Browsing by Subject "SUCCESS"

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  • Laursen, Karsten; Moller, Anders Pape; Haugaard, Lars; Öst, Markus; Vainio, Jouni (2019)
    Capital breeders, such as the eider duck Somateria mollissima, accumulate resources before the start of breeding. Eiders preferentially feed on blue mussels Mytilus edulis to build up body condition during winter. We explored how body condition and gizzard mass of wintering eiders relate to mussel quality and quantity, winter climate and body condition of females at the breeding grounds. Body condition during winter (defined as scaled body mass index) of eiders increased during winter and the magnitude of the effect depended on age and mussel quality. Gizzard mass of eiders increased during winter with effects of mussel quality, mussel stocks and sex. Body condition in winter of adult females increased from the first half of January to the second half of February on average by 1.5%, equal to c. 96 g. During the same period gizzard mass of adult females increased by 12.2%, i.e., a nearly ten-fold increase compared to that observed in body condition in winter. Body condition of females at the breeding grounds in Finland (defined as body condition at hatching) was significantly positively correlated with gizzard mass in winter, but not significantly correlated with body condition in winter. Thus, eiders allocate body reserves to increase gizzard mass but less so to increase body condition in winter. This can be considered an adaptive migratory strategy of these eiders, whereby large winter (pre-migratory) gizzards increase food processing capacity, making it possible for eiders to arrive at the breeding grounds with superior body condition and a high reproductive potential.
  • Hyytinen, Heidi; Siven, Mia; Salminen, Outi; Katajavuori, Nina (2021)
    Students in higher education have been shown to have difficulties in developing their critical thinking skills, such as analysis and problem solving, reasoning and argumentation. Open-ended tasks offer opportunities for students to develop their own interpretations of various sources, to critically analyse domain-specific knowledge and utilize that knowledge in their argumentation. This study focuses on the ability of new Master's students (n=37) to utilize pharmaceutical knowledge from different sources in producing written arguments and counter-arguments in the context of open-ended assignment task. The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The results showed that there was substantial variation in how students analysed and processed pharmaceutical knowledge as well as how they utilized that knowledge in their argumentation. While some students were able to provide comprehensive analysis of the different sources, others superficially analysed and processed the sources and struggled to generate convincing arguments. Students' written responses were typically one-sided: only a few students provided counter-arguments associated with the pharmaceutical problem-solving situation presented in the task. Understanding the nature of the challenges in argumentation and knowledge processing encountered by pharmacy students can help pharmacy educators to modify their pedagogical practices to better support students' learning. Practitioner Notes 1. University students even in Master program level may have challenges related to argumentation and processing knowledge 2. The challenges in argumentation and processing knowledge should be taken into account and should be enhanced and practiced from the beginning of the studies. 3. Critical thinking and argumentation should be integrated into the intended learning outcomes, learning and teaching activities, the contents of the courses, and assessment.
  • Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Valkama, Jari; Byholm, Patrik (2021)
    Wind-energy expansion raises concerns over its potential impacts on bird populations. Birds may be affected directly via collision with turbines or indirectly via habitat loss or displacement due to disturbance. Species with long generation times, low reproductive output or high habitat specialisation are more likely to be impacted. Using national-scale breeding bird distributions, we applied a quantitative prioritisation method to assess the vulnerability of species to onshore wind-energy developments in Finland. We assessed 214 species that regularly breed in the country. Each species was assigned a priority score based on a combination of life-history traits, habitat specialisation, exposure to wind energy and conservation status. We found that the priority scores varied markedly between species, allowing a distinction between a minority of high-ranked species and a majority of low-ranked species. High-ranked species included terns (e.g., Sternula albifrons), raptors (e.g., Aquila chrysaetos), gulls (e.g., Larus fuscus), some forest-dwelling passerines (e.g., Poecile montanus) and ducks (e.g., Aythya ferina). Low-ranked species included woodpeckers (e.g., Picus canus) and many passerines. Our results indicate that the priority species are not limited to the more highly regarded large raptors, and that wind-energy impact assessments need to pay special attention to high-ranked species inhabiting coastal areas.
