Browsing by Subject "STRATEGIES"

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  • Tarkiainen, Laura (2020)
    This article provides a rhetorical discourse analysis of constructions of unemployed people’s deservingness. Data consist of transcripts from Finnish parliament members debating the ‘Activation Model for Unemployment Security’, from December 2017. In the analysis, three discursive constructions of unemployed people’s deservingness were identified: an ‘effortful citizen lacking control’, a ‘needy citizen deserving the welfare state’s reciprocal acts’ and an ‘undeserving freeloader in need of an attitude adjustment’. Analysis focuses on how deservingness and undeservingness are rhetorically accomplished and treated as factual in parliament members’ accounts. The analysis pays particular attention to the question of how speakers build factuality through the management of categories, extreme case formulations, ‘truth talk’ and maximisation and minimisation strategies. The results reflect the negotiated nature of deservingness as well as varying constructions of unemployed people’s responsibility in the contemporary Nordic welfare state context.
  • Webster, Mike M.; Chouinard-Thuly, Laura; Herczeg, Gabor; Kitano, Jun; Riley, Riva; Rogers, Sean; Shapiro, Michael D.; Shikano, Takahito; Laland, Kevin N. (2019)
    Whether learning primarily reflects general processes or species-specific challenges is a long-standing matter of dispute. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of public information use (PI-use) in sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae). PI-use is a form of social learning by which animals are able to assess the relative quality of resources, here prey patches, by observing the behaviour of others. PI-use was highly specific with only Pungitius and their closest relative Culaea inconstans showing evidence of PI-use. We saw no effects of ontogenetic experience upon PI-use in Pungitius pungitius. Experiments with live demonstrators and animated fish revealed that heightened activity and feeding strikes by foraging conspecifics are important cues in the transmission of PI. Finally, PI-use was the only form of learning in which P. pungitius and another stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus differed. PI-use in sticklebacks is species-specific and may represent an 'ecological specialization' for social foraging. Whether this reflects selection on perception, attentional or cognitive processes remains to be determined.
  • Silvennoinen, R.; Anttila, P.; Saily, M.; Lundan, T.; Heiskanen, J.; Siitonen, T. M.; Kakko, S.; Putkonen, M.; Ollikainen, H.; Terava, V.; Kutila, A.; Launonen, K.; Rasanen, A.; Sikio, A.; Suominen, M.; Bazia, P.; Kananen, K.; Selander, T.; Kuittinen, T.; Remes, K.; Jantunen, E. (2016)
    The most common means of mobilizing autologous stem cells is G-CSF alone or combined with cyclophosphamide (CY) to obtain sufficient CD34(+) cells for one to two transplants. There are few prospective, randomized studies investigating mobilization regimens in multiple myeloma (MM), especially after lenalidomide-based induction. We designed this prospective, randomized study to compare low-dose CY 2 g/m(2)+G-CSF (arm A) and G-CSF alone (arm B) after lenalidomide-based up-front induction in MM. Of the 80 initially randomized patients, 69 patients were evaluable, 34 and 35 patients in arms A and B, respectively. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a yield of >= 3x10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells with 1 - 2 aphereses, which was achieved in 94% and 77% in arms A and B, respectively (P = 0.084). The median number of aphereses needed to reach the yield of >= 3x10(6)/kg was lower in arm A than in arm B (1 vs 2, P = 0.035). Two patients needed plerixafor in arm A and five patients in arm B (P = 0.428). Although CY-based mobilization was more effective, G-CSF alone was successful in a great majority of patients to reach the defined collection target after three cycles of lenalidomide-based induction.
