Browsing by Subject "STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE"

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  • Peltoniemi, Mikko; Pulkkinen, Minna; Aurela, Mika; Pumpanen, Jukka; Kolari, Pasi; Makela, Annikki (2015)
    Simple approaches to predicting ecosystem fluxes are useful in large-scale applications because existing data rarely support justified use of complex models. We developed a model of daily ecosystem gross primary production (P), evapotranspiration (E), and soil water content (theta), which only requires standard weather data and information about the fraction of absorbed radiation. We estimated the parameters of the model for two boreal Scots pine eddy-covariance sites (Hyytiala and Sodankyla). The model predicted P and E adequately for Hyytiala for both calibration and additional test years. The model calibrated for Hyytiala slightly overestimated P and E in Sodankyla, but its performance levelled with the model calibrated for Sodankyla in a dry year. Sensitivity analysis of the model implied that drought prediction is sensitive, not only to key E submodel parameters, but also to P submodel parameters. Further improvement and calibrations of the model could benefit from forest sites with varying canopy and different species structures.
  • Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Seibt, Ulli; Sun, Wu; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan; Kolari, Pasi; Aalto, Juho; Franchin, Alessandro; Vecchi, Roberta; Valli, Gianluigi; Chen, Huilin (2017)
    Nighttime vegetative uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS) can exist due to the incomplete closure of stomata and the light independence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which complicates the use of COS as a tracer for gross primary productivity (GPP). In this study we derived night-time COS fluxes in a boreal forest (the SMEAR II station in Hyytiala, Finland; 61 degrees 51 ' N, 24 degrees 17 ' E; 181ma.s.l.) from June to November 2015 using two different methods: eddy-covariance (EC) measurements (FCOS-EC) and the radon-tracer method (FCOS-Rn). The total night-time COS fluxes averaged over the whole measurement period were -6.8 +/- 2.2 and -7.9 +/- 3.8 pmolm (-2) s (-1) for FCOS-Rn and FCOS-EC, respectively, which is 33-38% of the average daytime fluxes and 21% of the total daily COS uptake. The correlation of Rn-222 (of which the source is the soil) with COS (average R-2 = 0.58) was lower than with CO2 (0.70), suggesting that the main sink of COS is not located at the ground. These observations are supported by soil chamber measurements that show that soil contributes to only 34-40% of the total night-time COS uptake. We found a decrease in COS uptake with decreasing nighttime stomatal conductance and increasing vapor-pressure deficit and air temperature, driven by stomatal closure in response to a warm and dry period in August. We also discuss the effect that canopy layer mixing can have on the radon-tracer method and the sensitivity of (FCOS-EC) to atmospheric turbulence. Our results suggest that the nighttime uptake of COS is mainly driven by the tree foliage and is significant in a boreal forest, such that it needs to be taken into account when using COS as a tracer for GPP.
