Browsing by Subject "STEM-CELLS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 96
  • Harma, Ville; Virtanen, Johannes; Mäkelä, Rami; Happonen, Antti; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Knuuttila, Matias; Kohonen, Pekka; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Kallioniemi, Olli; Nees, Matthias (2010)
  • Barmaki, Samineh; Jokinen, Ville; Obermaier, Daniela; Blokhina, Daria; Korhonen, Matti; Ras, Robin H. A.; Vuola, Jyrki; Franssila, Sami; Kankuri, Esko (2018)
    Physiological oxygen levels within the tissue microenvironment are usually lower than 14%, in stem cell niches these levels can be as low as 0-1%. In cell cultures, such low oxygen levels are usually mimicked by altering the global culture environment either by O-2 removal (vacuum or oxygen absorption) or by N-2 supplementation for O-2 replacement. To generate a targeted cellular hypoxic microenvironment under ambient atmospheric conditions, we characterised the ability of the dissolved oxygen-depleting sodium sulfite to generate an in-liquid oxygen sink. We utilised a microfluidic design to place the cultured cells in the vertical oxygen gradient and to physically separate the cells from the liquid. We demonstrate generation of a chemical in-liquid oxygen sink that modifies the surrounding O-2 concentrations. O-2 level control in the sink-generated hypoxia gradient is achievable by varying the thickness of the polydimethylsiloxane membrane. We show that intracellular hypoxia and hypoxia response element-dependent signalling is instigated in cells exposed to the microfluidic in-liquid O-2 sink-generated hypoxia gradient. Moreover, we show that microfluidic flow controls site-specific microenvironmental kinetics of the chemical O-2 sink reaction, which enables generation of intermittent hypoxia/re-oxygenation cycles. The microfluidic O-2 sink chip targets hypoxia to the cell culture microenvironment exposed to the microfluidic channel architecture solely by depleting O-2 while other sites in the same culture well remain unaffected. Thus, responses of both hypoxic and bystander cells can be characterised. Moreover, control of microfluidic flow enables generation of intermittent hypoxia or hypoxia/re-oxygenation cycles. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.
  • Itokazu, Yutaka; Tajima, Nobuyoshi; Kerosuo, Laura; Somerharju, Pentti; Sariola, Hannu; Yu, Robert K.; Kakela, Reijo (2016)
    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors multiple glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressing cell types. In addition to the most abundant cell type of the CNS, the astrocytes, various stem cells and progenitor cells also contain GFAP+ populations. Here, in order to distinguish between two types of GFAP expressing cells with or without the expression of the A2B5 antigens, we performed lipidomic analyses on A2B5+/GFAP+ and A2B5-/GFAP+ cells from rat spinal cord. First, A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors were exposed to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to induce their differentiation to A2B5+/GFAP+ cells or A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes, respectively. The cells were then analyzed for changes in their phospholipid, sphingolipid or acyl chain profiles by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Compared to A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes contained higher amounts of ether phospholipids (especially the species containing arachidonic acid) and sphingomyelin, which may indicate characteristics of cellular differentiation and inability for multipotency. In comparison, principal component analyses revealed that the lipid composition of A2B5+/GFAP+ cells retained many of the characteristics of A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, but their lipid profile was different from that of A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes. Thus, our study demonstrated that two GFAP+ cell populations have distinct lipid profiles with the A2B5+/GFAP+ cells sharing a phospholipid profile with progenitors rather than astrocytes. The progenitor cells may require regulated low levels of lipids known to mediate signaling functions in differentiated cells, and the precursor lipid profiles may serve as one measure of the differentiation capacity of a cell population.
  • Sola-Carvajal, Agustin; Revechon, Gwladys; Helgadottir, Hafdis T.; Whisenant, Daniel; Hagblom, Robin; Döhla, Julia; Katajisto, Pekka; Brodin, David; Fagerstrom-Billai, Fredrik; Viceconte, Nikenza; Eriksson, Maria (2019)
    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is the result of a defective form of the lamin A protein called progerin. While progerin is known to disrupt the properties of the nuclear lamina, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiology of HGPS remain less clear. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that progerin expression in murine epidermal basal cells results in impaired stratification and halted development of the skin. Stratification and differentiation of the epidermis is regulated by asymmetric stem cell division. Here, we show that expression of progerin impairs the ability of stem cells to maintain tissue homeostasis as a result of altered cell division. Quantification of basal skin cells showed an increase in symmetric cell division that correlated with progerin accumulation in HGPS mice. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon revealed a putative role of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Further analysis suggested an alteration in the nuclear translocation of beta-catenin involving the inner and outer nuclear membrane proteins, emerin and nesprin-2. Taken together, our results suggest a direct involvement of progerin in the transmission of Wnt signaling and normal stem cell division. These insights into the molecular mechanisms of progerin may help develop new treatment strategies for HGPS.