  • Quesada, J.; Chavez-Zichinelli, Carlos A.; Garcia-Arroyo, Michelle; Yeh, Pamela J.; Guevara, R.; Izquierdo-Palma, J.; MacGregor-Fors, I. (2022)
    Bold or shy? Examining the risk-taking behavior and neophobia of invasive and non-invasive house sparrows. Behavior provides a useful framework for understanding specialization, with animal personality aiding our understanding of the invasiveness of birds. Invasions imply dispersion into unknown areas and could require changes in behavior or spatial clustering based on personality. Reduced neophobia and increased exploring behavior could allow individuals to colonize new areas as they test and use non-familiar resources. Here, we hypothesized that house sparrow (Passer domesticus) individuals from invasive populations would exhibit bolder behavior than in non-invasive populations. We assessed risk taking and neophobia in male house sparrows in Barcelona (where it is considered native) and in Mexico City (where it has become widely invasive), captured in two different habitats, urban and non-urban. We assessed latency to enter an experimental cage and to explore it, and latency to feed and feeding time in the presence of a novel object. We found that sparrows from Mexico City, both from urban and non-urban areas, were quicker to enter the experimental cage than the sparrows from Barcelona. The time it took the birds to start exploring the cage gave a similar result. We found no differences between cities or habitats in the latency to feed and feeding time while exposed to a novel object. Our results partially support the view that the invader populations from Mexico City are bolder than those from Barcelona. Behavior is an important component of plasticity and its variability may have an important effect on adaptation to local situations. Future studies should disentangle the underlying mechanisms that explain the different personalities found in populations of different regions, contrasting populations of different densities, and taking different food availability scenarios into account.
  • Franks, V. R.; Andrews, C. E.; Ewen, J. G.; McCready, M.; Parker, K. A.; Thorogood, R. (2020)
    Reintroductions, essential to many conservation programmes, disrupt both abiotic and social environments. Despite growing recognition that social connections in animals might alter survival (e.g. social transmission of foraging skills, or transmission of disease), there has thus far been little focus on the consequences of social disruption during reintroductions. Here we investigate if moving familiar social groups may help a threatened species to adjust to its new environment and increase post-release survival. For a reintroduction of 40 juvenile hihi Notiomystis cincta (a threatened New Zealand passerine), we observed social groups before and after translocation to a new site and used social network analysis to study three levels of social change: overall group structure, network associations and individual sociality. We also tested alternate translocation strategies where birds were kept temporarily in aviaries in either a familiar group, or where their prior association was mixed. Although social structure remained similar among juveniles that remained at the source site, we detected significant changes in translocated birds at both the group- and individual- level post-release. However, our holding treatments did not affect these social bonds so we remain unable to maintain or manipulate social groups during translocation. Crucially, there was a small tendency for translocated juveniles that gained more associates during re-assortment of social groups to be more likely to survive their first year post-release. We suggest that prior sociality may not be important during translocations, but rather individuals that are most able to adapt and form associations at a new site are most likely to be the surviving founders of reintroduced populations.
  • Hypponen, Hannele; Kaipio, Johanna; Heponiemi, Tarja; Lääveri, Tinja; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Vänskä, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko (2019)
    Background: Problems in the usability of health information systems (HISs) are well acknowledged, but research still lacks a validated questionnaire for measuring and monitoring different dimensions of usability of HISs. Such questionnaires are needed not only for research but also for developing usability of HISs from the viewpoint of end-user experiences. Objective: This study aimed to develop and test the validity of the questionnaire measuring the National Usability-Focused HIS-Scale (NuHISS) among a nationally representative sample of Finnish physicians. Methods: We utilized 2 cross-sectional data collected from a random sample of Finnish physicians in 2014 (N=3781; of which 2340 [61.9%] were women) and 2017 (N=4018; of which 2604 [64.8%] were women). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (structural equation modeling [SEM]) were applied to test the structural validity of the NuHISS. As the concurrent validity measure, we used the self-reported overall quality of the electronic health record system (school grade) provided by the participants using marginal structural models. Results: The exploratory factor analyses with Varimax rotation suggested that the 7-factor solution did offer a good fit to the data in both samples (C-2=2136.14 in 2014 and C-2=2109.83 in 2017, both P Conclusions: NuHISS provides a useful tool for measuring usability of HISs among physicians and offers a valid measure for monitoring the long-term development of HISs on a large scale. The relative importance of items needs to be assessed against national electronic health policy goals and complemented with items that have remained outside the NuHISS from the questionnaire when appropriate.
