Browsing by Subject "STRENGTH"

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  • Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Seseogullari-Dirihan, Roda; Tjäderhane, Leo; Abunas, Gabriel; Marcondes Martins, Luis Roberto; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu (2018)
    In dentistry, the wet-bonding approach relies on water to maintain demineralized collagen expanded for proper resin infiltration; nevertheless, hydrolytic instability of the resin-dentin interface is inevitable with current bonding techniques. Considering dimethyl sulfoxide's (DMSO) ability to "biomodify" collagen and precipitate enzymes, the aim was to test whether the use of DMSO would permit adequate resin bonding to H3PO4-etched dehydrated dentin and assess its impact on collagen degradation by host-derived enzymes. Etched dentin surfaces from extracted sound human molars were randomly bonded in wet or dry conditions using aqueous or ethanolic DMSO solutions as pretreatments and bonding resins with or without DMSO. Bonded teeth were sectioned into resin-dentin slabs for confocal in situ zymography and beams for microtensile bond strength test. Demineralized powdered dentin was incubated in the tested DMSO -media and a hydroxyproline assay evaluated dissolution of collagen peptides. Zymography was performed on protein extracts obtained from dry and wet H3PO4-ecthed dentin powder treated with the DMSO- media. The correlative biochemical analysis demonstrated that reduction of water content during dentin hybridization by the innovative dry-bonding approaches with DMSO is effective to inactivate host-derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 and thus reduce collagen degradation while simultaneously optimizing resin-dentin bonding.
  • Metso, Leena; Bister, Ville; Sandelin, Jerker; Harilainen, Arsi (2022)
    Background ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction remains the gold standard surgical option for patients with ACL tears. There are many fixation devices available for ACL reconstruction. Recent ACL reconstruction strategies are aiming to reproduce the native anatomy and normal kinematics of the knee. This is a five years follow-up report of some of the new devices for graft fixation. A two years follow-up data was published previously. Methods 120 patients were randomized into four different groups (30 each) for ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendons: group I femoral Rigidfix cross-pin and Intrafix tibial extension sheath with a tapered expansion screw; group II Rigidfix femoral and BioScrew interference screw tibial fixation; group III BioScrew femoral and Intrafix tibial fixation; group IV BioScrew fixation into both tunnels. The evaluation methods were clinical examination, knee scores, and instrumented laxity measurements. Results In this 5 years follow-up there were 102/120 (85%) patients available, but only 77 (64,2%) attended the clinical examinations. No significant difference between the groups in the clinical results was detected. Between the 2 and 5 years follow-up there were 6 additional procedures in group I and one in group II. There was a significant difference in additional procedures between group I and the other groups (P = .041). Conclusion There was a statistically significant difference in the additional procedures, most in group I (six). The ACL grafts were intact. Other statistically or clinically significant differences in the 5 years follow-up results were not found. Study design Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1. Trial registration ISRCTN registry with study ID ISRCTN34011837. Retrospectively registered 17.4.2020.
  • Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Haakana, Piia K; Nurminen, Jussi; Ylitalo, Elina M; Niemelä, Tuula; Marttinen Rossi, Essi; Mäenpää, Helena; Piitulainen, Harri (2022)
    Healthy people can walk nearly effortlessly thanks to their instinctively adaptive gait patterns that tend to minimize metabolic energy consumption. However, the economy of gait is severely impaired in many neurological disorders such as stroke or cerebral palsy (CP). Moreover, self-selected asymmetry of impaired gait does not seem to unequivocally coincide with the minimal energy cost, suggesting the presence of other adaptive origins. Here, we used hemiparetic CP gait as a model to test the hypothesis that pathological asymmetric gait patterns are chosen to equalize the relative muscle efforts between the affected and unaffected limbs. We determined the relative muscle efforts for the ankle and knee extensors by relating extensor joint moments during gait to maximum moments obtained from all-out hopping reference test. During asymmetric CP gait, the unaffected limb generated greater ankle (1.36 +/- 0.15 vs 1.17 +/- 0.16 Nm/kg, p = 0.002) and knee (0.74 +/- 0.33 vs 0.44 +/- 0.19 Nm/kg, p = 0.007) extensor moments compared with the affected limb. Similarly, the maximum moment generation capacity was greater in the unaffected limb versus the affected limb (ankle extensors: 1.81 +/- 0.39 Nm/kg vs 1.51 +/- 0.34 Nm/kg, p = 0.033; knee extensors: 1.83 +/- 0.37 Nm/kg vs 1.34 +/- 0.38 Nm/kg, p = 0.021) in our force reference test. As a consequence, no differences were found in the relative efforts between unaffected and affected limb ankle extensors (77 +/- 12% vs 80 +/- 16%, p = 0.69) and knee extensors (41 +/- 17% vs 38 +/- 23%, p = 0.54). In conclusion, asymmetric CP gait resulted in similar relative muscle efforts between affected and unaffected limbs. The tendency for effort equalization may thus be an important driver of self-selected gait asymmetry patterns, and consequently advantageous for preventing fatigue of the weaker affected side musculature.