  • Yu, Nancy Y.; Bieder, Andrea; Raman, Amitha; Mileti, Enrichetta; Katayama, Shintaro; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Falk, Anna; Tapia-Paez, Isabel; Daub, Carsten O.; Kere, Juha (2017)
    Caffeine is a widely consumed psychoactive substance, but little is known about the effects of caffeine stimulation on global gene expression changes in neurons. Here, we conducted gene expression profiling of human neuroepithelial stem cell-derived neurons, stimulated with normal consumption levels of caffeine (3 mu M and 10 mu M), over a period of 9 h. We found dosage-dependent activation of immediate early genes after 1 h. Neuronal projection development processes were up-regulated and negative regulation of axon extension processes were down-regulated at 3 h. In addition, genes involved in extracellular matrix organization, response for wound healing, and regulation of immune system processes were down-regulated by caffeine at 3 h. This study identified novel genes within the neuronal projection guidance pathways that respond to acute caffeine stimulation and suggests potential mechanisms for the effects of caffeine on neuronal cells.
  • Kilpinen, Lotta; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Oja, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Parmar, Amarjit; Saavalainen, Päivi Marjaana; Nikkilä, Janne Tapio; Korhonen, Matti; Lehenkari, Petri; Käkelä, Reijo; Laitinen, Saara (2013)
  • Oja, S.; Komulainen, P.; Penttilä, A.; Nystedt, J.; Korhonen, M. (2018)
    Background: Senescent cells are undesirable in cell therapy products due to reduced therapeutic activity and risk of aberrant cellular effects, and methods for assessing senescence are needed. Early-passage mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are known to be small and spindle-shaped but become enlarged upon cell aging. Indeed, cell morphology is routinely evaluated during MSC production using subjective methods. We have therefore explored the possibility of utilizing automated imaging-based analysis of cell morphology in clinical cell manufacturing. Methods: An imaging system was adopted for analyzing changes in cell morphology of bone marrow-derived MSCs during long-term culture. Cells taken from the cultures at the desired passages were plated at low density for imaging, representing morphological changes observed in the clinical-grade cultures. The manifestations of aging and onset of senescence were monitored by population doubling numbers, expression of p16(INK4)a and p21(Cip1/Waf1), beta-galactosidase activity, and telomeric terminal restriction fragment analysis. Results: Cell area was the most statistically significant and practical parameter for describing morphological changes, correlating with biochemical senescence markers. MSCs from passages 1 (p1) and 3 (p3) were remarkably uniform in size, with cell areas between 1800 and 2500 mu m(2). At p5 the cells began to enlarge resulting in a 4.8-fold increase at p6-9 as compared to p1. The expression of p16(INK4a) and activity of beta-galactosidase had a strong correlation with the increase in cell area, whereas the expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1) reached its maximum at the onset of growth arrest and subsequently decreased. Mean telomere length shortened at an apparently constant rate during culture, from 8.2 +/- 0.3 kbp at p1, reaching 6.08 +/- 0.6 kbp at senescence. Conclusions: Imaging analysis of cell morphology is a useful tool for evaluating aging in cell cultures throughout the lifespan of MSCs. Our findings suggest that imaging analysis can reproducibly detect aging-related changes in cell morphology in MSC cultures. These findings suggest that cell morphology is still a supreme measure of cell quality and may be utilized to develop new noninvasive imaging-based methods to screen and quantitate aging in clinical-grade cell cultures.