  • Maignan, Fabienne; Abadie, Camille; Remaud, Marine; Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Kohonen, Kukka-Maaria; Commane, Róisín; Wehr, Richard; Campbell, J. Elliott; Belviso, Sauveur; Montzka, Stephen A.; Raoult, Nina; Seibt, Ulli; Shiga, Yoichi P.; Vuichard, Nicolas; Whelan, Mary E.; Peylin, Philippe (2021)
    Land surface modellers need measurable proxies to constrain the quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilated by continental plants through photosynthesis, known as gross primary production (GPP). Carbonyl sulfide (COS), which is taken up by leaves through their stomates and then hydrolysed by photosynthetic enzymes, is a candidate GPP proxy. A former study with the ORCHIDEE land surface model used a fixed ratio of COS uptake to CO2 uptake normalised to respective ambient concentrations for each vegetation type (leaf relative uptake, LRU) to compute vegetation COS fluxes from GPP. The LRU approach is known to have limited accuracy since the LRU ratio changes with variables such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR): while CO2 uptake slows under low light, COS uptake is not light limited. However, the LRU approach has been popular for COS-GPP proxy studies because of its ease of application and apparent low contribution to uncertainty for regional-scale applications. In this study we refined the COS-GPP relationship and implemented in ORCHIDEE a mechanistic model that describes COS uptake by continental vegetation. We compared the simulated COS fluxes against measured hourly COS fluxes at two sites and studied the model behaviour and links with environmental drivers. We performed simulations at a global scale, and we estimated the global COS uptake by vegetation to be -756 Gg S yr(-1) , in the middle range of former studies (-490 to -1335 Gg S yr(-1)). Based on monthly mean fluxes simulated by the mechanistic approach in ORCHIDEE, we derived new LRU values for the different vegetation types, ranging between 0.92 and 1.72, close to recently published averages for observed values of 1.21 for C-4 and 1.68 for C-3 plants. We transported the COS using the monthly vegetation COS fluxes derived from both the mechanistic and the LRU approaches, and we evaluated the simulated COS concentrations at NOAA sites. Although the mechanistic approach was more appropriate when comparing to high-temporal-resolution COS flux measurements, both approaches gave similar results when transporting with monthly COS fluxes and evaluating COS concentrations at stations. In our study, uncertainties between these two approaches are of secondary importance compared to the uncertainties in the COS global budget, which are currently a limiting factor to the potential of COS concentrations to constrain GPP simulated by land surface models on the global scale.
  • Riikonen, Anu; Järvi, Leena; Nikinmaa, Eero (2016)
    We investigated the drivers of street tree transpiration in boreal conditions, in order to better understand tree water use in the context of urban tree planning and stormwater management. Two streets built in Helsinki in 2002, hemiboreal zone that had been planted either with Tilia x vulgaris or Alnus glutinosa f. pyramidalis were used as the study sites. Tree water use was measured from sap flow over the 2008-2011 period by the heat dissipation method. Penman-Monteith based evapotranspiration models of increasing complexity were tested against the tree water use measurements to assess the role of environmental and tree related factors in tree transpiration. Alnus and Tilia respectively used 1.1 and 0.8 l of water per m(2) of leaf area per day under ample water conditions, but the annual variation was high. The Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration estimate and soil water status changes explained over 80 % of the variation in tree transpiration when the model was parameterized annually. The addition of tree crown surface area in the model improved its accuracy and diminished variation between years and sites. Using single parameterization over all four years instead of annually varying one did not produce reliable estimates of tree transpiration. Tree transpiration, scaled to different canopy cover percentages, implied that the columnar Alnus trees could transpire as much as all annual rainfall at or less than 50 % canopy cover.
  • Vernay, Antoine; Tian, Xianglin; Chi, Jinshu; Linder, Sune; Makela, Annikki; Oren, Ram; Peichl, Matthias; Stangl, Zsofia R.; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Marshall, John D. (2020)
    Gross primary production (GPP) is a key component of the forest carbon cycle. However, our knowledge of GPP at the stand scale remains uncertain, because estimates derived from eddy covariance (EC) rely on semi-empirical modelling and the assumptions of the EC technique are sometimes not fully met. We propose using the sap flux/isotope method as an alternative way to estimate canopy GPP, termed GPP(iso/SF), at the stand scale and at daily resolution. It is based on canopy conductance inferred from sap flux and intrinsic water-use efficiency estimated from the stable carbon isotope composition of phloem contents. The GPP(iso/SF)estimate was further corrected for seasonal variations in photosynthetic capacity and mesophyll conductance. We compared our estimate of GPP(iso/SF)to the GPP derived from PRELES, a model parameterized with EC data. The comparisons were performed in a highly instrumented, boreal Scots pine forest in northern Sweden, including a nitrogen fertilized and a reference plot. The resulting annual and daily GPP(iso/SF)estimates agreed well with PRELES, in the fertilized plot and the reference plot. We discuss the GPP(iso/SF)method as an alternative which can be widely applied without terrain restrictions, where the assumptions of EC are not met.