  • Vesa, Juho Antti; Kantola, Anu; Binderkrantz, Anne Skorkjaer (2018)
  • Wannasarit, Saowanee; Wang, Shiqi; Figueiredo, Patricia; Trujillo Olvera, Claudia Ximenia; Eburnea, Francesca; Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Correia, Alexandra; Ding, Yaping; Teesalu, Tambet; Liu, Dongfei; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn; Santos, Hélder A.; Li, Wei (2019)
    Achieving cellular internalization and endosomal escape remains a major challenge for many antitumor therapeutics, especially macromolecular drugs. Viral drug carriers are reported for efficient intracellular delivery, but with limited choices of payloads. In this study, a novel polymeric nanoparticle (ADMAP) is developed, resembling the structure and functional features of a virus. ADMAP is synthesized by grafting endosomolytic poly(lauryl methacrylate‐co‐methacrylic acid) on acetalated dextran. The endosomolytic polymer mimics the capsid protein for endosomal escape, and acetalated dextran resembles the viral core for accommodating payloads. After polymer synthesis, the subsequent controlled nanoprecipitation on a microfluidic device yields uniform nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency. At late endosomal pH (5.0), the ADMAP particles successfully destabilize endosomal membranes and release the drug payloads synergistically, resulting in a greater therapeutic efficacy compared with that of free anticancer drugs. Further conjugation of a tumor‐penetrating peptide enhances the antitumor efficacy toward 3D spheroids and finally leads to spheroid disintegration. The unique structure along with the synergistic endosomal escape and drug release make ADMAP nanoparticles favorable for intracellular delivery of antitumor therapeutics.
  • Kisdi, Eva; Geritz, Stefan A.H. (2016)
    We study the joint adaptive dynamics of n scalar-valued strategies in ecosystems where n is the maximum number of coexisting strategies permitted by the (generalized) competitive exclusion principle. The adaptive dynamics of such saturated systems exhibits special characteristics, which we first demonstrate in a simple example of a host-pathogen-predator model. The main part of the paper characterizes the adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms in general. In order to investigate convergence stability, we give a new sufficient condition for absolute stability of an arbitrary (not necessarily saturated) polymorphic singularity and show that saturated evolutionarily stable polymorphisms satisfy it. For the case , we also introduce a method to construct different pairwise invasibility plots of the monomorphic population without changing the selection gradients of the saturated dimorphism.
  • Zliobaite, Indre; Fortelius, Mikael (2020)
    The Red Queen's hypothesis portrays evolution as a never-ending competition for expansive energy, where one species' gain is another species' loss. The Red Queen is neutral with respect to body size, implying that neither small nor large species have a universal competitive advantage. Here we ask whether, and if so how, the Red Queen's hypothesis really can accommodate differences in body size. The maximum population growth in ecology clearly depends on body size-the smaller the species, the shorter the generation length, and the faster it can expand given sufficient opportunity. On the other hand, large species are more efficient in energy use due to metabolic scaling and can maintain more biomass with the same energy. The advantage of shorter generation makes a wide range of body sizes competitive, yet large species do not take over. We analytically show that individuals consume energy and reproduce in physiological time, but need to compete for energy in real time. The Red Queen, through adaptive evolution of populations, balances the pressures of real and physiological time. Modeling competition for energy as a proportional prize contest from economics, we further show that Red Queen's zero-sum game can generate unimodal hat-like patterns of species rise and decline that can be neutral in relation to body size.
  • Laursen, Karsten; Moller, Anders Pape; Haugaard, Lars; Öst, Markus; Vainio, Jouni (2019)
    Capital breeders, such as the eider duck Somateria mollissima, accumulate resources before the start of breeding. Eiders preferentially feed on blue mussels Mytilus edulis to build up body condition during winter. We explored how body condition and gizzard mass of wintering eiders relate to mussel quality and quantity, winter climate and body condition of females at the breeding grounds. Body condition during winter (defined as scaled body mass index) of eiders increased during winter and the magnitude of the effect depended on age and mussel quality. Gizzard mass of eiders increased during winter with effects of mussel quality, mussel stocks and sex. Body condition in winter of adult females increased from the first half of January to the second half of February on average by 1.5%, equal to c. 96 g. During the same period gizzard mass of adult females increased by 12.2%, i.e., a nearly ten-fold increase compared to that observed in body condition in winter. Body condition of females at the breeding grounds in Finland (defined as body condition at hatching) was significantly positively correlated with gizzard mass in winter, but not significantly correlated with body condition in winter. Thus, eiders allocate body reserves to increase gizzard mass but less so to increase body condition in winter. This can be considered an adaptive migratory strategy of these eiders, whereby large winter (pre-migratory) gizzards increase food processing capacity, making it possible for eiders to arrive at the breeding grounds with superior body condition and a high reproductive potential.
