 95.8-98.1) in Iceland, followed by 96.6 (94.9-97.9) in Norway and 96.1 (94.5-97.3) in the Netherlands, to values as low as 18.6 (13.1-24.4) in the Central African Republic, 19.0 (14.3-23.7) in Somalia, and 23.4 (20.2-26.8) in Guinea-Bissau. The pace of progress achieved between 1990 and 2016 varied, with markedly faster improvements occurring between 2000 and 2016 for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia, whereas several countries in Latin America and elsewhere saw progress stagnate after experiencing considerable advances in the HAQ Index between 1990 and 2000. Striking subnational disparities emerged in personal health-care access and quality, with China and India having particularly large gaps between locations with the highest and lowest scores in 2016. In China, performance ranged from 91.5 (89.1-936) in Beijing to 48.0 (43.4-53.2) in Tibet (a 43.5-point difference), while India saw a 30.8-point disparity, from 64.8 (59.6-68.8) in Goa to 34.0 (30.3-38.1) in Assam. Japan recorded the smallest range in subnational HAQ performance in 2016 (a 4.8-point difference), whereas differences between subnational locations with the highest and lowest HAQ Index values were more than two times as high for the USA and three times as high for England. State-level gaps in the HAQ Index in Mexico somewhat narrowed from 1990 to 2016 (from a 20.9-point to 17.0-point difference), whereas in Brazil, disparities slightly increased across states during this time (a 17.2-point to 20.4-point difference). Performance on the HAQ Index showed strong linkages to overall development, with high and high-middle SDI countries generally having higher scores and faster gains for non-communicable diseases. Nonetheless, countries across the development spectrum saw substantial gains in some key health service areas from 2000 to 2016, most notably vaccine-preventable diseases. Overall, national performance on the HAQ Index was positively associated with higher levels of total health spending per capita, as well as health systems inputs, but these relationships were quite heterogeneous, particularly among low-to-middle SDI countries. Interpretation GBD 2016 provides a more detailed understanding of past success and current challenges in improving personal health-care access and quality worldwide. Despite substantial gains since 2000, many low-SDI and middle-SDI countries face considerable challenges unless heightened policy action and investments focus on advancing access to and quality of health care across key health services, especially non-communicable diseases. Stagnating or minimal improvements experienced by several low-middle to high-middle SDI countries could reflect the complexities of re-orienting both primary and secondary health-care services beyond the more limited foci of the Millennium Development Goals. Alongside initiatives to strengthen public health programmes, the pursuit of universal health coverage upon improving both access and quality worldwide, and thus requires adopting a more comprehensive view and subsequent provision of quality health care for all populations. Copyright (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • IDS Collaboration; Lica, R. (2019)
    The structure of Si-34 was studied through gamma spectroscopy separately in the beta(-) decays of Mg-34 and Al-34 at the ISOLDE facility of CERN. Different configurations in Si-34 were populated independently from the two recently identified beta-decaying states in Al-34 having spin-parity assignments J(pi) = 4(-) dominated by the normal configuration pi(d(5/2))(-1) circle times nu(f(7/2)) and J(pi) = 1(+) by the intruder configuration pi(d(5/2))(-1) circle times nu(d(3/2))(-1) (f(7/2))(2). The paper reports on spectroscopic properties of Si-34 such as an extended level scheme, spin and parity assignments based on log(ft) values and gamma-ray branching ratios, absolute beta feeding intensities, and neutron emission probabilities. A total of 11 newly identified levels and 26 transitions were added to the previously known level scheme of Si-34. Large scale shell-model calculations using the SDPF-U-MIX interaction, able to treat higher order intruder configurations, are compared with the new results and conclusions are drawn concerning the predictive power of SDPF-U-MIX, the N = 20 shell gap, the level of mixing between normal and intruder configurations for the 0(1)(+), 0(2)(+), and 2(1)(+) states, and the absence of triaxial deformation in Si-3(4).
  • Zhang, Yuqing; Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Agoritsas, Thomas; Ayeni, Olufemi R.; Alexander, Paul; Imam, Maha; Yoo, Daniel; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Thabane, Lehana; Schuenemann, Holger; Guyatt, Gordon H. (2014)
  • Bockerman, Petri; Haapanen, Mika; Hakulinen, Christian; Vainiomaki, Jari (2021)
    Background: The secular decline in labor market participation and the concurrent increase in opioid use in many developed countries have sparked a policy debate on the possible connection between these two trends. We examined whether the use of prescription opioids was connected to labor market outcomes relating to partici-pation, employment and unemployment among the Finnish population. Methods: The working-age population (aged 19-64 years) living in Finland during the period 1995-2016 was used in the analyses (consisting of 67 903 701 person-year observations). Lagged values of prescription opioid use per capita were used as the exposure. Instrumental variables (IV) estimation method was used to identify causal effects, where opioid use per capita for the elderly (65-95-year-old) was used as an instrument for the opioid use per capita for the working-age population of the same gender, education and region. Results: Increased opioid use led to worse labor market outcomes in the long run, with the effect size of 16 % and 20 %, compared to the standard deviation of the employment and participation rates. On the contrary, in the short run, increased opioid use had positive employment effects. Conclusions: Policymakers should take the contradictory short-and long-term effects into account while considering regulation and monitoring of opioid use. Regulating and monitoring long-term prescription opioids is crucial for reducing their negative labor market consequences.
