Browsing by Subject "STIGMA"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-8 of 8
  • Wasserman, D.; Apter, G.; Baeken, C.; Bailey, S.; Balazs, J.; Bec, C.; Bienkowski, P.; Bobes, J.; Ortiz, M. F. Bravo; Brunn, H.; Boke, O.; Camilleri, N.; Carpiniello, B.; Chihai, J.; Chkonia, E.; Courtet, P.; Cozman, D.; David, M.; Dom, G.; Esanu, A.; Falkai, P.; Flannery, W.; Gasparyan, K.; Gerlinger, G.; Gorwood, P.; Gudmundsson, O.; Hanon, C.; Heinz, A.; Dos Santos, M. J. Heitor; Hedlund, A.; Ismayilov, F.; Ismayilov, N.; Isometsä, E. T.; Izakova, L.; Kleinberg, A.; Kurimay, T.; Reitan, S. Klaebo; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Lehmets, A.; Lindberg, N.; Lundblad, K. A.; Lynch, G.; Maddock, C.; Malt, U. F.; Martin, L.; Martynikhin, I.; Maruta, N. O.; Matthys, F.; Mazaliauskiene, R.; Mihajlovic, G.; Peles, A. Mihaljevic; Miklavic, V.; Mohr, P.; Ferrandis, M. Munarriz; Musalek, M.; Neznanov, N.; Ostorharics-Horvath, G.; Pajevic, I.; Popova, A.; Pregelj, P.; Prinsen, E.; Rados, C.; Roig, A.; Kuzman, M. Rojnic; Samochowiec, J.; Sartorius, N.; Savenko, Y.; Skugarevsky, O.; Slodecki, E.; Soghoyan, A.; Stone, D. S.; Taylor-East, R.; Terauds, E.; Tsopelas, C.; Tudose, C.; Tyano, S.; Vallon, P.; van der Gaag, R. J.; Varandas, P.; Vavrusova, L.; Voloshyn, P.; Wancata, J.; Wise, J.; Zemishlany, Z.; Oncu, F.; Vahip, S. (2020)
    Background. Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care. Methods. The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions. Results. We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures. Conclusions. We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
  • Laakso, Minna; Salmenlinna, Inkeri; Aaltonen, Tarja; Koskela, Inka; Ruusuvuori, Johanna (2019)
    Background To manage conversational breakdowns, individuals with hearing loss (HL) often have to request their interlocutors to repeat or clarify. Aims To examine how middle-aged hearing aid (HA) users manage conversational breakdowns by using open-class repair initiations (e.g., questions such as sorry, what and huh), and whether their use of repair initiations differs from their normally hearing interlocutors. Methods & Procedures Eighteen 45-64-year-old adults with acquired mild to moderate HL participated in the study. The participants were videotaped in everyday interactions at their homes and workplaces and in clinical encounters with hearing health professionals. Interactions were transcribed and open-class repair initiations of participants with HL and their interlocutors were identified using conversation analysis. The frequencies of initiations were analyzed statistically between the groups, and the contexts and structure of repair sequences dealing with communication breakdown were analyzed. Outcomes & Results Before acquiring HA the participants with HL reported intense use of open-class repair initiation. After HAs were acquired, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of open-class repair initiations between HA users and their interlocutors. The most common means for open-class repair initiation in the data was interrogative word mita ('what'). Vocalization ha ('huh'), apologetic expression anteeksi ('sorry') and clausal initiations (e.g., 'what did you say'/'I didn't hear') occurred less often. Open-class repair initiations emerged in contexts where they typically occur in conversation, such as topical shifts, overlapping talk and action, background noise, and disagreements. When used, open-class repair initiations most often led to repetition by the interlocutor, which immediately repaired the conversational breakdown. Long clarification sequences with multiple repair initiations did not occur. Conclusions & Implications Participants with mild to moderate HL using hearing amplification initiate open-class repair similarly to their normally hearing conversational partners when the frequency, types, contexts and structure of repair are considered. The findings diminish the stigma related to HL, HAs and the use of open-class repair. The findings suggest that HA amplifies hearing successfully in everyday conversation when the level of HL is mild to moderate. However, the evidence for the benefit of HAs remains indirect.
  • Aho, Hanna; Pietila, Ilkka; Joronen, Katja (2019)
  • Orsolini, Laura; Rojnic Palavra, Irena; Papanti, Gabriele Duccio; Potocan, Matej; Quattrone, Diego; Martens, Matis; Sklenarova, Sandra; Levola, Jonna; Grichy, Leslie; Naughton, Sean; Grineviciene, Indre Kotryna; Kuiters, Jelly Petra; Gondek, Tomasz M.; Panfil, Anca-Livia; Borovcanin, Milica M.; San Roman Uria, Alberto; Biskup, Ewelina; Sonmez Gungor, Ekin; Casanova Dias, Marisa; Tomori, Sonila; Banjac, Visnja; Marinova-Djambazova, Petra; Pinto da Costa, Mariana (2021)
    Background: Although psychoactive substance use disorders (PSUDs) are a domain of mental health, addiction psychiatry is only formally recognized as a subspecialty in a few European countries, and there is no standardized training curriculum. Methods: A 76-item questionnaire was developed and disseminated through an online anonymous data-collecting system and hand-to-hand amongst psychiatric trainees from the 47 European countries of the Council of Europe plus Israel and Belarus. Results: 1,049/1,118 psychiatric trainees from 30 European countries completed the questionnaire. Fifty-nine-point nine percent of trainees stated to have training in addictions. Amongst the trainees who described having training in addictions, 43% documented a not well-structured training and 37% an unsatisfactory training, mainly due to poor acquired knowledge. Overall, 97% of trainees stated that addiction represents a core curriculum for their training. Overall, general adult psychiatric trainees reported a better knowledge in addictions, compared to trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry. Conclusion: Despite a growing spread of PSUDs in European countries, addiction psychiatry is a relatively poorly trained field within psychiatry training programs. Further research should investigate reasons for poor training and timings of the educational activities to optimize experiential education training in addiction psychiatry.