  • Ajdary, Rubina; Huan, Siqi; Zanjanizadeh Ezazi, Nazanin; Xiang, Wenchao; Grande, Rafael; Santos, Hélder A.; Rojas, Orlando J. (2019)
    Nanocellulose has been demonstrated as a suitable material for cell culturing, given its similarity to extracellular matrices. Taking advantage of the shear thinning behavior, nanocellulose suits three-dimensional (3D) printing into scaffolds that support cell attachment and proliferation. Here, we propose aqueous suspensions of acetylated nanocellulose of a low degree of substitution for direct ink writing (DM). This benefits from the heterogeneous acetylation of precursor cellulosic fibers, which eases their deconstruction and confers the characteristics required for extrusion in DIW. Accordingly, the morphology of related 3D printed architectures and their performance during drying and rewetting as well as interactions with living cells are compared with those produced from typical unmodified and TEMPO-oxidized nanocelluloses. We find that a significantly lower concentration of acetylated nanofibrils is needed to obtain bioinks of similar performance, affording more porous structures. Together with their high surface charge and axial aspect, acetylated nanocellulose produces dimensionally stable monolithic scaffolds that support drying and rewetting, required for packaging and sterilization. Considering their potential uses in cardiac devices, we discuss the interactions of the scaffolds with cardiac myoblast cells. Attachment, proliferation, and viability for 21 days are demonstrated. Overall, the performance of acetylated nanocellulose bioinks opens the possibility for reliable and scaleup fabrication of scaffolds appropriate for studies on cellular processes and for tissue engineering.
  • Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Korhonen, Marko T.; Ruggiero, Luca; Kuitunen, Sami; Suominen, Harri; Heinonen, Ari; Mikkola, Aki; Avela, Janne (2020)
    Age-related reduction in muscle force generation capacity is similarly evident across different lower limb muscle groups, yet decline in locomotor performance with age has been shown to depend primarily on reduced ankle extensor muscle function. To better understand why ageing has the largest detrimental effect on ankle joint function during locomotion, we examined maximal ankle and knee extensor force development during a two-leg hopping test in older and young men, and used these forces as a reference to calculate relative operating efforts for the knee and ankle extensors as participants walked, ran and sprinted. We found that, across locomotion modes in both age groups, ankle extensors operated at a greater relative effort compared to knee extensors; however, slightly less pronounced differences between ankle and knee extensor muscle efforts were present among older men, mainly due to a reduction in the ankle extensor force generation during locomotion modes. We consider these findings as evidence that reduced ankle push-off function in older age is driven by a tendency to keep ankle extensor effort during locomotion lower than it would otherwise be, which, in turn, may be an important self-optimisation strategy to prevent locomotor-induced fatigue of ankle extensor muscles.