  • Donvil, Brecht; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo (2022)
    Master equations are one of the main avenues to study open quantum systems. When the master equation is of the Lindblad-Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan form, its solution can be "unraveled in quantum trajectories" i.e., represented as an average over the realizations of a Markov process in the Hilbert space of the system. Quantum trajectories of this type are both an element of quantum measurement theory as well as a numerical tool for systems in large Hilbert spaces. We prove that general time-local and trace-preserving master equations also admit an unraveling in terms of a Markov process in the Hilbert space of the system. The crucial ingredient is to weigh averages by a probability pseudo-measure which we call the "influence martingale". The influence martingale satisfies a 1d stochastic differential equation enslaved to the ones governing the quantum trajectories. We thus extend the existing theory without increasing the computational complexity. Quantum trajectory frameworks describe systems weakly coupled to their environment. Here, by including an extra 1D variable in the dynamics, the authors introduce a quantum trajectory framework for time local master equations derived at strong coupling while keeping the computational complexity under control.
  • Sotty, C.; Zielinska, M.; Georgiev, G.; Balabanski, D. L.; Stuchbery, A. E.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Chevrier, R.; Das Gupta, S.; Daugas, J. M.; Davinson, T.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Gaffney, L. P.; Geibel, K.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Kondev, F. G.; Konki, J.; Kroell, T.; Morel, P.; Napiorkowski, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Reiter, P.; Scheck, M.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Simpson, G.; Toernqvist, H.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F. (2015)
    Excited states of the neutron-rich nuclei Rb-97,Rb- 99 were populated for the first time using the multistep Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams. Comparisons of the results with particle-rotor model calculations provide clear identification for the ground-state rotational band of Rb-97 as being built on the pi g(9/2) [431] 3/2(+) Nilsson-model configuration. The ground-state excitation spectra of the Rb isotopes show a marked distinction between single-particle-like structures below N = 60 and rotational bands above. The present study defines the limits of the deformed region around A similar to 100 and indicates that the deformation of Rb-97 is essentially the same as that observed well inside the deformed region. It further highlights the power of the Coulomb-excitation technique for obtaining spectroscopic information far from stability. The Rb-99 case demonstrates the challenges of studies with very short-lived postaccelerated radioactive beams.
  • Kern, R.; Zidarova, R.; Pietralla, N.; Rainovski, G.; Stegmann, R.; Blazhev, A.; Boukhari, A.; Cederkall, J.; Cubiss, J. G.; Djongolov, M.; Fransen, C.; Gaffney, L. P.; Gladnishki, K.; Giannopoulos, E.; Hess, H.; Jolie, J.; Karayonchev, V.; Kaya, L.; Keatings, J. M.; Kocheva, D.; Kroell, Th; Möller, O.; O'Neill, G. G.; Pakarinen, J.; Reiter, P.; Rosiak, D.; Scheck, M.; Snäll, J.; Söderström, P.-A.; Spagnoletti, P.; Stoyanova, M.; Thiel, S.; Vogt, A.; Warr, N.; Welker, A.; Werner, M.; Wiederhold, J.; De Witte, H. (2020)
    A projectile Coulomb-excitation experiment was performed at the radioactive-ion beam facility HIE-ISOLDE at CERN to obtain E2 and M1 transition matrix elements of Nd-140 using the multistep Coulomb-excitation code GOSIA. The absolute M1 strengths, B(M1; 2(2)(-) -> 2(1)(+)) = 0.033(8)mu(2)(N), B(M1 ; 2(3)(+) -> 2(1)(+)) = 0.26(-0.10)(+0.11)mu(2)(N), and B(M1; 2(4)+ -> 2(1)(+)) <0.04 mu(2)(N) identify the 2(3)(+) state as the main fragment of the one-quadrupole-phonon proton-neutron mixed-symmetry state of Nd-140. The degree of F-spin mixing in Nd-140 was quantified with the determination of the mixing matrix element VF-mix <7(-7)(-13) keV.