Browsing by Subject "STRESSES"

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  • Khazaei, Hamid; Wach, Damian; Pecio, Alicja; Vandenberg, Albert; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Increasing productivity through improvement of photosynthesis in faba bean breeding programmes requires understanding of the genetic control of photosynthesis-related traits. Hence, we investigated the gene action of leaf area, gas exchange traits, canopy temperature, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and biomass. We chose inbred lines derived from cultivars 'Aurora' (Sweden) and 'Melodie' (France) along with an Andean accession, ILB 938, crossed them (Aurora/2 x Melodie/2, ILB 938/2 x Aurora/2 and Melodie/2 x ILB 938/2), and prepared the six standard generations for quantitative analysis (P-1, P-2, F-1, F-2, B-1, and B-2). Gene action was complex for each trait, involving additive and dominance gene actions and interactions. Additive gene action was important for SPAD, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and F-v/F-m. Dominance effect was important for biomass production. It is suggested that breeders selecting for productivity can maximize genetic gain by selecting early generations for canopy temperature, SPAD and F-v/F-m, then later generations for biomass. The information on genetics of various contributing traits of photosynthesis will assist plant breeders in choosing an appropriate breeding strategy for enhancing productivity in faba bean.
  • Khazaei, H.; Link, W.; Street, K.; Stoddard, F. L. (2018)
    Here we review the potential of ILB 938 (IG 12132- doi: 10.18730/60FD2), a unique faba bean accession originating from the Andean region of Colombia and Ecuador, maintained at ICARDA - International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, with resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses and carrying some useful morphological markers. It has been used as a donor of leaf-related drought adaptation traits and chocolate spot (Bohytis fabae) resistance genes in faba bean breeding programmes worldwide. From generated populations of recombinant inbred lines, quantitative traits loci associated with these useful traits have been mapped. Other markers, such as a lack of stipule-spot pigmentation and clinging pod wall, show the presence of unusual changes in biochemical pathways that may have economic value in the future.
  • Snellman, J. E.; Rheinhardt, M.; Käpylä, P. J.; Mantere, M. J.; Brandenburg, A. (2012)
  • Liukkonen, Mimmi K.; Mononen, Mika E.; Klets, Olesya; Arokoski, Jari P.; Saarakkala, Simo; Korhonen, Rami K. (2017)
    Economic costs of osteoarthritis (OA) are considerable. However, there are no clinical tools to predict the progression of OA or guide patients to a correct treatment for preventing OA. We tested the ability of our cartilage degeneration algorithm to predict the subject-specific development of OA and separate groups with different OA levels. The algorithm was able to predict OA progression similarly with the experimental follow-up data and separate subjects with radiographical OA (Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade 2 and 3) from healthy subjects (KL0). Maximum degeneration and degenerated volumes within cartilage were significantly higher (p <0.05) in OA compared to healthy subjects, KL3 group showing the highest degeneration values. Presented algorithm shows a great potential to predict subjectspecific progression of knee OA and has a clinical potential by simulating the effect of interventions on the progression of OA, thus helping decision making in an attempt to delay or prevent further OA symptoms.