  • Bjorkman, Mikko P.; Pitkala, Kaisu H.; Jyvakorpi, Satu; Strandberg, Timo E.; Tilvis, Reijo S. (2019)
    Objectives: To assess the prognostic significance of various characteristics and measurements of sarcopenia and physical functioning on all-cause mortality among home-dwelling older people with or at-risk of sarcopenia. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Setting: Porvoo sarcopenia trial in open care. Participants: Community-dwelling people aged 75 and older (N = 428, of which 182 were re-examined at one year) with four years of follow-up. Measurements: Body mass index (BMI), physical functioning (physical component of the RAND-36) and physical performance tests (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)), hand grip strength, walking speed, Charlson Comorbity Index, bioimpedance-based surrogates for muscle mass: Single Frequency Skeletal Muscle Index (SF-SMI), and Calf Intracellular Resistance Skeletal Muscle Index (CRi-SMI). Date of death was retrieved from central registers. Survival analyses were performed using Life-Table analyses and Cox models. Results: Most test variables (except BMI) were associated with four-year mortality in a dose-dependent fashion. After controlling for age, gender and co-morbidity, physical performance and functioning (both SPPB and RAND36), muscle strength (hand grip strength) and CRi-SMI appeared to be independent mortality risk indicators (p <0.001) whereas SF-SMI was not. When CRi-SMI values were grouped by gender-specific cut-off points, the probability of surviving for four years decreased by 66% among the older people with low CRi-SMI (HR = 0.34, 95%CI 0.15-0.78, p = 0.011). When low CRi-SMI was further controlled for SPPB, the prognostic significance remained significant (HR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.33-0.92, p = 0.021). After controlling for age, gender, comorbidity, and CRi-SMI, the physical component of the RAND-36 (p = 0.007), SPPB (p <0,001) and hand grip strength (p = 0.009) remained significant mortality predictors. Twelve-month changes were similarly associated with allcause mortality during the follow-up period. Conclusion: CRi-SMI, muscle strength, physical performance and physical functioning are each strong independent predictors of all-cause mortality among home-dwelling older people. Compared to these indicators, BMI seemed to be clearly inferior. Of two bioimpedance-based muscle indices, CRi SMI was better predictor of mortality than SF-SMI. In this regard, muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance are all suitable targets for the prevention of sarcopenia-related over-mortality.
  • Juonala, Markus; Pitkänen, Niina; Tolonen, Sanna; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievänen, Harri; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Sabin, Matthew A.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Jula, Antti; Loo, Britt-Marie; Impivaara, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Magnussen, Costan G.; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T. (2019)
    Context: Passive smoke exposure has been linked to the risk of osteoporosis in adults. Objective: We examined the independent effects of childhood passive smoke exposure on adult bone health. Design/Setting: Longitudinal, the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Participants: The study cohort included 1422 individuals followed for 28 years since baseline in 1980 (age 3 to 18 years). Exposure to passive smoking was determined in childhood. In adulthood, peripheral bone traits were assessed with peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) at the tibia and radius, and calcaneal mineral density was estimated with quantitative ultrasound. Fracture data were gathered by questionnaires. Results: Parental smoking in childhood was associated with lower pQCT-derived bone sum index in adulthood (beta +/- SE, -0.064 +/- 0.023 per smoking parent; P= 0.004) in multivariate models adjusted for age, sex, active smoking, body mass index, serum 25-OH vitamin D concentration, physical activity, and parental socioeconomic position. Similarly, parental smoking was associated with lower heel ultrasound estimated bone mineral density in adulthood (beta +/- SE, -0.097 +/- 0.041 per smoking parent; P = 0.02). Parental smoking was also associated with the incidence of low-energy fractures (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.62). Individuals with elevated cotinine levels (3 to 20 ng/mL) in childhood had lower bone sum index with pQCT (beta +/- SE, -0.206 +/- 0.057; P = 0.0003). Children whose parents smoked and had high cotinine levels (3 to 20 ng/mL) had significantly lower pQCT-derived bone sum index compared with those with smoking parents but had low cotinine levels ( Conclusions and Relevance: Children of parents who smoke have evidence of impaired bone health in adulthood.
  • Caetano-Lopes, Joana; Nery, Ana M.; Canhao, Helena; Duarte, Joana; Cascao, Rita; Rodrigues, Ana; Perpetuo, Ines P.; Abdulghani, Saba; Amaral, Pedro M.; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Konttinen, Yrjo T.; Graca, Luis; Vaz, Maria F.; Fonseca, Joao E. (2010)
  • Valadbeigi, Younes; Kurten, Theo (2019)
    HClO4 is an important catalyst in organic chemistry, and also acts as a reservoir or sink species in atmospheric chlorine chemistry. In this study, we computationally investigate the interactions of Bronsted (H2SO4, HClO4, HNO3) and Lewis acids (BH3, BF3, BCl3, BBr3, B(OH)(3)) with HClO4 using the omega B97xD method and the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set. Different isomers of clusters with up to 4 molecules (tetramer) were optimized, and the most stable structures were determined. The enthalpies, Delta H, and Gibbs free energies, Delta G, of cluster formation were calculated in the gas phase at 298 K. Atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations find B-O bond critical points only in the (BH3)(n)HClO4 clusters, while formation of other clusters was based on hydrogen bonding interactions. (H2SO4)HClO4 and (B(OH)(3))HClO4, with formation enthalpies of -14.1 and -12.0 kcal mol(-1), were the most stable, and (BCl3)HClO4 with a formation enthalpy of -2.9 kcal mol(-1), was the least stable cluster among the dimers. Clustering of the Lewis and Bronsted acids with HClO4 enhanced its acidity, so that clustering of four HClO4 molecules and formation of (HClO4)(4) increases the acidity of HClO4 by about 35 kcal mol(-1). The most acidic dimer cluster found in the study was (BBr3)HClO4, with Delta H-acid of 275 kcal mol(-1); 26 kcal mol(-1) stronger than that of the HClO4 monomer.
