Browsing by Subject "STATIONS"

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  • Manninen, Antti J.; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Vakkari, Ville; Petäjä, Tuukka (2016)
    Current commercially available Doppler lidars provide an economical and robust solution for measuring vertical and horizontal wind velocities, together with the ability to provide co- and cross-polarised backscatter profiles. The high temporal resolution of these instruments allows turbulent properties to be obtained from studying the variation in radial velocities. However, the instrument specifications mean that certain characteristics, especially the background noise behaviour, become a limiting factor for the instrument sensitivity in regions where the aerosol load is low. Turbulent calculations require an accurate estimate of the contribution from velocity uncertainty estimates, which are directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio. Any bias in the signal-to-noise ratio will propagate through as a bias in turbulent properties. In this paper we present a method to correct for artefacts in the background noise behaviour of commercially available Doppler lidars and reduce the signal-to-noise ratio threshold used to discriminate between noise, and cloud or aerosol signals. We show that, for Doppler lidars operating continuously at a number of locations in Finland, the data availability can be increased by as much as 50% after performing this background correction and subsequent reduction in the threshold. The reduction in bias also greatly improves subsequent calculations of turbulent properties in weak signal regimes.
  • Kristensson, Adam; Johansson, Martin; Swietlicki, Erik; Kivekas, Niku; Hussein, Tareq; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kulmala, Markku; Dal Maso, Miikka (2014)
    Particle number size distributions at various field sites are used to identify atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF) event days. However, the spatial distribution of regionally extensive events is unknown. To remedy this situation, the NanoMap method has been developed to enable the estimation of where NPF occurs within 500 km from any field station using as input size distribution and meteorological trajectories only. Also, the horizontal extension of NPF can be determined. An open-source program to run NanoMap is available on the internet. NanoMap has been developed using as an example the Finnish field site at Hyytiala. It shows that there are frequent NPF events over the Baltic Sea, but not as frequent as over Finland for certain wind directions; hence NanoMap is able to pinpoint areas with a low or high occurrence of NPF events. The method should be applicable to almost any field site.