Browsing by Subject "STYLE INTERVENTION"

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  • Engberg, Elina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Huvinen, Emilia; Viljakainen, Heli T. (2020)
    Introduction Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. However, bone health of women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) has received little attention. This cross-sectional study compares bone health between premenopausal women with and without a history of GDM, and examines factors associated with bone health in women with a history of GDM or obesity. Material and methods We measured areal bone mineral density for total hip, lumbar spine and whole body, and total body fat percentage (fat%) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 224 women. In addition, we measured bone characteristics of radius and tibia with peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Results When compared with women without a history of GDM (mean age 39 years [SD 5], body mass index [BMI] 35 kg/m(2) [SD 6], fat% 48 [SD 7]), women with a history of GDM (age 41 years [SD 4], BMI 31 kg/m(2) [SD 7], fat% 43 [SD 10]) had lower hip and whole body bone mineral densities, and inferior tibia outcomes. However, the differences in bone characteristics disappeared after controlling for age, height, BMI and fat%. After controlling for age, height, BMI and smoking, physical activity and healthier diet were positively associated with bone outcomes, whereas fat%, HbA(1c) and screen time were negatively associated with bone outcomes. Particularly, fat% showed independent negative associations with whole body bone mineral density and several tibia and radius characteristics. Conclusions Fat% is associated with adverse bone health, independently of BMI, in women with a history of GDM or obesity. Promoting healthy lifestyle and reducing fat% in high-risk women could improve bone health and prevent future fractures.
  • Laine, M. K.; Kujala, R.; Eriksson, J. G.; Kautiainen, H.; Sarna, S.; Kujala, U. M. (2017)
    Aims Regular physical activity plays a major role, in both prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Less is known whether vigorous physical activity during young adulthood is associated with costs of diabetes medication in later life. The aim of this study is to evaluate this question. Methods The study population consisted of 1314 former elite-class athletes and 860 matched controls. The former athletes were divided into three groups based on their active career sport: endurance, mixed and power sports. Information on purchases of diabetes medication between 1995 and 2009 was obtained from the drug purchase register of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Results The total cost of diabetes medication per person year was significantly lower among the former endurance (mean 81 theta [95% CI 33-151 theta ]) and mixed group athletes (mean 272 theta [95% CI 181- 388 theta]) compared with the controls (mean 376 theta [95% CI 284- 485 theta]), (p <0.001 and p = 0.045, respectively). Of the former endurance athletes, 0.4% used insulin, while 5.2% of the controls used insulin (p = 0.018). Conclusions A career as former endurance, sprint, jumper or team game athlete seems to reduce the costs of diabetes medication in later life.