  • Tanaka, Atsushi; Khakalo, Alexey; Hauru, Lauri; Korpela, Antti; Orelma, Hannes (2018)
    In this study, we investigate the “chemical welding” of paper with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc) using a two-step process. First, the IL is transported into the structure of the paper as a water solution. Then, partial dissolution is achieved by activation with heat (80–95 °C), where the water evaporates and the surfaces of the fibres partially dissolve. The activated paper is washed with water to remove IL, and dried to fuse fibre surfaces into each other. The “chemically welded” paper structure has both elevated dry and wet strength. The treatment conditions can be adjusted to produce both paper-like materials and films. The most severe treatment conditions produce films that are fully transparent and their oxygen and grease barrier properties are excellent. As an all-cellulose material, the “chemically welded” paper is fully biodegradable and is a potential alternative to fossil fuel-based plastics.
  • Uutela, Toini I.; Kautiainen, Hannu J.; Häkkinen, Arja H. (2018)
    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation has a detrimental effect on muscle strength. Our objective was to analyse the association between muscle performance and different disease activity levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method A total of 199 consecutive outpatients were subject to cross-sectional assessment. Measurements of grip strength, endurance of the upper and lower limbs and trunk strength were combined as a muscle performance composite score (MPCS), using a standardised method. The disease activity for 28 joints (DAS28), radiographs of small joints (Larsen score), rheumatoid factor, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities and anti-rheumatic drugs were verified. Patients questionnaires included sociodemographic information, pain level, global disease activity, the Beck Depression Inventory, the mental and physical component scores of Short Form-36 and physical activity level. Results Of the 199 patients, 36%, 17% and 47% patients had remission, low/moderate and high DAS28, respectively. The patients in remission had significantly shorter disease duration, better parameters in terms of pain, physicians assessment, Larsen, Beck or physical component score of Short Form-36, and they were more physically active than other patients. After adjustments for age, sex, RA duration, radiographs and BMI, the decreasing MPCS associated linearly with the increasing DAS28 activity levels (linearity, P Conclusion Poorer MPCS is clearly associated with higher disease activity in patients with RA. Muscle performance is a modifiable risk factor. The findings suggest evaluating muscle performance in clinical practice as a part of patient care.
