Browsing by Subject "SUBSTORM"

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  • Honkonen, I.; Palmroth, M.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Janhunen, P.; Aikio, A. (2011)
  • Myllys, M.; Kilpua, E.; Pulkkinen, T. (2015)
    The purpose of this study is to quantify how solar-wind conditions affect the energy and plasma transport in the geomagnetic tail and its large-scale configuration. To identify the role of various effects, the magnetospheric data were sorted according to different solar-wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) parameters: speed, dynamic pressure, IMF north-south component, epsilon parameter, Auroral Electrojet (AE) index and IMF ultra low-frequency (ULF) fluctuation power. We study variations in the average flow speed pattern and the occurrence rate of fast flow bursts in the magnetotail during different solar-wind conditions using magnetospheric data from five Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission spacecraft and solar-wind data from NASA's OM-NIWeb. The time interval covers the years from 2008 to 2011 during the deep solar minimum between cycles 23 and 24 and the relatively quiet rising phase of cycle 24. Hence, we investigate magnetospheric processes and solar-wind-magnetospheric coupling during a relatively quiet state of the magnetosphere. We show that the occurrence rate of the fast (vertical bar V-tail vertical bar > 100 km s(-1)) sunward flows varies under different solar-wind conditions more than the occurrence of the fast tailward flows. The occurrence frequency of the fast tailward flows does not change much with the solar-wind conditions. We also note that the sign of the IMF B-Z has the most visible effect on the occurrence rate and pattern of the fast sunward flows. High-speed flow bursts are more common during the slow than fast solar-wind conditions.
  • Palmroth, Minna; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Juusola, Liisa; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.; Hietala, Heli; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Ganse, Urs; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Vainio, Rami; Hesse, Michael (2017)
    The key dynamics of the magnetotail have been researched for decades and have been associated with either three-dimensional (3-D) plasma instabilities and/or magnetic reconnection. We apply a global hybrid-Vlasov code, Vlasiator, to simulate reconnection self-consistently in the ion kinetic scales in the noon-midnight meridional plane, including both dayside and nightside reconnection regions within the same simulation box. Our simulation represents a numerical experiment, which turns off the 3-D instabilities but models ion-scale reconnection physically accurately in 2-D. We demonstrate that many known tail dynamics are present in the simulation without a full description of 3-D instabilities or without the detailed description of the electrons. While multiple reconnection sites can coexist in the plasma sheet, one reconnection point can start a global reconfiguration process, in which magnetic field lines become detached and a plasmoid is released. As the simulation run features temporally steady solar wind input, this global reconfiguration is not associated with sudden changes in the solar wind. Further, we show that lobe density variations originating from dayside reconnection may play an important role in stabilising tail reconnection.