Browsing by Subject "STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS"

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  • Rosenstrom, Tom; Fawcett, Tim W.; Higginson, Andrew D.; Metsa-Simola, Niina; Hagen, Edward H.; Houston, Alasdair I.; Martikainen, Pekka (2017)
    Divorce is associated with an increased probability of a depressive episode, but the causation of events remains unclear. Adaptive models of depression propose that depression is a social strategy in part, whereas non-adaptive models tend to propose a diathesis-stress mechanism. We compare an adaptive evolutionary model of depression to three alternative non-adaptive models with respect to their ability to explain the temporal pattern of depression around the time of divorce. Register-based data (304,112 individuals drawn from a random sample of 11% of Finnish people) on antidepressant purchases is used as a proxy for depression. This proxy affords an unprecedented temporal resolution (a 3-monthly prevalence estimates over 10 years) without any bias from non-compliance, and it can be linked with underlying episodes via a statistical model. The evolutionary-adaptation model (all time periods with risk of divorce are depressogenic) was the best quantitative description of the data. The non-adaptive stress-relief model (period before divorce is depressogenic and period afterwards is not) provided the second best quantitative description of the data. The peak-stress model (periods before and after divorce can be depressogenic) fit the data less well, and the stress-induction model (period following divorce is depressogenic and the preceding period is not) did not fit the data at all. The evolutionary model was the most detailed mechanistic description of the divorce-depression link among the models, and the best fit in terms of predicted curvature; thus, it offers most rigorous hypotheses for further study. The stress-relief model also fit very well and was the best model in a sensitivity analysis, encouraging development of more mechanistic models for that hypothesis.
  • Seppala, Jussi; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kampman, Olli; Leiviska, Jaana; Mannisto, Satu; Mantyselka, Pekka; Oksa, Heikki; Ovaskainen, Yrj; Viikki, Merja; Vanhala, Mauno; Seppala, Jussi (2013)
  • Elovainio, Marko; Lipsanen, Jari; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Suvisaari, Jaana; Hakulinen, Christian (2021)
    According to the network theory strong associations between symptoms drive the disease process. We compared those with and without diagnosed depressive disorders (DD+/DD-) and analysed the effects of differences in (a) network connectivity, (b) symptom thresholds, and (c) autoregressive loops (i.e. how strongly specific symptoms predict themselves) on the potential activation of symptoms over time using simulations developed by Cramer and others (2016). The parameters for the simulation (symptom connectivity and symptom threshold) were obtained from Ising models and cross-lagged panel network analyses. Data were from the nationally representative samples (Health 2000-2011 Study) of 4190 participants measured in 2011 (cross-sectional analyses) and 3201 participants measured in 2000 and 2011 (longitudinal analyses). DD diagnosis was based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and depressive symptoms were self-reported using the 13-item version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Differences in symptom connectivity between participants with and without DD were not observed, but the mean probability (threshold) of symptom existence in the DD + group was higher than in the DD-group (0.41 vs. 0.12). Simulation showed that there are more active symptoms in the DD + group after 10 000 time points (means 1.2 vs. 4.6) than in the DD-group. This difference largely disappeared when we used longitudinal networks, including autoregressive loops, in the connectivity matrix. Our results suggest that the differences in symptom thresholds and autoregressive loops may be more important features than symptom connectivity in differentiating people with and without DD.