  • Scarabello Stape, Thiago Henrique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Fujiwara Yanikian, Cristiane Rumi; Szesz, Anna Luiza; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Marcondes Martins, Luis Roberto (2016)
    Objective. This study evaluated a new approach, named dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-wet bonding, to produce more desirable long-term prospects for the ultrafine interactions between synthetic polymeric biomaterials and the inherently hydrated dentin substrate. Methods. Sound third molars were randomly restored with/without DMSO pretreatment using a total-etch (Scocthbond Multipurpose: SBMP) and a self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond: CF) adhesive systems. Restored teeth (n = 10)/group were sectioned into sticks and submitted to different analyses: micro-Raman determined the degree of conversion inside the hybrid layer (DC); resin dentin microtensile bond strength and fracture pattern analysis at 24 h, 1 year and 2 years of aging; and nanoleakage evaluation at 24h and 2 years. Results. DMSO-wet bonding produced significantly higher 24 h bond strengths for SBMP that were sustained over the two-year period, with significantly less adhesive failures. Similarly, DMSO-treated CF samples presented significantly higher bond strength than untreated samples at two years. Both adhesives had significant less adhesive failures at 2 years with DMSO. DMSO had no effect on DC of SBMP, but significantly increased the DC of CE DMSO-treated SBMP samples presented reduced silver uptake compared to untreated samples after aging. Significance. Biomodification of the dentin substrate by the proposed strategy using DMSO is a suitable approach to produce more durable hybrid layers with superior ability to withstand hydrolytic degradation over time. Although the active role of DMSO on dentin bond improvement may vary according to monomer composition, its use seems to be effective on both self-etch and etch-and-rinse bonding mechanisms. (C) 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Uctasli, Merve; Cibelik, Hatice Sümeyye; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu (2021)
    Objective. To determine whether the effect of dentin moisture on the etch-and-rinse bond -ing may be minimized by dry-bonding protocols utilizing aqueous or ethanolic dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) pretreatments. Methods. H3PO4-etched mid-coronal dentin surfaces from human molars were randomly blot-or air-dried for 30 s and pretreated with DMSO/H2O or DMSO/EtOH solutions. Untreated samples served as control. Moisture control was performed by either blot-or air-drying. Samples were bonded with a multistep etch-and-rinse adhesive. Restored crown segments (n = 8/group) were stored in distilled water for 24 h and sectioned for microtensile bond strength testing. Resin-dentin beams (0.8 mm(2)) were tested under tension until fracture (0.5 mm/min) after 24 h and two years of storage in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. SEM nanoleakage evaluation was performed on aged samples. Collagen wettability was also measured by sessile drops of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic bonding resins (n = 8/group). Data were examined by factorial ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05). Results. Dry bonding to untreated collagen produced inferior immediate and long-term bond strengths than wet bonding (p < 0.05). Regardless of initial hydration and moisture control, DMSO-dry bonding produced initially higher and stable bond strengths after aging (p < 0.05). DMSO-pretreated groups presented improved collagen wettability with lower silver uptake (p < 0.05). Significance. Despite the common belief that etch-and-rinse adhesives must be applied onto moist collagen, DMSO-dry bonding protocols not only improved bonding performance and hybrid layer integrity, but also brought more versatility to collagen hybridization by reducing overdrying-related issues. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Academy of Dental Materials.
  • Zhou, Zhipeng; Kyritsakis, Andreas; Wang, Zhenxing; Li, Yi; Geng, Yingsan; Djurabekova, Flyura (2021)
    Vacuum breakdown, also known as vacuum discharge, is a common phenomenon in nature and is gaining an increasingly important role in modern technologies. In spite of a remarkable advance in our understanding of the nature of the breakdown, the role of the anode, i.e. the positively charged electrode, in the development of the breakdown is still completely unclear. In this paper, we employ a streak camera with picosecond time resolution to observe precisely the evolution of anodic glow from different anode materials. The results show that the choice of the anode material does not affect either the delay time between the cathodic and anodic flares or the formation of the conductive channel. Furthermore, we show that the heating of the anode surface by runaway electron currents is not sufficient to evaporate enough atoms for the anodic glow. On the other hand, we show that the neutrals for the anodic flare can be produced by the ions from the expanding cathode plasma by sputtering. Finally, the coincidence in time of the voltage collapse and the anode glow is consistent with the fast expansion of the cathode plasma, which causes both the voltage collapse and the anode glow when it reaches the anode, and densifies by sputtering and reflection. However, the two events are not in direct dependence of one another, since the order of their appearance is random, implying that a fully conductive channel can be established without any light emission from the anode.
  • Rontu, Ville; Nolvi, Anton; Hokkanen, Ari; Haeggström, Edward; Kassamakov, Ivan; Franssila, Sami (2018)
    We have investigated elastic and fracture properties of amorphous Al2O3 thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with bulge test technique using a free-standing thin film membrane and extended applicability of bulge test technique. Elastic modulus was determined to be 115 GPa for a 50 nm thick film and 170 GPa for a 15 nm thick film. Residual stress was 142 MPa in the 50 nm Al2O3 film while it was 116 MPa in the 15 nm Al2O3 film. Density was 3.11 g cm(-3) for the 50 nm film and 3.28 g cm(-3) for the 15 nm film. Fracture strength at 100 hPa s(-1) pressure ramp rate was 1.72 GPa for the 50 nm film while for the 15 nm film it was 4.21 GPa, almost 2.5-fold. Fracture strength was observed to be positively strain-rate dependent. Weibull moduli of these films were very high being around 50. The effective volume of a circular film in bulge test was determined from a FEM model enabling future comparison of fracture strength data between different techniques.