  • Asikainen, Henna; Katajavuori, Nina (2021)
    Background: The decline in the well-being among university students well as increasing dropouts has become a serious issue in universities around the world. Thus, effective ways to support students' well-being and their ability to study are highly needed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to build an intervention course for university students, which promotes both students' well-being as well as their learning and study skills, and to describe the experimental study design that explores the effects of this intervention course. Methods: Research has shown that psychological flexibility has a great effect on the well-being as well as the study skills of students pursuing higher education. The basis of our intervention course was to promote psychological flexibility and students' study skills with the help of peer support and reflection. Results: This course was offered as a voluntary course to all the students at the University of Helsinki twice during the academic year 2020-2021. The first course was from October to December and the second course was from January to March. This course was advertised in fall 2020 through social media and by different student organizations and program leaders at different faculties of the University of Helsinki. As of October 2020, we enrolled 566 students comprising 310 students for the course in fall 2020 and 256 students for the course in spring 2021. Of the 256 students who enrolled in the second course, 170 students voluntarily participated in this study and they answered the questionnaires, including all the measures, simultaneously with the participants in the first group and thus served as the control group. The effect of this course will be measured with multiple data, including questionnaire data, reflective journals, and physiological data of well-being with a longitudinal experimental design. This research very strictly follows the ethical guidelines drawn up by the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity. We expect to publish the results of this study in fall 2021 at the latest. Conclusions: We argue that a web-based, 8-week intervention course, which promotes both student well-being and their study skills, is a good way to support students pursuing higher education, and both aspects should be considered when supporting university students.
  • Holopainen, Sari; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Vehkaoja, Mia; Fox, Anthony D. (2021)
    Several alien predator species have spread widely in Europe during the last five decades and pose a potential enhanced risk to native nesting ducks and their eggs. Because predation is an important factor limiting Northern Hemisphere duck nest survival, we ask the question, do alien species increase the nest loss risk to ground nesting ducks? We created 418 artificial duck nests in low densities around inland waters in Finland and Denmark during 2017-2019 and monitored them for seven days after construction using wildlife cameras to record whether alien species visit and prey on the nests more often than native species. We sampled various duck breeding habitats from eutrophic agricultural lakes and wetlands to oligotrophic lakes and urban environments. The results differed between habitats and the two countries, which likely reflect the local population densities of the predator species. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), an alien species, was the most common mammalian nest visitor in all habitats and its occurrence reduced nest survival. Only in wetland habitats was the native red fox (Vulpes vulpes) an equally common nest visitor, where another alien species, the American mink (Neovison vison), also occurred among nest visitors. Although cautious about concluding too much from visitations to artificial nests, these results imply that duck breeding habitats in Northern Europe already support abundant and effective alien nest predators, whose relative frequency of visitation to artificial nests suggest that they potentially add to the nest predation risk to ducks over native predators.
  • Graesner, Jan-Thorsten; Lefering, Rolf; Koster, Rudolph W.; Masterson, Siobhan; Boettiger, Bernd W.; Herlitz, Johan; Wnent, Jan; Tjelmeland, Ingvild B. M.; Rosell Ortiz, Fernando; Maurer, Holger; Baubin, Michael; Mols, Pierre; Hadzibegovic, Irzal; Ioannides, Marios; Skulec, Roman; Wissenberg, Mads; Salo, Ari; Hubert, Herve; Nikolaou, Nikolaos I.; Loczi, Gerda; Svavarsdottir, Hildigunnur; Semeraro, Federico; Wright, Peter J.; Clarens, Carlo; Pijls, Ruud; Cebula, Grzegorz; Correia, Vitor Gouveia; Cimpoesu, Diana; Raffay, Violetta; Trenkler, Stefan; Markota, Andrej; Stroemsoee, Anneli; Burkart, Roman; Perkins, Gavin D.; Bossaert, Leo L.; EuReCa ONE Collaborators (2016)