  • Vesa, Juho; Poutanen, Petro; Sund, Reijo; Vehka, Mika (2022)
    The equalization-normalization debate concerns whether the Internet equalizes politics by empowering resource-poor organizations, or whether it further strengthens the position of resource-rich organizations. We address this debate by studying how interest groups' utilization of digital media is associated with their success in influencing news media. We suggest digital media is characterized by the coexistence of old and new media logics that benefit resource-rich and resource-poor groups in different ways. Analyzing a dataset of 1,127 Finnish interest groups, we found that groups' utilization of digital media is positively associated with their news media success, yet traditional ways of influencing the news media remain more effective. Among resource-rich groups with larger public relations staff, blog publishing is positively associated with both media access (media visibility) and agenda-building success (influencing news topics). In contrast, utilization of digital media among resource-poor groups only correlates with agenda-building success, and audiovisual content is more effective than other content. We suggest that while resource-poor groups benefit from network media logic in which the flow of information is initially based on popularity among social media users, resource-rich groups can exploit mass media logic where traditional journalistic gatekeeping is more important. The findings also imply that digital media has not decreased resource-related bias in interest groups' media access.
  • Day-Williams, Aaron G.; McLay, Kirsten; Drury, Eleanor; Edkins, Sarah; Coffey, Alison J.; Palotie, Aarno; Zeggini, Eleftheria (2011)
  • Wirehn, Lotten; Käyhkö, Janina; Neset, Tina-Simone; Juhola, Sirkku (2020)
    In light of the increased focus on climate change adaptation, there is a need to understand when and how adaptation decision-making generates trade-offs. This study presents a novel framework for adaptation trade-off assessments, which integrates (I) two trade-off mechanisms (direct and interactions) and (II) two types of trade-off characteristics (substantive and processual). Perspectives on adaptation trade-offs were collected from 37 Swedish and Finnish agricultural experts through semi-structured interviews supported by serious gaming and visualization. The data were thematically analysed based on the provided analytical framework. The results show that trade-offs in agricultural adaptation decision-making processes involve balancing a number of socio-ecological system aspects that are of different character and have different functions. The study identified 20 aspects generating trade-offs related to adaptation management in Swedish and Finnish agriculture, among which 'crop yield and profitability', 'farm economy', 'pest and weed robustness' and 'soil quality' were discussed as the most prominent by respondents. The framework enables an examination of complex trade-off structures that can have implications for adaptation management decisions. The results show that the identified aspects constitute different components and functions of trade-offs, including both processual and/or substantive ones. In conclusion, the 20 identified aspects and the framework together demonstrate the importance of the two types of adaptation trade-offs and the resulting complexity of climate change adaptation decision-making in Swedish and Finnish agriculture. Furthermore, the study asserts the potential of applying the framework for various strategic contexts-to recognize and cope with trade-offs in adaptation management.
  • Jaatinen, Kim; Moller, Anders P.; Ost, Markus (2019)
    The direction of predator-mediated selection on brain size is debated. However, the speed and the accuracy of performing a task cannot be simultaneously maximized. Large-brained individuals may be predisposed to accurate but slow decision-making, beneficial under high predation risk, but costly under low risk. This creates the possibility of temporally fluctuating selection on brain size depending on overall predation risk. We test this idea in nesting wild eider females (Somateria mollissima), in which head volume is tightly linked to brain mass (r(2) = 0.73). We determined how female relative head volume relates to survival, and characterized the seasonal timing of predation. Previous work suggests that relatively large-brained and small-brained females make slow versus fast nest-site decisions, respectively, and that predation events occur seasonally earlier when predation is severe. Large-brained, late-breeding females may therefore have higher survival during high-predation years, but lower survival during safe years, assuming that predation disproportionately affects late breeders in such years. Relatively large-headed females outsurvived smaller-headed females during dangerous years, whereas the opposite was true in safer years. Predation events occurred relatively later during safe years. Fluctuations in the direction of survival selection on relative brain size may therefore arise due to brain-size dependent breeding phenology.