  • Wesolowska, Karolina; Elovainio, Marko; Koponen, Mikael; Tuiskula, Annukka M.; Hintsanen, Mirka; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Maattanen, Ilmari; Swan, Heikki; Hintsa, Taina (2017)
    We examined whether long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutation carrier status or symptomatic LQTS are associated with depression, and whether there are sex differences in these potential relationships. The sample comprised 782 participants (252 men). Of the 369 genetically defined LQTS mutation carriers, 169 were symptomatic and 200 were asymptomatic. The control group consisted of 413 unaffected relatives. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). No association was found for LQTS mutation carrier status with depression. The multinomial logistic regression showed that LQTS mutation carrier men with arrhythmic events scored higher on depression compared with the control group, even when adjusting for age, beta-blockers, antidepressants, and social support (OR = 1.09, 95 % CI [1.02, 1.15], p = .007). The binary logistic regression comparing symptomatic and asymptomatic LQTS mutation carriers showed that symptomatic LQTS was associated with depression in men (OR = 1.10, 95 % CI [1.03, 1.19], p = .009). The results were unchanged when additionally adjusted for education. These findings suggest that symptomatic LQTS is associated with depression in men but not in women. Overall, however, depression is more frequent in women than men. Thus, regular screening for depression in LQTS mutation carriers and their unaffected family members can be important.
  • Rosenstrom, Tom; Jokela, Markus (2017)
    Background: Diagnostic definitions for depressive disorders remain a debated topic, despite their central role in clinical practice and research. We use both recent evidence and nationally representative data to derive an empirically-based modification of DSM-IV/-5 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Method: A modified MDD diagnosis was derived by analyzing data from Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a multistage probability sample of adults (n=20 013; age >= 18 years) in coterminous USA, Alaska and Hawaii. The old and the newly suggested MDD definitions were compared for their associated disability (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule and number of disability days in past month), suicide attempt, and other covariates. Results: Our data-driven definition for major depression was "lack of interest to all or most things" plus four other symptoms from the set (weight gain, weight loss, insomnia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, diminished ability to think concentrate, suicidal ideation attempt}. The new definition captured all the disability implied by MDD and excluded cases that showed no greater disability than the general population nor increased risk of suicide attempts. The lifetime prevalence of the new diagnosis was 14.7% (95% CI=14-15.4%) of the population, slightly less than for the old definition (16.4%; CI =15.4-17.3%). Limitations: Only conservative modifications of MDD could be studied, because of restrictions in the symptom data. Conclusions: With only small adjusting, the new definition for major depression may be more clinically relevant than the old one, and could serve as a conservative replacement for the old definition. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Smith, Caroline B.; Rosenström, Tom; Hagen, Edward H. (2022)
    Background Depression occurs about twice as often in women as in men, a disparity that remains poorly understood. In a previous publication, Hagen and Rosenstrom predicted and found that grip strength, a highly sexually dimorphic index of physical formidability, mediated much of the effect of sex on depression. Striking results like this are more likely to be published than null results, potentially biasing the scientific record. It is therefore critical to replicate and extend them. Methodology Using new data from the 2013-14 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of US households (n = 3650), we replicated models of the effect of sex and grip strength on depression reported in Hagen and Rosenstrom, along with additional potential confounds and a new detailed symptom-level exploration. Results Overall, the effects from the original paper were reproduced although with smaller effect sizes. Grip strength mediated 38% of the effect of sex on depression, compared to 63% in Hagen and Rosenstrom. These results were extended with findings that grip strength had a stronger association with some depression symptoms, like suicidality, low interest and low mood than with other symptoms, like appetite changes. Conclusions Grip strength is negatively associated with depression, especially its cognitive-affective symptoms, controlling for numerous possible confounds. Although many factors influence depression, few of these reliably occur cross-culturally in a sex-stratified manner and so are unlikely to explain the well-established, cross-cultural sex difference in depression. The sex difference in upper body strength occurs in all populations and is therefore a candidate evolutionary explanation for some of the sex difference in depression. Lay summary: Why are women at twice the risk of developing depression as men? Depression typically occurs during social conflicts, such as physical or sexual abuse. Physically strong individuals can often single-handedly resolve conflicts in their favor, whereas physically weaker individuals often need help from others. We argue that depression is a credible cry for help. Because men generally have greater strength than women, we argue that men may be more likely to resolve conflicts using physical formidability and women to signal others for help. We find that higher grip strength is associated with lower depression, particularly symptoms like feeling down or thoughts of suicide and that strength accounts for part of the sex difference in rates of depression.