  • Altimir, N.; Kolari, P.; Tuovinen, J. -P.; Vesala, T.; Bäck, Jaana; Suni, T.; Kulmala, M.; Hari, P. (2006)
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Wach, Damian; Pecio, Alicja; Vandenberg, Albert; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Increasing productivity through improvement of photosynthesis in faba bean breeding programmes requires understanding of the genetic control of photosynthesis-related traits. Hence, we investigated the gene action of leaf area, gas exchange traits, canopy temperature, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and biomass. We chose inbred lines derived from cultivars 'Aurora' (Sweden) and 'Melodie' (France) along with an Andean accession, ILB 938, crossed them (Aurora/2 x Melodie/2, ILB 938/2 x Aurora/2 and Melodie/2 x ILB 938/2), and prepared the six standard generations for quantitative analysis (P-1, P-2, F-1, F-2, B-1, and B-2). Gene action was complex for each trait, involving additive and dominance gene actions and interactions. Additive gene action was important for SPAD, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and F-v/F-m. Dominance effect was important for biomass production. It is suggested that breeders selecting for productivity can maximize genetic gain by selecting early generations for canopy temperature, SPAD and F-v/F-m, then later generations for biomass. The information on genetics of various contributing traits of photosynthesis will assist plant breeders in choosing an appropriate breeding strategy for enhancing productivity in faba bean.
  • Wasonga, Daniel; Kleemola, Jouko; Alakukku, Laura; Mäkelä, Pirjo (2020)
    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) experiences intermittent water deficit and suffers from potassium (K) deficiency that seriously constrains its yield in the tropics. Currently, the interaction effect between deficit irrigation and K fertigation on growth and yield of cassava is unknown, especially during the early growth phase. Therefore, pot experiments were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions using cassava cuttings. Treatments initiated at 30 days after planting included three irrigation doses (30%, 60%, 100% pot capacity) and five K (0.01, 1, 4, 16, and 32 mM) concentrations. The plants were harvested 90 days after planting. Decreasing irrigation dose to 30% together with 16 mM K lowered the leaf water potential by 69%, leaf osmotic potential by 41%, photosynthesis by 35%, stomatal conductance by 41%, water usage by 50%, leaf area by 17%, and whole-plant dry mass by 41%, compared with full-irrigated plants. Lowering the K concentration below 16 mM reduced the values further. Notably, growth and yield were decreased the least compared with optimal, when irrigation dose was decreased to 60% together with 16 mM K. The results demonstrate that deficit irrigation strategies could be utilized to develop management practices to improve cassava productivity by means of K fertigation under low moisture conditions.
  • Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Oren, Ram; Kozii, Nataliia; Laudon, Hjalmar; Hasselquist, Niles J. (2021)
    Trees in northern latitude ecosystems are projected to experience increasing drought stress as a result of rising air temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns in northern latitude ecosystems. However, most drought-related studies on high-latitude boreal forests (>50 degrees N) have been conducted in North America, with few studies quantifying the response in European and Eurasian boreal forests. Here, we tested how daily whole-tree transpiration (Q, Liters day(-1)) and Q normalized for mean daytime vapor pressure deficit (Q(DZ), Liters day(-1) kPa(-1)) were affected by the historic 2018 drought in Europe. More specifically, we examined how tree species, size, and topographic position affected drought response in high-latitude mature boreal forest trees. We monitored 30 Pinus sylvestris (pine) and 30 Picea abies (spruce) trees distributed across a topographic gradient in northern Sweden. In general, pine showed a greater Q(DZ) control compared to spruce during periods of severe drought (standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index: SPEI <-1.5), suggesting that the latter are more sensitive to drought. Overall, Q(DZ) reductions (using non-drought Q(DZ) as reference) were less pronounced in larger trees during severe drought, but there was a species-specific pattern: Q(DZ) reductions were greater in pine trees at high elevations and greater in spruce trees at lower elevations. Despite lower Q(DZ) during severe drought, drought spells were interspersed with small precipitation events and overcast conditions, and Q(DZ) returned to pre-drought conditions relatively quickly. This study highlights unique species-specific responses to drought, which are additionally driven by a codependent interaction among tree size, relative topographic position, and unique regional climate conditions.