  • Keihänen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Reinecke, M. (2017)
    We present two novel methods for the estimation of the angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. We assume an absolute CMB experiment with arbitrary asymmetric beams and arbitrary sky coverage. The methods differ from the earlier ones in that the power spectrum is estimated directly from the time-ordered data, without first compressing the data into a sky map, and they take into account the effect of asymmetric beams. In particular, they correct the beam-induced leakage from temperature to polarization. The methods are applicable to a case where part of the sky has been masked out to remove foreground contamination, leaving a pure CMB signal, but incomplete sky coverage. The first method (deconvolution quadratic maximum likelihood) is derived as the optimal quadratic estimator, which simultaneously yields an unbiased spectrum estimate and minimizes its variance. We successfully apply it to multipoles up to l = 200. The second method is derived as a weak-signal approximation from the first one. It yields an unbiased estimate for the full multipole range, but relaxes the requirement of minimal variance. We validate the methods with simulations for the 70 GHz channel of Planck surveyor, and demonstrate that we are able to correct the beam effects in the TT, EE, BB and TE spectra up to multipole l = 1500. Together, the two methods cover the complete multipole range with no gap in between.
  • Mäklin, Tommi; Kallonen, Teemu; Alanko, Jarno; Samuelsen, Ørjan; Hegstad, Kristin; Mäkinen, Veli; Corander, Jukka; Heinz, Eva; Honkela, Antti (2021)
    Genomic epidemiology is a tool for tracing transmission of pathogens based on whole-genome sequencing. We introduce the mGEMS pipeline for genomic epidemiology with plate sweeps representing mixed samples of a target pathogen, opening the possibility to sequence all colonies on selective plates with a single DNA extraction and sequencing step. The pipeline includes the novel mGEMS read binner for probabilistic assignments of sequencing reads, and the scalable pseudoaligner Themisto. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach using closely related samples in a nosocomial setting, obtaining results that are comparable to those based on single-colony picks. Our results lend firm support to more widespread consideration of genomic epidemiology with mixed infection samples.
  • Enbuska, Marja; Lähdesmäki, Merja; Suutari, Timo (2021)
    Rural employers can be significant actors in defining who is welcomed to the local community and under which conditions. Despite their importance, however, the role of rural employers in the belonging process of immigrant employees is not widely known. In this study, we focused on the discursive boundaries that rural employers (re)produce when speaking about immigrant employees. The empirical data of our study consists of 35 interviews in small and medium-sized enterprises. We identified three frames within which employers' carry out boundary work. These frames are dealing with work ethics, workplace rules and local community. We argue that belonging was constructed in these frames ambiguously, and highlight immigrants' hard-working attitude, cultural discretion and local stability. We also found that the idea of belonging was not built solely on immigrants' adaptation but that conventional boundaries were also flexible.
  • Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Gerlach, Magdalena; Mikkonen, Anu; Malk, Vuokko; Mikola, Juha; Romantschuk, Martin (2016)
    The use of in situ techniques in soil remediation is still rare in Finland and most other European countries due to the uncertainty of the effectiveness of the techniques especially in cold regions and also due to their potential side effects on the environment. In this study, we compared the biostimulation, chemical oxidation, and natural attenuation treatments in natural conditions and pilot scale during a 16-month experiment. A real fuel spill accident was used as a model for experiment setup and soil contamination. We found that biostimulation significantly decreased the contaminant leachate into the water, including also the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). The total NAPL leachate was 19 % lower in the biostimulation treatment that in the untreated soil and 34 % lower in the biostimulation than oxidation treatment. Soil bacterial growth and community changes were first observed due to the increased carbon content via oil amendment and later due to the enhanced nutrient content via biostimulation. Overall, the most effective treatment for fresh contaminated soil was biostimulation, which enhanced the biodegradation of easily available oil in the mobile phase and consequently reduced contaminant leakage through the soil. The chemical oxidation did not enhance soil cleanup and resulted in the mobilization of contaminants. Our results suggest that biostimulation can decrease or even prevent oil migration in recently contaminated areas and can thus be considered as a potentially safe in situ treatment also in groundwater areas.