    Introduction: The aim of the EuReCa ONE study was to determine the incidence, process, and outcome for out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) throughout Europe. Methods: This was an international, prospective, multi-centre one-month study. Patients who suffered an OHCA during October 2014 who were attended and/or treated by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) were eligible for inclusion in the study. Data were extracted from national, regional or local registries. Results: Data on 10,682 confirmed OHCAs from 248 regions in 27 countries, covering an estimated population of 174 million. In 7146 (66%) cases, CPR was started by a bystander or by the EMS. The incidence of CPR attempts ranged from 19.0 to 104.0 per 100,000 population per year. 1735 had ROSC on arrival at hospital (25.2%), Overall, 662/6414 (10.3%) in all cases with CPR attempted survived for at least 30 days or to hospital discharge. Conclusion: The results of EuReCa ONE highlight that OHCA is still a major public health problem accounting for a substantial number of deaths in Europe. EuReCa ONE very clearly demonstrates marked differences in the processes for data collection and reported outcomes following OHCA all over Europe. Using these data and analyses, different countries, regions, systems, and concepts can benchmark themselves and may learn from each other to further improve survival following one of our major health care events. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Kleemola, Katri; Hyytinen, Heidi (2019)
    As Finnish university admissions are reformed, more information is needed on the relationship between performance in prior education and later academic achievement. Transition to university is a critical period, and low performance in prior education is associated with challenges in later study. In the present study, law students' (n = 426) performance in the National Matriculation Examination was investigated in relation to later academic achievement at university. Quantitative methods were used. Findings showed that prior performance was not only associated with study success but also with study progress. The results also showed that law students who had grades in the advanced mathematics course were faster and more successful at university. This work contributes to the existing knowledge of university admissions ahead of the Finnish reform by providing new insights into prior performance and how it is related to academic achievement at university.
  • Otterbeck, Andreas; Lindén, Andreas; Gunko, Ruslan; Ylinen, Eeva; Byholm, Patrik (2022)
    Philopatry and monogamy are conventionally viewed as strategies for improving fitness. Many philopatric and monogamous species have, however, been shown to perform breeding dispersal-an exchange of territory (and often also partner) between two breeding seasons. The adaptiveness of breeding dispersal remains controversial, as data remain scarce and sporadic. For the Northern Goshawk, a typically highly philopatric and monogamous forest raptor, pairs breeding in barren forest landscapes produce fewer fledglings than pairs breeding in more productive landscapes. Using data on Finnish breeding female Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) during 1999-2016, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) breeding dispersal is more likely at barren territories, (2) dispersing females move to less barren territories, and (3) breeding dispersal improves the survival of young. About 29% of the female Goshawks in our study performed breeding dispersal, which contrasts to philopatry and suggest that site and partner fidelities show large variation within the species' breeding range. We found no evidence that territorial landscape barrenness (proxy on habitat quality) affects the probability of breeding dispersal. However, females that dispersed upgraded to less barren territories. Nevertheless, there were no subsequent effects of breeding dispersal on reproductive performance, suggesting no obvious difference in the capability of rearing young at either site. Although dispersal events were directed to less barren habitats, we suggest that female dispersal is not driven by the pursue for more prospersous habitats, rather that those females are forced to move, for whatever reason. In addition to other observed reasons such as female-female competition for mates and loss of the original mate, intense logging of mature forests lowering local food availability and restricting nest site availability were likely a partial cause of increased breeding dispersal.
  • Laukkanen, Erika; Vehkalahti, Miira M.; Kotiranta, Anja K. (2019)
    Objectives We assessed the impact of type of tooth on the outcome of root canal treatment (RCT) according to factors potentially weakening the prognosis such as preoperative apical periodontitis (AP) and treatment modality (primary or secondary RCT). Materials and methods We scrutinized patient documents including pre- and postoperative radiographs of 640 permanent teeth receiving non-surgical RCT at Helsinki University Clinic in 2008–2011. Of teeth, 44% were molars, 32% premolars, and 24% anterior teeth. Patients’ mean age was 51.5 years; 51% were male. AP was present in 60.5% of teeth preoperatively. We used the periapical index (PAI) to assess the radiographs and defined radiographically “healthy” and “healing” cases as successful. Statistical evaluation included chi-squared tests, Fisher’s exact tests, t tests, and logistic regression modeling. Results The overall success rate (SR) was 84.1%; 88.3% for primary and 75.5% for secondary RCT (p < 0.001). The SRs for anterior teeth, premolars and molars were 85.6%, 88.8%, and 79.7%, respectively. Teeth with and without AP had SRs of 77.3% and 94.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). The RCTs were more likely to succeed in anterior teeth and premolars than in molars (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1–2.7) and in females than in males (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2–3.1). Conclusions Apart from existing AP and retreatment scenario, also, the type of tooth and gender had a significant influence on the outcome of RCT in this study. Clinical relevance The prognosis of RCT varies by type of tooth; special attention should be given to RCT of molar teeth.