  • Lu, Eryang; Zhao, Junlei; Makkonen, Ilja; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Li, Zhiming; Hua, Mengyuan; Djurabekova, Flyura; Tuomisto, Filip (2021)
    We present evidence of homogenization of atomic diffusion properties caused by C and N interstitials in an equiatomic single-phase high entropy alloy (FeMnNiCoCr). This phenomenon is manifested by an unexpected interstitial-induced reduction and narrowing of the directly experimentally determined migration barrier distribution of mono-vacancy defects introduced by particle irradiation. Our observation by positron annihilation spectroscopy is explained by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations that predict preferential localization of C/N interstitials in regions rich in Mn and Cr, leading to a narrowing and reduction of the mono-vacancy size distribution in the random alloy. This phenomenon is likely to have a significant impact on the mechanical behavior under irradiation, as the local variations in elemental motion have a profound effect on the solute strengthening in high entropy alloys. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.
  • Laakkonen, Eija K.; Soliymani, Rabah; Karvinen, Sira; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M.; Baumann, Marc; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko; Lalowski, Maciej (2017)
    Female middle age is characterized by a decline in skeletal muscle mass and performance, predisposing women to sarcopenia, functional limitations, and metabolic dysfunction as they age. Menopausal loss of ovarian function leading to low circulating level of 17-estradiol has been suggested as a contributing factor to aging-related muscle deterioration. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown and thus far androgens have been considered as a major anabolic hormone for skeletal muscle. We utilized muscle samples from 24 pre- and postmenopausal women to establish proteome-wide profiles, associated with the difference in age (30-34 years old vs. 54-62 years old), menopausal status (premenopausal vs. postmenopausal), and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT; user vs. nonuser). None of the premenopausal women used hormonal medication while the postmenopausal women were monozygotic (MZ) cotwin pairs of whom the other sister was current HRT user or the other had never used HRT. Label-free proteomic analyses resulted in the quantification of 797 muscle proteins of which 145 proteins were for the first time associated with female aging using proteomics. Furthermore, we identified 17-estradiol as a potential upstream regulator of the observed differences in muscle energy pathways. These findings pinpoint the underlying molecular mechanisms of the metabolic dysfunction accruing upon menopause, thus having implications for understanding the complex functional interactions between female reproductive hormones and health.
  • Pitkälä, Kaisu; Raivio, Minna M.; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Tilvis, Reijo S.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Strandberg, Timo E. (2010)
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Maia, José; Jelenkovic, Aline; Pereira, Sara; Gouveia, Élvio; Antunes, António; Thomis, Martine; Lefevre, Johan; Kaprio, Jaakko; Freitas, Duarte (2021)
    Objectives To analyze the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in somatotype, physical fitness, and their mutual associations. Methods Twins from 214 pairs (87 monozygotic) of the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal, from 3 to 18 years of age (51% girls) were assessed in anthropometry and physical fitness tests. We estimated endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy based on anthropometric measures and physical fitness using the Eurofit test battery. Two age categories were analyzed: children (3-11 years) and adolescents (12-18 years). Genetic and environmental variations were estimated using quantitative genetic twin modeling. Results No genetic sex differences were found, thus boys and girls were pooled in all genetic analyses. Heritability estimates were high for somatotype (a(2)= 0.80-0.93), physical fitness traits (a(2)= 0.67-0.83), and largely similar in children and adolescents. Positive correlations were found for ectomorphy with motor ability and cardiorespiratory endurance as well as for endomorphy and mesomorphy with muscular strength (r= 0.25-0.37). In contrast, negative associations were found for ectomorphy with muscular strength, as well as for endomorphy and mesomorphy with motor ability and cardiorespiratory endurance (-0.46 to -0.26). Twin modeling indicated that these associations were explained mostly by genetic factors in common to the two associated traits (84% or more). Conclusions Associations between somatotype and physical fitness tests are mainly explained by common genetic background in children and adolescents. Therefore, interventions in youth should consider that a child's performance in physical fitness tests partly reflects their inherited physique.
  • Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietiläinen, Kirsi Hannele; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Voelzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria (2012)