  • Hou, Mi; Eriksson, Emma; Svechnikov, Konstantin; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Soder, Olle; Meinhardt, Andreas; Savendahl, Lars (2014)
  • Talman, Virpi; Kivelä, Milla Riikka (2018)
    The heart is a complex organ consisting of various cell types, each of which plays an important role in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The cells communicate with each other through direct cell-cell interactions and paracrine signaling, and both homotypic and heterotypic cell interactions contribute to the organized structure and proper function of the heart. Cardiomyocytes (CMs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are two of the most abundant cardiac cell types and they also play central roles in both cardiac remodeling and regeneration. The postnatal cell cycle withdrawal of CMs, which takes place within days or weeks after birth, represents the major barrier for regeneration in adult mammalian hearts, as adult CMs exhibit a very low proliferative capacity. Recent evidence highlights the importance of ECs not only as the most abundant cell type in the heart but also as key players in post-infarction remodeling and regeneration. In this MiniReview, we focus on blood vascular ECs and CMs and their roles and interactions in cardiac physiology and pathologies, with a special emphasis on cardiac regeneration. We summarize the known mediators of the bidirectional CM-EC interactions and discuss the related recent advances in the development of therapies aiming to promote heart repair and regeneration targeting these two cell types.
  • Landberg, Niklas; von Palffy, Sofia; Askmyr, Maria; Lilljebjorn, Henrik; Sanden, Carl; Rissler, Marianne; Mustjoki, Satu; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Richter, Johan; Agerstam, Helena; Jaras, Marcus; Fioretos, Thoas (2018)
    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are highly effective for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but very few patients are cured. The major drawbacks regarding TKIs are their low efficacy in eradicating the leukemic stem cells responsible for disease maintenance and relapse upon drug cessation. Herein, we performed ribonucleic acid sequencing of flow-sorted primitive (CD34(+) CD38(low)) and progenitor (CD34(+) CD38(+)) chronic phase CML cells, and identified transcriptional upregulation of 32 cell surface molecules relative to corresponding normal bone marrow cells. Focusing on novel markers with increased expression on primitive CML cells, we confirmed upregulation of the scavenger receptor CD36 and the leptin receptor by flow cytometry. We also delineate a subpopulation of primitive CML cells expressing CD36 that is less sensitive to imatinib treatment. Using CD36 targeting anti-bodies, we show that the CD36 positive cells can be targeted and killed by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In summary, CD36 defines a subpopulation of primitive CML cells with decreased imatinib sensitivity that can be effectively targeted and killed using an anti-CD36 anti-body.
  • Wickstroem, Sara A.; Niessen, Carien M. (2018)
    Biological patterns emerge through specialization of genetically identical cells to take up distinct fates according to their position within the organism. How initial symmetry is broken to give rise to these patterns remains an intriguing open question. Several theories of patterning have been proposed, most prominently Turing's reaction-diffusion model of a slowly diffusing activator and a fast diffusing inhibitor generating periodic patterns. Although these reaction-diffusion systems can generate diverse patterns, it is becoming increasingly evident that cell shape and tension anisotropies, mediated via cell-cell and/or cell-matrix contacts, also facilitate symmetry breaking and subsequent self-organized tissue patterning. This review will highlight recent studies that implicate local changes in adhesion and/or tension as key drivers of cell rearrangements. We will also discuss recent studies on the role of cadherin and integrin adhesive receptors in mediating and responding to local tissue tension asymmetries to coordinate cell fate, position and behavior essential for tissue self-organization and maintenance.
  • Madissoon, Elo; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Vesterlund, Liselotte; Tohonen, Virpi; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Petropoulos, Sophie; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Linnarssons, Sten; Lanner, Fredrik; Mansson, Robert; Hovatta, Outi; Burglin, Thomas R.; Katayama, Shintaro; Kere, Juha (2016)
    PAIRED (PRD)-like homeobox genes belong to a class of predicted transcription factor genes. Several of these PRD-like homeobox genes have been predicted in silico from genomic sequence but until recently had no evidence of transcript expression. We found recently that nine PRD-like homeobox genes, ARGFX, CPHX1, CPHX2, DPRX, DUXA, DUXB, NOBOX, TPRX1 and TPRX2, were expressed in human preimplantation embryos. In the current study we characterized these PRD-like homeobox genes in depth and studied their functions as transcription factors. We cloned multiple transcript variants from human embryos and showed that the expression of these genes is specific to embryos and pluripotent stem cells. Overexpression of the genes in human embryonic stem cells confirmed their roles as transcription factors as either activators (CPHX1, CPHX2, ARGFX) or repressors (DPRX, DUXA, TPRX2) with distinct targets that could be explained by the amino acid sequence in homeodomain. Some PRD-like homeodomain transcription factors had high concordance of target genes and showed enrichment for both developmentally important gene sets and a 36 bp DNA recognition motif implicated in Embryo Genome Activation (EGA). Our data implicate a role for these previously uncharacterized PRD-like homeodomain proteins in the regulation of human embryo genome activation and preimplantation embryo development.