  • Asikainen, Henna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Parpala, Anna; Katajavuori, Nina (2020)
    The purpose of this study was to examine university students' learning profiles and their relationship to study-related burnout as well as study progression and study achievement. The participants in the study were 339 first-year university students. Four clusters were found: Students applying a deep approach; Organised students; Students applying a surface approach; and Unorganised students applying a deep approach. The results show that students who apply a surface approach to learning in their studies are more likely suffer from study-related burnout, as students applying a deep approach experience less study-related burnout. In addition, unorganised students applying a deep approach also proceeded slower in their studies. The study suggests that students' study skills and their learning processes should be considered when considering study-related burnout in higher education.
  • Burstein, Roy; Henry, Nathaniel J.; Collison, Michael L.; Marczak, Laurie B.; Sligar, Amber; Watson, Stefanie; Marquez, Neal; Abbasalizad-Farhangi, Mahdieh; Abbasi, Masoumeh; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdoli, Amir; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Abrigo, Michael R. M.; Acharya, Dilaram; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Adekanmbi, Victor; Adham, Davoud; Afshari, Mahdi; Aghaali, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Keivan; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Ahmed, Rushdia; Akal, Chalachew Genet; Akinyemi, Joshua O.; Alahdab, Fares; Alam, Noore; Alamene, Genet Melak; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Alijanzadeh, Mehran; Alinia, Cyrus; Alipour, Vahid; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Almalki, Mohammed J.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Altirkawi, Khalid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Amini, Saeed; Amit, Arianna Maever Loreche; Anbari, Zohreh; Androudi, Sofia; Anjomshoa, Mina; Ansari, Fereshteh; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Arabloo, Jalal; Arefi, Zohreh; Aremu, Olatunde; Armoon, Bahram; Arora, Amit; Artaman, Al; Asadi, Anvar; Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran; Ashraf-Ganjouei, Amir; Assadi, Reza; Ataeinia, Bahar; Atre, Sachin R.; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Azari, Samad; Babaee, Ebrahim; Babazadeh, Arefeh; Badawi, Alaa; Bagheri, Soghra; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Balouchi, Abbas; Barac, Aleksandra; Bassat, Quique; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bayati, Mohsen; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Belay, Yared Belete; Bell, Brent; Bell, Michelle L.; Berbada, Dessalegn Ajema; Bernstein, Robert S.; Bhattacharjee, Natalia V.; Bhattarai, Suraj; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Bohlouli, Somayeh; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Britton, Gabrielle; Browne, Annie J.; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Busse, Reinhard; Butt, Zahid A.; Car, Josip; Cardenas, Rosario; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Cerin, Ester; Chanie, Wagaye Fentahun; Chatterjee, Pranab; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Cooper, Cyrus; Costa, Vera M.; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Daoud, Farah; Daryani, Ahmad; Das Gupta, Rajat; Davis, Ian; Weaver, Nicole Davis; Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Deribe, Kebede; Desai, Rupak; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Desyibelew, Hanna Demelash; Dey, Sagnik; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Dhimal, Meghnath; Diaz, Daniel; Doshmangir, Leila; Duraes, Andre R.; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Earl, Lucas; Ebrahimi, Roya; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Effiong, Andem; Eftekhari, Aziz; Ehsani-Chimeh, Elham; El Sayed, Iman; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; El Tantawi, Maha; El-Khatib, Ziad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Enany, Shymaa; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Ezalarab, Maha; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Fareed, Mohammad; Faridnia, Roghiyeh; Faro, Andre; Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Fentahun, Netsanet; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Foigt, Nataliya A.; Foroutan, Masoud; Francis, Joel Msafiri; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Fullman, Nancy; Gallus, Silvano; Gebre, Destallem Gebremedhin; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremeskel, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn; Gessner, Bradford D.; Geta, Birhanu; Gething, Peter W.; Ghadimi, Reza; Ghadiri, Keyghobad; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Ghashghaee, Ahmad; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gill, Tiffany K.; Golding, Nick; Gomes, Nelson G. M.; Gona, Philimon N.; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gorini, Giuseppe; Goulart, Barbara Niegia Garcia; Graetz, Nicholas; Greaves, Felix; Green, Manfred