  • Bacour, C.; Maignan, F.; MacBean, N.; Porcar-Castell, A.; Flexas, J.; Frankenberg, C.; Peylin, P.; Chevallier, F.; Vuichard, N.; Bastrikov, V. (2019)
    Abstract Over the last few years, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) observations from space have emerged as a promising resource for evaluating the spatio-temporal distribution of gross primary productivity (GPP) simulated by global terrestrial biosphere models. SIF can be used to improve GPP simulations by optimizing critical model parameters through statistical Bayesian data assimilation techniques. A prerequisite is the availability of a functional link between GPP and SIF in terrestrial biosphere models. Here we present the development of a mechanistic SIF observation operator in the ORCHIDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems) terrestrial biosphere model. It simulates the regulation of photosystem II fluorescence quantum yield at the leaf level thanks to a novel parameterization of non-photochemical quenching as a function of temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, and normalized quantum yield of photochemistry. It emulates the radiative transfer of chlorophyll fluorescence to the top of the canopy using a parametric simplification of the SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation Photosynthesis Energy) model. We assimilate two years of monthly OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) SIF product at 0.5° (2015?2016) to optimize ORCHIDEE photosynthesis and phenological parameters over an ensemble of grid points for all plant functional types. The impact on the simulated GPP is considerable with a large decrease of the global scale budget by 28 GtC/year over the period 1990?2009. The optimized GPP budget (134/136 GtC/year over 1990?2009/2001?2009) remarkably agrees with independent GPP estimates, FLUXSAT (137 GtC/year over 2001?2009) in particular and FLUXCOM (121 GtC/year over 1990?2009). Our results also suggest a biome dependency of the SIF-GPP relationship that needs to be improved for some plant functional types.
  • Clifton, O.E.; Paulot, F.; Fiore, A.M.; Horowitz, L.W.; Correa, G.; Baublitz, C.B.; Fares, S.; Goded, I.; Goldstein, A.H.; Gruening, C.; Hogg, A.J.; Loubet, B.; Mammarella, I.; Munger, J.W.; Neil, L.; Stella, P.; Uddling, J.; Vesala, T.; Weng, E. (2020)
    Identifying the contributions of chemistry and transport to observed ozone pollution using regional-to-global models relies on accurate representation of ozone dry deposition. We use a recently developed configuration of the NOAA GFDL chemistry-climate model - in which the atmosphere and land are coupled through dry deposition-to investigate the influence of ozone dry deposition on ozone pollution over northern midlatitudes. In our model, deposition pathways are tied to dynamic terrestrial processes, such as photosynthesis and water cycling through the canopy and soil. Small increases in winter deposition due to more process-based representation of snow and deposition to surfaces reduce hemispheric-scale ozone throughout the lower troposphere by 5-12 ppb, improving agreement with observations relative to a simulation with the standard configuration for ozone dry deposition. Declining snow cover by the end of the 21st-century tempers the previously identified influence of rising methane on winter ozone. Dynamic dry deposition changes summer surface ozone by -4 to +7 ppb. While previous studies emphasize the importance of uptake by plant stomata, new diagnostic tracking of depositional pathways reveals a widespread impact of nonstomatal deposition on ozone pollution. Daily variability in both stomatal and nonstomatal deposition contribute to daily variability in ozone pollution. Twenty-first century changes in summer deposition result from a balance among changes in individual pathways, reflecting differing responses to both high carbon dioxide (through plant physiology versus biomass accumulation) and water availability. Our findings highlight a need for constraints on the processes driving ozone dry deposition to test representation in regional-to-global models.
  • Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Sun, Wu; Aalto, Juho; Erkkilä, Kukka-Maaria; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Seibt, Ulrike; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan; Chen, Huilin (2019)
    Understanding climate controls on gross primary productivity (GPP) is crucial for accurate projections of the future land carbon cycle. Major uncertainties exist due to the challenge in separating GPP and respiration from observations of the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has a dominant vegetative sink, and plant COS uptake is used to infer GPP through the leaf relative uptake (LRU) ratio of COS to CO2 fluxes. However, little is known about variations of LRU under changing environmental conditions and in different phenological stages. We present COS and CO2 fluxes and LRU of Scots pine branches measured in a boreal forest in Finland during the spring recovery and summer. We find that the diurnal dynamics of COS uptake is mainly controlled by stomatal conductance, but the leaf internal conductance could significantly limit the COS uptake during the daytime and early in the season. LRU varies with light due to the differential light responses of COS and CO2 uptake, and with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the peak growing season, indicating a humidity-induced stomatal control. Our COS-based GPP estimates show that it is essential to incorporate the variability of LRU with environmental variables for accurate estimation of GPP on ecosystem, regional, and global scales.
  • Tarvainen, Lasse; Wallin, Goran; Linder, Sune; Nasholm, Torgny; Oren, Ram; Lofvenius, Mikaell Ottosson; Rantfors, Mats; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Marshall, John D. (2021)
    Several studies have suggested that CO2 transport in the transpiration stream can considerably bias estimates of root and stem respiration in ring-porous and diffuse-porous tree species. Whether this also happens in species with tracheid xylem anatomy and lower sap flow rates, such as conifers, is currently unclear. We infused C-13-labelled solution into the xylem near the base of two 90-year-old Pinus sylvestris L. trees. A custom-built gas exchange system and an online isotopic analyser were used to sample the CO2 efflux and its isotopic composition continuously from four positions along the bole and one upper canopy shoot in each tree. Phloem and needle tissue C-13 enrichment was also evaluated at these positions. Most of the C-13 label was lost by diffusion within a few metres of the infusion point indicating rapid CO2 loss during vertical xylem transport. No C-13 enrichment was detected in the upper bole needle tissues. Furthermore, mass balance calculations showed that c. 97% of the locally respired CO2 diffused radially to the atmosphere. Our results support the notion that xylem CO2 transport is of limited magnitude in conifers. This implies that the concerns that stem transport of CO2 derived from root respiration biases chamber-based estimates of forest carbon cycling may be unwarranted for mature conifer stands.
  • Savi, Flavia; Nemitz, Eiko; Coyle, Mhairi; Aitkenhead, Matt; Frumau, Kfa; Gerosa, Giacomo; Finco, Angelo; Gruening, Carten; Goded, Ignacio; Loubet, Benjamin; Stella, Patrick; Ruuskanen, Taina; Weidinger, T.; Horvath, L.; Zenone, Terenzio; Fares, Silvano (2020)
    Tropospheric ozone (O-3) is probably the air pollutant most damaging to vegetation. Understanding how plants respond to O(3)pollution under different climate conditions is of central importance for predicting the interactions between climate change, ozone impact and vegetation. This work analyses the effect of O(3)fluxes on net ecosystem productivity (NEP), measured directly at the ecosystem level with the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The relationship was explored with artificial neural networks (ANNs), which were used to model NEP using environmental and phenological variables as inputs in addition to stomatal O(3)uptake in Spring and Summer, when O(3)pollution is expected to be highest. A sensitivity analysis allowed us to isolate the effect of O-3, visualize the shape of the O-3-NEP functional relationship and explore how climatic variables affect NEP response to O-3. This approach has been applied to eleven ecosystems covering a range of climatic areas. The analysis highlighted that O(3)effects over NEP are highly non-linear and site-specific. A significant but small NEP reduction was found during Spring in a Scottish shrubland (-0.67%), in two Italian forests (up to -1.37%) and during Summer in a Californian orange orchard (-1.25%). Although the overall seasonal effect of O(3)on NEP was not found to be negative for the other sites, with episodic O(3)detrimental effect still identified. These episodes were correlated with meteorological variables showing that O(3)damage depends on weather conditions. By identifying O(3)damage under field conditions and the environmental factors influencing to that damage, this work provides an insight into O(3)pollution, climate and weather conditions.