  • Eloranta, Katja; Cairo, Stefano; Liljeström, Emmi; Soini, Tea; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Judde, Jean-Gabriel; Wilson, David B.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Pihlajoki, Marjut (2020)
    Background:Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common pediatric liver malignancy. Despite advances in chemotherapeutic regimens and surgical techniques, the survival of patients with advanced HB remains poor, underscoring the need for new therapeutic approaches. Chloroquine (CQ), a drug used to treat malaria and rheumatologic diseases, has been shown to inhibit the growth and survival of various cancer types. We examined the antineoplastic activity of CQ in cell models of aggressive HB. Methods:Seven human HB cell models, all derived from chemoresistant tumors, were cultured as spheroids in the presence of relevant concentrations of CQ. Morphology, viability, and induction of apoptosis were assessed after 48 and 96 h of CQ treatment. Metabolomic analysis and RT-qPCR based Death Pathway Finder array were used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the CQ effect in a 2-dimensional cell culture format. Quantitative western blotting was performed to validate findings at the protein level. Results:CQ had a significant dose and time dependent effect on HB cell viability both in spheroids and in 2-dimensional cell cultures. Following CQ treatment HB spheroids exhibited increased caspase 3/7 activity indicating the induction of apoptotic cell death. Metabolomic profiling demonstrated significant decreases in the concentrations of NAD(+)and aspartate in CQ treated cells. In further investigations, oxidation of NAD(+)decreased as consequence of CQ treatment and NAD(+)/NADH balance shifted toward NADH. Aspartate supplementation rescued cells from CQ induced cell death. Additionally, downregulated expression of PARP1 and PARP2 was observed. Conclusions:CQ treatment inhibits cell survival in cell models of aggressive HB, presumably by perturbing NAD(+)levels, impairing aspartate bioavailability, and inhibiting PARP expression. CQ thus holds potential as a new agent in the management of HB.
  • Salonius, Eve; Kontturi, Leena; Laitinen, Anita; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Korhonen, Matti; Nystedt, Johanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Muhonen, Virpi (2020)
    Cell therapy combined with biomaterial scaffolds is used to treat cartilage defects. We hypothesized that chondrogenic differentiation bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in three-dimensional biomaterial scaffolds would initiate cartilaginous matrix deposition and prepare the construct for cartilage regeneration in situ. The chondrogenic capability of human BM-MSCs was first verified in a pellet culture. The BM-MSCs were then either seeded onto a composite scaffold rhCo-PLA combining polylactide and collagen type II (C2) or type III (C3), or commercial collagen type I/III membrane (CG). The BM-MSCs were either cultured in a proliferation medium or chondrogenic culture medium. Adult human chondrocytes (ACs) served as controls. After 3, 14, and 28 days, the constructs were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and confocal microscopy and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were measured. The differentiated BM-MSCs entered a hypertrophic state by Day 14 of culture. The ACs showed dedifferentiation with no expression of chondrogenic genes and low amount of GAG. The CG membrane induced the highest expression levels of hypertrophic genes. The two different collagen types in composite scaffolds yielded similar results. Regardless of the biomaterial scaffold, culturing BM-MSCs in chondrogenic differentiation medium resulted in chondrocyte hypertrophy. Thus, caution for cell fate is required when designing cell-biomaterial constructs for cartilage regeneration.
  • Pöhö, Päivi; Lipponen, Katriina; Bespalov, Maxim M.; Sikanen, Tiina; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto (2019)
    In this study, the feasibility of direct infusion electrospray ionization microchip mass spectrometry (chip-MS) was compared to the commonly used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in non-targeted metabolomics analysis of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) reprogrammed from HFF. The total number of the detected features with chip-MS and LC-MS were 619 and 1959, respectively. Approximately 25% of detected features showed statistically significant changes between the cell lines with both analytical methods. The results show that chip-MS is a rapid and simple method that allows high sample throughput from small sample volumes and can detect the main metabolites and classify cells based on their metabolic profiles. However, the selectivity of chip-MS is limited compared to LC-MS and chip-MS may suffer from ion suppression.