S.; Guo, Yuming; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hall, Brian James; Hamidi, Samer; Haririan, Hamidreza; Haro, Josep Maria; Hasankhani, Milad; Hasanpoor, Edris; Hasanzadeh, Amir; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Hegazy, Mohamed I.; Hendrie, Delia; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Hird, Thomas R.; Hoang, Chi Linh; Hollerich, Gillian; Rad, Enayatollah Homaie; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba; Hossain, Naznin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Hostiuc, Sorin; Househ, Mowafa; Hsairi, Mohamed; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan; Iqbal, Usman; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Nazrul; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Jurisson, Mikk; Balalami, Nader Jafari; Jalali, Amir; Javidnia, Javad; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Ji, John S.; Jobanputra, Yash B.; Johnson, Kimberly; Jonas, Jost B.; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Kabir, Ali; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalani, Hamed; Kalhor, Rohollah; Karami, Manoochehr; Karki, Surendra; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Grant Rodgers; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Junaid; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatab, Khaled; Khater, Amir; Khater, Mona M.; Khatony, Alireza; Khazaei, Mohammad; Khazaei, Salman; Khazaei-Pool, Maryam; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kianipour, Neda; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinyoki, Damaris K.; Kisa, Adnan; Kisa, Sezer; Kolola, Tufa; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Krishan, Kewal; Krohn, Kris J.; Kugbey, Nuworza; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Manasi; Kumar, Pushpendra; Kuupiel, Desmond; Lacey, Ben; Lad, Sheetal D.; Lami, Faris Hasan; Larsson, Anders O.; Lee, Paul H.; Leili, Mostafa; Levine, Aubrey J.; Li, Shanshan; Lim, Lee-Ling; Listl, Stefan; Longbottom, Joshua; Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.; Lorkowski, Stefan; Magdeldin, Sameh; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Majeed, Azeem; Maleki, Afshin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Manafi, Navid; Manda, Ana-Laura; Mansourian, Morteza; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio; Masaka, Anthony; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Maulik, Pallab K.; Mayala, Benjamin K.; Mazidi, Mohsen; Mckee, Martin; Mehrotra, Ravi; Mehta, Kala M.; Meles, Gebrekiros Gebremichael; Mendoza, Walter; Menezes, Ritesh G.; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miller, Ted R.; Miller-Petrie, Molly K.; Mills, Edward J.; Milne, George J.; Mini, G. K.; Mir, Seyed Mostafa; Mirjalali, Hamed; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mohamadi, Efat; Mohammad, Dara K.; Darwesh, Aso Mohammad; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Mohammed, Ammas Siraj; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mokdad, Ali H.; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moodley, Yoshan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi, Masoud; Moradi, Yousef; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Mosapour, Abbas; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Mueller, Ulrich Otto; Muluneh, Atalay Goshu; Mustafa, Ghulam; Nabavizadeh, Behnam; Naderi, Mehdi; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman; Nahvijou, Azin; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Neamati, Nahid; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Long Hoang Nguyen; Son Hoang Nguyen; Nielsen, Katie R.; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nirayo, Yirga Legesse; Nixon, Molly R.; Nnaji, Chukwudi A.; Nojomi, Marzieh; Noroozi, Mehdi; Nosratnejad, Shirin; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Motlagh, Soraya Nouraei; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oladimeji, Kelechi E.; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olfatifar, Meysam; Olum, Solomon; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Oluwasanu, Mojisola Morenike; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Oren, Eyal; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris D. V.; Ortiz, Alberto; Osarenotor, Osayomwanbo; Osei, Frank B.; Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron E.; Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; Mahesh, P. A.; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar; Pakhale, Smita; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandey, Animika; Park, Eun-Kee; Parsian, Hadi; Pashaei, Tahereh; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Pepito, Veincent Christian Filipino; Pereira, Alexandre; Perkins, Samantha; Pickering, Brandon V.; Pilgrim, Thomas; Pirestani, Majid; Piroozi, Bakhtiar; Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Pourjafar, Hadi; Puri, Parul; Qorbani, Mostafa; Quintana, Hedley; Rabiee, Mohammad; Rabiee, Navid; Radfar, Amir; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi, Zohreh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Rajati, Fatemeh; Raju, Sree Bhushan; Ramezankhani, Azra; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rasella, Davide; Rashedi, Vahid; Rawal, Lal; Reiner, Robert