  • Koutsoklenis, Athanasios; Honkasilta, Juho; Brunila, Kristiina (2020)
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a controversial phenomenon and the link between schooling and the burgeoning occurrence of ADHD diagnoses is problematic. This paper contributes to the discussion regarding the issue by providing a literature review of the evidence on the influence of relative age effect (RAE) on being diagnosed with ADHD. Firstly, the review presents a general cross-national trend for a positive association between relative age and the probability of being diagnosed with ADHD compared to peers, thus showing that the younger-in-class children are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Secondly, this paper outlines and discusses the suggested explanations of the phenomenon as depicted in the reviewed literature. Finally, the paper proceeds to provide alternative frameworks for the explanation of the RAE on ADHD diagnosis that go beyond individual psychopathology and instead take into account the broader social, cultural and political contexts in which the phenomenon takes place.
  • Kiviruusu, Olli; Konttinen, Hanna; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari (2016)
    Purpose This study examined the developmental trajectories of self-esteem and body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to mid-adulthood and the way the association between self-esteem and BMI changed during a 26-year follow-up. Methods Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at 16 years (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471), and 42 (N = 1334) using postal questionnaires. Measures at each time point covered self-esteem and self-reported weight and height. Analyses were done using latent growth curve models (LGM) and difference scores. Results In LGM analyses among females both the initial levels (r = -0.13) and slopes (r = -0.26) of the self-esteem and BMI trajectories correlated negatively. Among males, there were no significant correlations between self-esteem and BMI growth factors. The association between increasing BMI and decreasing self-esteem among females was strongest between ages 22 and 32 (r = -0.16), while among males, increases in BMI and self-esteem correlated positively (r = 0.11) during that period. Among females, cross-sectional correlations between self-esteem and BMI showed an increasing trend (p <0.001) from age 16 (r = -0.07) to age 42 (r = -0.17), whereas among males negative correlation (r = -0.08) emerged only in mid-adulthood at age 42. Conclusion Among females, higher and increasing BMI is associated with lower and more slowly increasing self-esteem. This association is not restricted to adolescent years but persists and gets stronger in mid-adulthood. Among males, associations are weaker but indicate more age-related differences. The results highlight the need for interventions that tackle weight-related stigma and discrimination, especially among women with higher body weight and size.
  • Moseholm, Ellen; Fetters, Micheal D.; Aho, Inka; Mellgren, Åsa; Johansen, Isik S.; Storgaard, Merete; Pedersen, Gitte; Katzenstein, Terese L.; Weis, Nina (2019)
    Introduction The success of combination antiretroviral therapy has decreased the risk of perinatal HIV transmission and normalised pregnancy in women living with HIV (WLWH). Despite these advances, WLWH still face complex medical and psychosocial issues during pregnancy and postpartum, and there is a gap of knowledge on the experiences of becoming and being a mother living with HIV in today's context. The overall aim of this study is to investigate psychosocial outcomes and experiences of WLWH in Scandinavia during pregnancy and early motherhood. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre longitudinal convergent mixed methods study consisting of a quantitative survey study, a qualitative interview study and a mixed methods analysis. The survey study aims to examine psychosocial outcomes of WLWH across the pregnancy - postpartum trajectory. Participants are pregnant WLWH living in Scandinavia. Two control groups of HIV-negative pregnant women and non-pregnant WLWH are also included. Data is collected in the third trimester, 3 and 6 months postpartum using standardised questionnaires. Statistical analysis will assess changes over time and identify predictors of adverse outcomes. The interview study seeks to understand experiences of pregnancy and becoming a mother while living with HIV. Pregnant WLWH who are enrolled in the survey study will be asked to participate in individual interviews in the third trimester and 6 months postpartum. Data will be analysed using narrative analysis. The survey and interview results will be merged in a mixed methods analysis to assess confirmation, expansion or discordance between the data sets. Ethics and dissemination Approval from the Danish Data Protection Agency (VD-2018-253), and the Finnish and Swedish Ethics Committees have been obtained (HUS/1330/2019 and Dnr: 2019-04451, respectively). Study results will be disseminated to patient organisations, through publications in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences.
  • Siltaoja, Marjo; Lahdesmaki, Merja; Granqvist, Nina; Kurki, Sami; Puska, Petteri; Luomala, Harri (2020)
    This study finds that it is possible for organizations in emerging categories to resist stigmatization through discursive reconstruction of the central and distinctive characteristics of the category in question. We examined the emerging market of organic farming in Finland and discovered how resistance to stigmatization was both an internal and an external power struggle in the organic farming community. Over time, the label of organic farming was manipulated and the practice of farming was associated with more conventional and familiar contexts, while the stigma was diverted at the same time to biodynamic farming. We develop a process model for removal of stigma from a nascent category through stigma diversion. We find that stigma diversion forces the core community to (re)define themselves in relation to the excluded community and the mainstream. We also discuss how notoriety can be an individuating phenomenon that helps categorical members conduct identity work and contributes to stigma removal.