Browsing by Subject "STRESS RESPONSES"

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  • Kovalchuk, Andriy; Raffaello, Tommaso; Jaber, Emad; Keriö, Susanna; Ghimire, Rajendra; Lorenz, W. Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F. D.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2015)
    Background: During their lifetime, conifer trees are exposed to numerous herbivorous insects. To protect themselves against pests, trees have developed a broad repertoire of protective mechanisms. Many of the plant's defence reactions are activated upon an insect attack, and the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not entirely understood yet, in particular in conifer trees. Here, we present the results of our studies on the transcriptional response and the volatile compounds production of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) upon the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) feeding. Results: Transcriptional response of Scots pine to the weevil attack was investigated using a novel customised 36.4 K Pinus taeda microarray. The weevil feeding caused large-scale changes in the pine transcriptome. In total, 774 genes were significantly up-regulated more than 4-fold (p = 0.05), whereas 64 genes were significantly down-regulated more than 4-fold. Among the up-regulated genes, we could identify genes involved in signal perception, signalling pathways, transcriptional regulation, plant hormone homeostasis, secondary metabolism and defence responses. The weevil feeding on stem bark of pine significantly increased the total emission of volatile organic compounds from the undamaged stem bark area. The emission levels of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were also increased. Interestingly, we could not observe any correlation between the increased production of the terpenoid compounds and expression levels of the terpene synthase-encoding genes. Conclusions: The obtained data provide an important insight into the transcriptional response of conifer trees to insect herbivory and illustrate the massive changes in the host transcriptome upon insect attacks. Moreover, many of the induced pathways are common between conifers and angiosperms. The presented results are the first ones obtained by the use of a microarray platform with an extended coverage of pine transcriptome (36.4 K cDNA elements). The platform will further facilitate the identification of resistance markers with the direct relevance for conifer tree breeding.
  • Santangeli, Andrea; Wistbacka, Ralf; Morosinotto, Chiara; Raulo, Aura (2019)
    Intact ecosystems are being lost or modified worldwide, and many animal species are now forced to live in altered landscapes. A large amount of scientific studies have focused on understanding direct effects of habitat alterations on species occurrence, abundance, breeding success, and other life history aspects. Much less attention has been placed on understanding how habitat alterations impact on the physiology of species, e.g., via elevated chronic stress when living in an altered landscape. Here, we quantify the effects of individual age and sex, as well as effects of landscape and social factors on chronic stress of an endangered forest specialist species, the Siberian flying squirrel Pteromys volans. We collected hair samples over 2years from across 192 flying squirrels and quantified their chronic stress response via cortisol concentrations. We then ran statistical models to relate cortisol concentrations with landscape and social factors. We show that cortisol concentrations in flying squirrels are neither affected by habitat amount and connectivity, nor by the density of conspecifics in the area. We however found that cortisol concentration was higher in adults than in pups, and in males compared with females. Lack of an effect of environmental factors on cortisol concentrations may indicate low physiological sensitivity to alterations in the surrounding environment, possibly due to low densities of predators that could induce stress in the study area. Further research should focus on possible effects of varying predator densities, alone and in interaction with landscape features, in shaping chronic stress of this and other species.
  • Battersby, Brendan; Richter, Uwe; Safronov, Omid (2019)
    Proteotoxicity has long been considered a key factor in mitochondrial dysfunction and human disease. The origin of the endogenous offending toxic substrates and the regulatory pathways to deal with these insults, however, have remained unclear. Mitochondria maintain a compartmentalized gene expression system that in animals is only responsible for synthesis of 1% of the organelle proteome. Because of the relatively small contribution of the mitochondrial genome to the overall proteome, the synthesis and quality control of these nascent chains to maintain organelle proteostasis has long been overlooked. However, recent research has uncovered mechanisms by which defects to the quality control of mitochondrial gene expression are linked to a novel cellular stress response that impinges upon organelle form and function and cell fitness. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms for a key event in the response: activation of the metalloprotease OMA1. This severs the membrane tether of the dynamin-related GTPase OPA1, which is a critical determinant for mitochondrial morphology and function. We also highlight the evolutionary conservation from bacteria of these quality-control mechanisms to maintain membrane integrity, gene expression, and cell fitness.
  • Rahikainen, Moona; Trotta, Andrea; Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesus; Vuorinen, Katariina; Overmyer, Kirk; Moffatt, Barbara; Ravanel, Stephane; Glawischnig, Erich; Kangasjarvi, Saijaliisa (2017)
    Glucosinolates (GSL) of cruciferous plants comprise a major group of structurally diverse secondary compounds which act as deterrents against aphids and microbial pathogens and have large commercial and ecological impacts. While the transcriptional regulation governing the biosynthesis and modification of GSL is now relatively well understood, post-translational regulatory components that specifically determine the structural variation of indole glucosinolates have not been reported. We show that the cytoplasmic protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'gamma (PP2A-B'gamma) physically interacts with indole glucosinolate methyltransferases and controls the methoxylation of indole glucosinolates and the formation of 4-meth-oxy-indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate in Arabidopsis leaves. By taking advantage of proteomic approaches and metabolic analysis we further demonstrate that PP2A-B'gamma is required to control the abundance of oligomeric protein complexes functionally linked with the activated methyl cycle and the trans-methylation capacity of leaf cells. These findings highlight the key regulatory role of PP2A-B'gamma in methionine metabolism and provide a previously unrecognized perspective for metabolic engineering of glucosinolate metabolism in cruciferous plants.
  • Brosche, Mikael; Blomster, Tiina; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Cui, Fuqiang; Sipari, Nina; Leppälä, Johanna; Lamminmäki, Airi; Tomai, Gloria; Narayanasamy, Shaman; Reddy, Ramesha A.; Keinänen, Markku Juhani; Overmyer, Kirk; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko (2014)