C.; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Rezaei, Satar; Rezapour, Aziz; Riahi, Seyed Mohammad; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Roever, Leonardo; Roro, Elias Merdassa; Roser, Max; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roshani, Daem; Rostami, Ali; Rubagotti, Enrico; Rubino, Salvatore; Sabour, Siamak; Sadat, Nafis; Sadeghi, Ehsan; Saeedi, Reza; Safari, Yahya; Safari-Faramani, Roya; Safdarian, Mahdi; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Salam, Nasir; Salamati, Payman; Salehi, Farkhonde; Zahabi, Saleh Salehi; Salimi, Yahya; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sambala, Evanson Zondani; Samy, Abdallah M.; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sao Jose, Bruno Piassi; Saraswathy, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Sathian, Brijesh; Saxena, Sonia; Sbarra, Alyssa N.; Schaeffer, Lauren E.; Schwebel, David C.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Shaahmadi, Faramarz; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamshirian, Amir; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharafi, Kiomars; Sharif, Mehdi; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; Sharifi, Hamid; Sharma, Jayendra; Sharma, Rajesh; Sheikh, Aziz; Shields, Chloe; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Shuval, Kerem; Siddiqi, Tariq J.; Silva, Joao Pedro; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Sisay, Malede Mequanent; Sisay, Solomon; Sliwa, Karen; Smith, David L.; Somayaji, Ranjani; Soofi, Moslem; Soriano, Joan B.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sudaryanto, Agus; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L.; Sylaja, P. N.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Taveira, Nuno; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tessema, Zemenu Tadesse; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Thirunavukkarasu, Sathish; To, Quyen G.; Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto; Bach Xuan Tran, [No Value]; Khanh Bao Tran; Ullah, Irfan; Usman, Muhammad Shariq; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Valdez, Pascual R.; van Boven, Job F. M.; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Vasseghian, Yasser; Veisani, Yousef; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch; Vlassov, Vasily; Vos, Theo; Giang Thu Vu; Vujcic, Isidora S.; Waheed, Yasir; Wakefield, Jon; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Yafeng; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Ward, Joseph L.; Weintraub, Robert G.; Weldegwergs, Kidu Gidey; Weldesamuel, Girmay Teklay; Westerman, Ronny; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wondafrash, Dawit Zewdu; Woyczynski, Lauren; Wu, Ai-Min; Xu, Gelin; Yadegar, Abbas; Yamada, Tomohide; Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Yilgwan, Christopher Sabo; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Lebni, Javad Yoosefi; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Yousof, Hebat-Allah Salah A.; Yu, Chuanhua; Yusefzadeh, Hasan; Zabeh, Erfan; Moghadam, Telma Zahirian; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Zangeneh, Alireza; Zerfu, Taddese Alemu; Zhang, Yunquan; Ziapour, Arash; Zodpey, Sanjay; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Hay, Simon I. (2019)
    Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
  • de Vera, Caterina R.; Díaz Crespín, Guillermo; Hernández Daranas, Antonio; Montalvão Looga, Sofia; Lillsunde, Katja-Emilia; Tammela, Päivi; Perälä, Merja; Hongisto, Vesa; Virtanen, Johannes; Rischer, Heiko; Muller, Christian D.; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J.; Souto, María L. (2018)
    The study of marine natural products for their bioactive potential has gained strength in recent years. Oceans harbor a vast variety of organisms that offer a biological and chemical diversity with metabolic abilities unrivalled in terrestrial systems, which makes them an attractive target for bioprospecting as an almost untapped resource of biotechnological applications. Among them, there is no doubt that microalgae could become genuine cell factories for the biological synthesis of bioactive substances. Thus, in the course of inter-laboratory collaboration sponsored by the European Union (7th FP) into the MAREX Project focused on the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of marine origin for the European industry, a bioprospecting study on 33 microalgae strains was carried out. The strains were cultured at laboratory scale. Two extracts were prepared for each one (biomass and cell free culture medium) and, thus, screened to provide information on the antimicrobial, the anti-proliferative, and the apoptotic potential of the studied extracts. The outcome of this study provides additional scientific data for the selection of Alexandrium tamarensis WE, Gambierdiscus australes, Prorocentrum arenarium, Prorocentrum hoffmannianum, and Prorocentrum reticulatum (Pr-3) for further investigation and offers support for the continued research of new potential drugs for human therapeutics from cultured microalgae.