  • Palmroth, Sari; Bach, Lisbet H.; Lindh, Marie; Kolari, Pasi; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin (2019)
    In boreal forests, carbon (C) uptake by understory may be too large to be ignored and too variable in space to be assumed a constant fraction of the ecosystem gross primary production. To improve estimates of understory production in these ecosystems, we need to better account for its main controls. In this study, we estimated C uptake of field-layer vegetation, dominated by Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, and Deschampsia flexuosa, in a boreal Picea abies stand in northern Sweden. Nitrogen (N) availability in the stand has been manipulated through annual N additions since 1996 at the rates of 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). To assess the relative importance of N supply, and interannual fluctuations in leaf biomass and weather, in controlling field-layer photosynthetic production, we calculated C uptake over eight growing seasons using a canopy photosynthesis model. Without N additions, tree leaf area index (L) was already high (8.5) and field-layer C uptake was small, 27 g Cm-2 (or similar to 3% of stand C uptake). An increase in tree L with N additions further reduced light availability for the understory, yet the concurrent increase in the relative abundance of the more physiologically active D. flexuosa sustained the contribution of the field-layer to stand photosynthetic production. Based on a literature survey, in which site quality or stand age generated a wide range in L, understory contribution to ecosystem C uptake increases linearly with the fraction of available light reaching the forest floor across high latitude forests. Understory contributes only similar to 5% to ecosystem C uptake where trees intercept similar to 80% of incoming light, increasing to 100% after clearcut tree harvest. While the availability of solar energy, both spatially and temporally, is the primary driver of understory production, our analyses suggest that the predicted increases in drought severity and frequency at high latitudes may affect understory communities more than trees. Future empirical and modeling studies should focus on functional and ecological responses to drought of not only trees but also understory species, which contribute to biodiversity and convert their photosynthates to important non-timber products.
  • Hari, Pertti; Noe, Steffen; Dengel, Sigrid; Elbers, Jan; Gielen, Bert; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kruijt, Bart; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Mammarella, Ivan; Petaja, Tuukka; Schurgers, Guy; Vanhatalo, Anni; Kulmala, Markku; Back, Jaana (2018)
    Photosynthesis provides carbon for the synthesis of macromolecules to construct cells during growth. This is the basis for the key role of photosynthesis in the carbon dynamics of ecosystems and in the biogenic CO2 assimilation. The development of eddy-covariance (EC) measurements for ecosystem CO2 fluxes started a new era in the field studies of photosynthesis. However, the interpretation of the very variable CO2 fluxes in evergreen forests has been problematic especially in transition times such as the spring and autumn. We apply two theoretical needle-level equations that connect the variation in the light intensity, stomatal action and the annual metabolic cycle of photosynthesis. We then use these equations to predict the photosynthetic CO2 flux in five Scots pine stands located from the northern timberline to Central Europe. Our result has strong implications for our conceptual understanding of the effects of the global change on the processes in boreal forests, especially of the changes in the metabolic annual cycle of photosynthesis.
  • Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Aurela, Mika; Mammarella, Ivan; Thum, Tea; Tsuruta, Aki; Yang, Huiyi; Aalto, Tuula (2017)
    The influence of drought on plant functioning has received considerable attention in recent years, however our understanding of the response of carbon and water coupling to drought in terrestrial ecosystems still needs to be improved. A severe soil moisture drought occurred in southern Finland in the late summer of 2006. In this study, we investigated the response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) on the daily time scale mainly using eddy covariance flux data from the Hyytiala (southern Finland) flux site. In addition, simulation results from the JSBACH land surface model were evaluated against the observed results. Based on observed data, the ecosystem level water use efficiency (EWUE; the ratio of gross primary production, GPP, to evapotranspiration, ET) showed a decrease during the severe soil moisture drought, while the inherent water use efficiency (IWUE; a quantity defined as EWUE multiplied with mean daytime vapour pressure deficit, VPD) increased and the underlying water use efficiency (uWUE, a metric based on IWUE and a simple stomatal model, is the ratio of GPP multiplied with a square root of VPD to ET) was unchanged during the drought. The decrease in EWUE was due to the stronger decline in GPP than in ET. The increase in IWUE was because of the decreased stomatal conductance under increased VPD. The unchanged uWUE indicates that the trade-off between carbon assimilation and transpiration of the boreal Scots pine forest was not disturbed by this drought event at the site. The JSBACH simulation showed declines of both GPP and ET under the severe soil moisture drought, but to a smaller extent compared to the observed GPP and ET. Simulated GPP and ET led to a smaller decrease in EWUE but a larger increase in IWUE because of the severe soil moisture drought in comparison to observations. As in the observations, the simulated uWUE showed no changes in the drought event. The model deficiencies exist mainly due to the lack of the limiting effect of increased VPD on stomatal conductance during the low soil moisture condition. Our study provides a deeper understanding of the coupling of carbon and water cycles in the boreal Scots pine forest ecosystem and suggests possible improvements to land surface models, which play an important role in the prediction of biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks in the climate system.
  • Stoy, Paul C.; El-Madany, Tarek S.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Gentine, Pierre; Gerken, Tobias; Good, Stephen P.; Klosterhalfen, Anne; Liu, Shuguang; Miralles, Diego G.; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Rigden, Angela J.; Skaggs, Todd H.; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Anderson, Ray G.; Coenders-Gerrits, A. Miriam J.; Jung, Martin; Maes, Wouter H.; Mammarella, Ivan; Mauder, Matthias; Migliavacca, Mirco; Nelson, Jacob A.; Poyatos, Rafael; Reichstein, Markus; Scott, Russell L.; Wolf, Sebastian (2019)
    Evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) respond differently to ongoing changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and land use. It is difficult to partition ecosystem-scale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements into E and T, which makes it difficult to validate satellite data and land surface models. Here, we review current progress in partitioning E and T and provide a prospectus for how to improve theory and observations going forward. Recent advancements in analytical techniques create new opportunities for partitioning E and T at the ecosystem scale, but their assumptions have yet to be fully tested. For example, many approaches to partition E and T rely on the notion that plant canopy conductance and ecosystem water use efficiency exhibit optimal responses to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (D). We use observations from 240 eddy covariance flux towers to demonstrate that optimal ecosystem response to D is a reasonable assumption, in agreement with recent studies, but more analysis is necessary to determine the conditions for which this assumption holds. Another critical assumption for many partitioning approaches is that ET can be approximated as T during ideal transpiring conditions, which has been challenged by observational studies. We demonstrate that T can exceed 95% of ET from certain ecosystems, but other ecosystems do not appear to reach this value, which suggests that this assumption is ecosystem-dependent with implications for partitioning. It is important to further improve approaches for partitioning E and T, yet few multi-method comparisons have been undertaken to date. Advances in our understanding of carbon-water coupling at the stomatal, leaf, and canopy level open new perspectives on how to quantify T via its strong coupling with photosynthesis. Photosynthesis can be constrained at the ecosystem and global scales with emerging data sources including solar-induced fluorescence, carbonyl sulfide flux measurements, thermography, and more. Such comparisons would improve our mechanistic understanding of ecosystem water fluxes and provide the observations necessary to validate remote sensing algorithms and land surface models to understand the changing global water cycle.