  • Tobiasson, Magnus; Abdulkadir, Hani; Lennartsson, Andreas; Katayama, Shintaro; Marabita, Francesco; De Paepe, Ayla; Karimi, Mohsen; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Grovdal, Michael; Jansson, Monika; Ben Azenkoud, Asmaa; Corddedu, Lina; Lehmann, Soren; Ekwall, Karl; Kere, Juha; Hellstrom-Lindberg, Eva; Ungerstedt, Johanna (2017)
    Azacitidine (Aza) is first-line treatment for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), although its precise mechanism of action is unknown. We performed the first study to globally evaluate the epigenetic effects of Aza on MDS bone marrow progenitor cells assessing gene expression (RNA seq), DNA methylation (Illumina 450k) and the histone modifications H3K18ac and H3K9me3 (ChIP seq). Aza induced a general increase in gene expression with 924 significantly upregulated genes but this increase showed no correlation with changes in DNA methylation or H3K18ac, and only a weak association with changes in H3K9me3. Interestingly, we observed activation of transcripts containing 15 endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) confirming previous cell line studies. DNA methylation decreased moderately in 99% of all genes, with a median beta-value reduction of 0.018; the most pronounced effects seen in heterochromatin. Aza-induced hypomethylation correlated significantly with change in H3K9me3. The pattern of H3K18ac and H3K9me3 displayed large differences between patients and healthy controls without any consistent pattern induced by Aza. We conclude that the marked induction of gene expression only partly could be explained by epigenetic changes, and propose that activation of ERVs may contribute to the clinical effects of Aza in MDS.
  • Tapaltsyan, Vagan; Eronen, Jussi T.; Lawing, A. Michelle; Sharir, Amnon; Janis, Christine; Jernvall, Jukka; Klein, Ophir D. (2015)
    The fossil record is widely informative about evolution, but fossils are not systematically used to study the evolution of stem-cell-driven renewal. Here, we examined evolution of the continuous growth (hypselodonty) of rodent molar teeth, which is fuelled by the presence of dental stem cells. We studied occurrences of 3,500 North American rodent fossils, ranging from 50 million years ago (mya) to 2 mya. We examined changes in molar height to determine whether evolution of hypselodonty shows distinct patterns in the fossil record, and we found that hypselodont taxa emerged through intermediate forms of increasing crown height. Next, we designed a Markov simulation model, which replicated molar height increases throughout the Cenozoic and, moreover, evolution of hypselodonty. Thus, by extension, the retention of the adult stem cell niche appears to be a predictable quantitative rather than a stochastic qualitative process. Our analyses predict that hypselodonty will eventually become the dominant phenotype.
  • Deckwirth, Vivi; Rajakylä, Eeva Kaisa; Cattavarayane, Sandhanakrishnan; Acheva, Anna; Schaible, Niccole; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Valle-Delgado, Juan Jose; Osterberg, Monika; Björkenheim, Pia; Sukura, Antti; Tojkander, Sari (2021)
    At invasion, transformed mammary epithelial cells expand into the stroma through a disrupted myoepithelial (ME) cell layer and basement membrane (BM). The intact ME cell layer has thus been suggested to act as a barrier against invasion. Here, we investigate the mechanisms behind the disruption of ME cell layer. We show that the expression of basal/ME proteins CK5, CK14, and alpha-SMA altered along increasing grade of malignancy, and their loss affected the maintenance of organotypic 3D mammary architecture. Furthermore, our data suggests that loss of CK5 prior to invasive stage causes decreased levels of Zinc finger protein SNAI2 (SLUG), a key regulator of the mammary epithelial cell lineage determination. Consequently, a differentiation bias toward luminal epithelial cell type was detected with loss of mature, alpha-SMA-expressing ME cells and reduced deposition of basement membrane protein laminin-5. Therefore, our data discloses the central role of CK5 in mammary epithelial differentiation and maintenance of normal ME layer.
  • Ahtiainen, Laura; Mirantes, Cristina; Jahkola, Tiina; Escutenaire, Sophie; Diaconu, Iulia; Osterlund, Pamela; Kanerva, Anna; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hemminki, Akseli (2010)
  • Christensen, Jon; El-Gebali, Sara; Natoli, Manuela; Sengstag, Thierry; Delorenzi, Mauro; Bentz, Susanne; Bouzourene, Hanifa; Rumbo, Martin; Felsani, Armando; Siissalo, Sanna; Hirvonen, Jouni; Vila, Maya R.; Saletti, Piercarlo; Aguet, Michel; Anderle, Pascale (2012)