  • Poojari, Chetan; Zak, Agata; Dzieciuch-Rojek, Monika; Bunker, Alex; Kepczynski, Mariusz; Rog, Tomasz (2020)
    Cholesterol plays a crucial role in modulating the physicochemical properties of biomembranes, both increasing mechanical strength and decreasing permeability. Cholesterol is also a common component of vesicle-based delivery systems, including liposome-based drug delivery systems (LDSs). However, its effect on the partitioning of drug molecules to lipid membranes is very poorly recognized. Herein, we performed a combined experimental/computational study of the potential for the use of the LDS formulation for the delivery of the antifungal drug itraconazole (ITZ). We consider the addition of cholesterol to the lipid membrane. Since ITZ is only weakly soluble in water, its bioavailability is limited. Use of an LDS has thus been proposed. We studied lipid membranes composed of cholesterol, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (POPC), and ITZ using a combination of computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of lipid bilayers and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) experiments of monolayers. Both experimental and computational results show separation of cholesterol and ITZ. Cholesterol has a strong preference to orient parallel to the bilayer normal. However, ITZ, a long and relatively rigid molecule with weakly hydrophilic groups along the backbone, predominantly locates below the interface between the hydrocarbon chain region and the polar region of the membrane, with its backbone oriented parallel to the membrane surface; the orthogonal orientation in the membrane could be the cause of the observed separation. In addition, fluorescence measurements demonstrated that the affinity of ITZ for the lipid membrane is decreased by the presence of cholesterol, which is thus probably not a suitable formulation component of an LDS designed for ITZ delivery.
  • Klein, Johannes; Käyhkö, Janina; Räsänen, Aleksi; Groundstroem, Fanny; Eilu, Pasi (2022)
    Climate change can affect the mining sector in various ways. Physical impacts can be a threat to mines and personnel, transport infrastructure and supply chains, while the low-carbon transition may entail transition risks stemming from e.g., the need to respond to mitigation and adaptation policies, as well as opportunities in the form of increased metal and mineral demand. However, there is little knowledge of how mining companies perceive, manage, and respond to risks related to climate change. To address this knowledge gap, we examined annual and sustainability reports from 2019 for active metal mines in Finland, Sweden, and Norway. Through a structuring qualitative content analysis, we analysed the mining companies’ self-reported experience of and expectations for climate change impacts and risks, as well as adaptation and management activities taken or planned. Our findings indicate that physical impacts of climate change are not perceived as a major risk. In contrast, mitigation activities and reactions to climate policies play an important role, at least for some of the companies. Hence, the mining sector would benefit from more stringent risk reporting regulations and distinctive guidelines, as well as more research on the direct and indirect climate change impacts.
  • Helenius, Juha; Hagolani-Albov, Sophia; Koppelmäki, Kari (2020)
    Critics of modern food systems argue for the need to shift from a consolidated and concentrated, often monoculture based agro-industrial model toward diversified, post-fossil, and nutrient recycling food systems. The abundance of acute and obvious environmental problems in the agricultural sub-systems of the broader food system(s) have resulted in a focus on technological and natural scientific research into "solving" these point of production problems. Yet, there are many facets of food systems that are vital to sustainability which are not addressed even if the environmental problems were solved. In this article, we argue for agroecological symbiosis (AES) as a generic arrangement for re-configuring the primary production of food in agriculture, the processing of food, and development of a food community to work toward system-level sustainability. The guiding principle of this concept was the desire to base farming and food processing on renewable bioenergy, to close nutrient cycles, to break away from the consolidated food chain, to be more transparent and connected with consumers, and to revitalize the rural spaces where farms generally operate. Through a consistent and robust collaboration and co-creative process with transdisciplinary actors, ranging from food producers, and processers to policy actors, we designed a food system model based on networks of AES (NAES). The NAES would form place-based food networks, replacing the consolidated commodity chains. The NAES supports sustainable interactions from a biophysical and socio-cultural perspective. In this paper, we explain the AES concept, give an overview of the process of co-creating the pilot AES, and a proposal for the extension of the AES, as NAES, to create sustainable food systems. Overall, we conclude that the AES model holds potential for creating place-based food systems that further the sustainability agenda.