  • Pakkala, Timo; Tiainen, Juha; Piha, Markus; Kouki, Jari (2018)
    The Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides tridactylus is a mature and old-growth forest specialist but how the species uses trees for nesting in its breeding sites and whether cavity trees are a critical habitat feature is poorly known. We studied the nest tree characteristics of the species in a 170-km(2) area in southern Finland during 1987-2016. The data included 538 nest trees of eight different species and 665 nest cavities in 86 territory areas. Norway spruce Picea abler was the predominant nest tree comprising 71% of all nest trees. Proportionally, deciduous nest trees were more common in moist forests on mineral soils and conifer nest trees more common in spruce swamps. The majority of nest trees (85%) were dead or decaying trees; higher numbers of dead deciduous nest trees were recorded than dead conifer trees. The mean diameter of a nest tree at diameter at breast height (DBH) was 29.4 cm and the mean height of a cavity hole was 5.1 m; size and height were significantly positively correlated. The proportion of deciduous nest trees was significantly higher (45%) in natural forests compared with other areas subjected to variable amounts of forest management, where the respective proportion was only 9-17%. In addition, cavity holes were significantly higher in natural forests than in managed ones. In general, the results highlight the substantial flexibility in nest tree use but also the importance of large dead and decaying trees (including deciduous trees) as nest cavity sites for the species. Spruce swamps can be considered as key nesting habitats in managed forest landscapes.
  • Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Junttila, Kristiina; Salantera, Sanna (IOS PRESS, 2018)
    Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    Information usage in the day-to-day operations management of hospital units is complex due to numerous information systems in use. The aim of this study was to describe and compare nurse leaders' satisfaction with information systems used in the day-to-day operations management in hospital units. The design was a cross-sectional survey with five questions rated from one (disagree) to five (fully agree). The response rate was 65 % (n = 453). Respondents reported fair satisfaction with how information systems support decision-making (median 4, IQR 3-4) and improve ease of access to information (median 4, IQR 3-4). However, respondents were less satisfied with how systems improve speed of access to information (median 3, IQR 3-4). Nor did respondents think that systems were developed for them (median 3, IQR 2-4). Respondents further reported needing numerous systems daily to support decision-making (median 4, IQR 3-5). A clear need for one system, which would gather important information for display was stated (median 5, IQR 4-5). Work experience, gender and time when overseeing the unit were associated with some aspects related to satisfaction. In conclusion, information system improvements are needed to better support the day-to-day operations management in hospital units.
  • Peltomaa, Elina T.; Taipale, Sami (2020)
    The uptake of dissolved organic compounds, that is, osmotrophy, has been shown to be an efficient nutritional strategy for algae. However, this mode of nutrition may affect the biochemical composition, for example, the fatty acid (FA) contents, of algal cells. This study focused on the osmotrophic assimilation of glucose and leucine by selected seven algal strains belonging to chlorophytes, chrysophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and euglenoids. Our laboratory experiments with stable isotope labeling showed that osmotrophy occurred in four of the selected seven strains. However, only three of these produced long chain omega-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 omega 3). High glucose content (5 mg L-1) affected negatively on the total FAs of Mallomonas kalinae and the total omega-3 FAs of Cryptomonas sp. Further, glucose assimilation explained 35% (negative effect) and leucine assimilation 48% (positive effect) of the variation of EPA, DHA and the FAs related to their synthesis in Cryptomonas sp. Moderate glucose concentration (2 mg L-1) was found to enhance the growth of Cryptomonas ozolinii, whereas low leucine (20 mu g L-1) enhanced the growth of M. kalinae. However, no systematic effect of osmotrophy on growth rates was detected. Our study shows that osmotrophic assimilation of algae is species and compound specific, and that the effects of the assimilated compounds on algal metabolism also varies depending on the species.