Browsing by Subject "STRENGTHS"

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  • Bjorklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Paivi (2014)
  • Sauna-aho, Oili; BjelogrlicLaakso, Nina; Rautava, Päivi; Arvio, Maria (2020)
    Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability. The aim of our longitudinal study was to describe ageing-related cognitive changes in men with FXS. Method A neuropsychologist determined the raw scores (RSs) of 19 men with FXS twice with the Leiter International Performance Scale at an average interval of 22 years. The ages of the participants at baseline ranged from 16 to 50 (mean 27) years. Results At follow-up, the RSs improved in two men, remained the same in two men and declined in 15 men. Overall, the RS of the study group deteriorated by an average 4 points in RSs (p <.001). Conclusion Cognitive ageing in men with FXS started earlier than that in men in the general population; in many cases, cognitive ageing in men with FXS began before middle age, usually without any medical or other underlying cause.
  • Casas, Lidia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Täubel, Martin; Hyytiäinen, Heidi; Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Lehmann, Irina; Standl, Marie; Pekkanen, Juha; Heinrich, Joachim (2019)
    This study evaluates the association between indoor microbial diversity early in life and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms in children at ages 10 and 15 years.A random sample enriched with subjects with hyperactivity/inattention at age 15 years was selected from the German LISA birth cohort. Bedroom floor dust was collected at age 3 months and 4 bacterial and fungal diversity measures [number of observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices] were calculated from Illumina MiSeq sequencing data. Hyperactivity/inattention was based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 10 and 15 (cut-off >= 7). Adjusted associations between 4 diversity measures in tertiles and hyperactivity/inattention were investigated with weighted and survey logistic regression models. We included 226 individuals with information on microbial diversity and hyperactivity/inattention. Early life bacterial diversity was inversely associated with hyperactivity/inattention at age 10 [bacterial OTUs (medium vs low: aOR = 0.4, 95%CI = (0.2-0.8)) and Chao1 (medium vs low: 0.3 (0.1-0.5); high vs low: 0.3 (0.2-0.6)], whereas fungal diversity was directly associated [Chao1 (high vs low: 2.1 (1.1-4.0)), Shannon (medium vs low: 2.8 (1.3-5.8)), and Simpson (medium vs low: 4.7 (2.4-9.3))]. At age 15, only Shannon index was significantly associated with hyperactivity/inattention [bacteria (medium vs low: 2.3 (1.2-4.2); fungi (high vs low: 0.5 (0.3-0.9))]. In conclusion, early life exposure to microbial diversity may play a role in the psychobehavioural development. We observe heterogeneity in the direction of the associations encouraging further longitudinal studies to deepen our understanding of the characteristics of the microbial community underlying the observed associations.
  • Dobewall, Henrik; Lindfors, Pirjo; Karvonen, Sakari; Koivusilta, Leena; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hotulainen, Risto; Rimpelä, Arja (2019)
  • Volanen, S-M.; Lassander, M.; Hankonen, N.; Santalahti, P.; Hintsanen, M.; Simonsen, N.; Raevuori, A.; Mullola, S.; Vahlberg, T.; But, A.; Suominen, S. (2020)
    Background Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) have shown promising effects on mental health among children and adolescents, but high-quality studies examining the topic are lacking. The present study assessed the effects of MBI on mental health in school-setting in an extensive randomised controlled trial. Methods Finnish school children and adolescents (N=3519), aged 12-15 years (6th to 8th graders), from 56 schools were randomized into a 9 week MBI group, and control groups with a relaxation program or teaching as usual. The primary outcomes were resilience, socio-emotional functioning, and depressive symptoms at baseline, at completion of the programs at 9 weeks (T9), and at follow-up at 26 weeks (T26). Results Overall, mindfulness did not show more beneficial effects on the primary outcomes compared to the controls except for resilience for which a positive intervention effect was found at T9 in all participants (β=1.18, SE 0.57, p=0.04) as compared to the relaxation group. In addition, in gender and grade related analyses, MBI lowered depressive symptoms in girls at T26 (β=-0.49, SE 0.21, p=0.02) and improved socio-emotional functioning at T9(β=-1.37, SE 0.69, p=0.049) and at T26 (β=-1.71, SE 0.73, p=0.02) among 7th graders as compared to relaxation. Limitations The inactive control group was smaller than the intervention and active control groups, reducing statistical power. Conclusions A short 9-week MBI in school-setting provides slight benefits over a relaxation program and teaching as usual. Future research should investigate whether embedding regular mindfulness-based practice in curriculums could intensify the effects.
  • Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Tjäderhane, Leo; Abuna, Gabriel; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu (2018)
    Objective. To determine whether bonding effectiveness and hybrid layer integrity on acid-etched dehydrated dentin would be comparable to the conventional wet-bonding technique through new dentin biomodification approaches using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Methods. Etched dentin surfaces from extracted sound molars were randomly bonded in wet or dry conditions (30 s air drying) with DMSO/ethanol or DMSO/H2O as pretreatments using a simplified (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE: SU) and a multi-step (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE: SBMP) etch-and-rinse adhesives. Untreated dentin surfaces served as control. Bonded teeth (n=8) were stored in distilled water for 24 h and sectioned into resin-dentin beams (0.8 mm(2)) for microtensile bond strength test and quantitative interfacial nanoleakage analysis (n = 8) under SEM. Additional teeth (n = 2) were prepared for micropermeability assessment by CFLSM under simulated pulp ar pressure (20 cm H2O) using 5 mM fluorescein as a tracer. Microtensile data was analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by Tukey Test and nanoleakage by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn-Bonferroni multiple comparison test (alpha = 0.05). Results. While dry-bonding of SBMP produced significantly lower bond strengths than wet-bonding (p Conclusion. DMSO pretreatments may be used as a new suitable strategy to improve bonding of water-based adhesives to demineralized air-dried dentin beyond conventional wetbonding. Less porous resin-dentin interfaces with higher bond strengths on air-dried etched dentin were achieved; nonetheless, overall efficiency varied according to DMSO's co-solvent and adhesive type. Clinical significance. DMSO pretreatments permit etched dentin to be air-dried before hybridization facilitating residual water removal and thus improving bonding effectiveness. This challenges the current paradigm of wet-bonding requirement for the etch-and-rinse approach creating new possibilities to enhance the clinical longevity of resin-dentin interfaces. (C) 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Raymond, Ivan J.; Raymond, Christopher M. (2019)
    Despite the increasing interest in the intersections among values, well-being and environmental outcomes in sustainability science, few studies have considered these relationships by drawing on well-established theories and methods from positive psychology. The aim of this paper is to review three approaches conceptually related to positive psychology (self-determination theory, SDT; character strengths and virtues, CSV; acceptancy and commitment therapy, ACT) and compare these to sustainability approaches to well-being and values. First, we critically compare how values are understood, constructed and operationalised within the positive psychology and environmental values literatures. We offer a summary table to detail key concepts (and articles) which sustainability scientists may draw upon in their work against the dimensions of (1) elicitation process, (2) value provider (3) value concept and (4) value indicators. Second, we critically compare how the positive psychology and environmental values literature have considered the intersections between values and well-being. We identify the positive psychology pathways of 'value activation' and 'healthy-values' as alternative methods for sustainability scientists to consider. Third, we offer future options for the integration of positive psychology and environmental values literatures to deliver interventions which may lead to well-being and sustainability outcomes. We suggest that mindfulness could be applied as a method to clarify and activate values within a nature exposure context, which harnesses the qualities of both disciplines. To demonstrate integrative possibilities, a case example is offered which brings focus to well-being and sustainability outcomes, the intersection of value pathways, and intervention components drawn from both disciplines.
  • Finell, Eerika; Tolvanen, Asko; Pekkanen, Juha; Minkkinen, Jaana; Stahl, Timo; Rimpela, Arja (2018)
    The effect of students' psychosocial problems on their reporting of indoor air quality (subjective IAQ) and indoor air-related (IA-related) symptoms has not been studied in schools in a longitudinal setting. Therefore, we analyzed whether changes in students' psychosocial problems (socioemotional difficulties and perceived teacher student relations) between the beginning of seventh grade (age 12-13 years) and the end of ninth grade (15-16 years) predicted subjective IAQ and IA-related symptoms at the end of ninth grade. In order to explore the independent effect of psychosocial factors, we focused only on students in schools without observed indoor air problems. The analysis was of longitudinal data (N = 986 students) using latent change modelling. Increased socioemotional difficulties were related to more IA-related symptoms (standardized beta = 0.20) and deteriorated subjective IAQ (standardized beta = 0.20). Increased problems in teacher student relations were related to deteriorated subjective IAQ (standardized beta = 0.21). Although students' psychosocial problems explained only 9-13% of the total variances, our findings support the notion that psychosocial factors also need to be taken into account in the evaluation of IAQ and the prevalence of IA-related symptoms in schools.
  • IMAGEN Consortium; Frere, Pauline Bezivin; Vetter, Nora C.; Artiges, Eric; Penttilä, Jani; Lemaitre, Herve (2020)
    Though adolescence is a time of emerging sex differences in emotions, sex-related differences in the anatomy of the maturing brain has been under-explored over this period. The aim of this study was to investigate whether puberty and sexual differentiation in brain maturation could explain emotional differences between girls and boys during adolescence. We adapted a dedicated longitudinal pipeline to process structural and diffusion images from 335 typically developing adolescents between 14 and 16 years. We used voxel-based and Regions of Interest approaches to explore sex and puberty effects on brain and behavioral changes during adolescence. Sexual differences in brain maturation were characterized by amygdala and hippocampal volume increase in boys and decrease in girls. These changes were mediating the sexual differences in positive emotional regulation as illustrated by positive attributes increase in boys and decrease in girls. Moreover, the differential maturation rates between the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex highlighted the delayed maturation in boys compared to girls. This is the first study to show the sex effects on the differential cortico/subcortical maturation rates and the interaction between sex and puberty in the limbic system maturation related to positive attributes, reported as being protective from emotional disorders.
  • Beattie, Marguerite M; Konttinen, Hanna Marja; Volanen, Salla-Maarit; Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Hankonen, Nelli Elisa (2020)
    While practicing mindfulness can potentially mitigate and prevent mental health problems among adolescents, mindfulness programmes delivered in schools do not uniformly lead to uptake of mindfulness practice. This low adherence threatens the internal validity of mindfulness trials, and may hinder the alleviation of mental health problems in youth who fail to take up potentially effective techniques. Consequently, it is vital to investigate what predicts uptake of independent mindfulness practice in such interventions. This study investigates whether social cognitions from the Reasoned Action Approach and initial mental health predict mindfulness practice among 1,646 adolescent recipients of the school-based Healthy Learning Mind mindfulness intervention. Path analyses revealed that, in line with the Reasoned Action Approach, descriptive and injunctive norms, and positive and negative outcome expectations predicted intention to practice mindfulness (R-squared = .37, p<.001), which in turn predicted different measures of mindfulness practice itself (R-squared = .09-.17, p<.001). Neither perceived behavioural control nor mental health variables (depressive symptoms, internalisation and externalisation of difficulties, and resilience) were associated with mindfulness practice after the intervention (R-squared = .01, p>.05). Social norms and outcome expectations are potential intervention targets to increase mindfulness practice motivation and behaviour among adolescents.