Browsing by Subject "SUCCESSION"

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  • Partanen, Pasi; Hultman, Jenni; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Romantschuk, Martin (2010)
  • Hermes, Gerben D. A.; Eckermann, Henrik A.; de Vos, Willem M.; de Weerth, Carolina (2020)
    Entry to center-based childcare (CC) at three months of life can be an important challenge for infants as it includes major stressors such as long maternal separations and frequently changing caregivers. Stress and the new environment may in turn alter the composition of the gut microbiota with possible implications for future health outcomes. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated whether CC, as compared to being cared for by the parents at home, alters the composition of the gut microbiota, while accounting for known covariates of the infant gut microbiota. Stool samples of infants who entered CC (n=49) and control infants (n=49) were obtained before and four weeks after CC entrance. Using Redundancy analysis, Random Forests and Bayesian linear models we found that infant gut microbiota was not affected in a uniform way by entry to CC. In line with the literature, breastfeeding, birth mode, age, and the presence of siblings were shown to significantly impact the microbial composition.
  • Stivrins, N.; Ozola, I.; Galka, M.; Kuske, E.; Alliksaar, T.; Andersen, T. J.; Lamentowicz, M.; Wulf, S.; Reitalu, T. (2017)
    We used variation partitioning to assess the relative importance of drainage, climate and local vegetation composition for the development of a raised bog. As a case study we selected Teici (Teici) Bog in Latvia (north-east Europe). Explanatory variables together explained 74 % of the variation in peat accumulation and only the residue of 26 % remained unexplained. Our study showed that the local vegetation composition and dominant Sphagnum species significantly influence peat accumulation rates. The results of linear models revealed that, under natural conditions, minor drainage and even strong drainage of the peat is associated with a positive growth balance of the system. However, drainage systems can have a measurable impact on peatland ecosystems situated farther away. Our study demonstrates that the average peat accumulation rate in Teici Bog over the last 150 years was 3.5 mm per year. Although the peat accumulation rate has been affected by drainage over the last half-century, it is still 2.8 mm per year. There was no strong correlation with the historical climate record, suggesting that the bog area has buffered the influence of climate change over the last 150 years.
  • Demirözer, Ozan; Pekbey, Gamze; Hayat, Rustem; Herdogan, Azime; Acanski, Jelena; Milicic, Marija; Uzun, Asiye (2020)
    Despite the increasing importance of species richness of blowfly fauna and their environmental, medical, and agricultural importance in the world they are poorly studied in Turkey. This study was carried out in 2014 and 2015 to determine the distribution, abundance, and species richness of blowfly species in Isparta Province of Turkey. A total of 15 species (10 from Calliphoridae, 4 from Polleniidae, and 1 from Rhiniidae) were identified from 13 different localities. The adult specimens were obtained from areas of organic and decayed organic matters, waste and dumpsite, surrounding waste water deposits, and flowering plants. While all the species were new for Isparta, Bellardia tatrica (Enderlein, 1933), Calliphora subalpina (Ringdahl, 1931), Lucilia silvarium (Meigen, 1826), Melinda gentilis (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) and Pollenia griseotomentosa (Jacentkovsky, 1944) were determined as new records for the Turkish fauna. According to the study results, the highest levels of blowfly species richness will be mainly focused in the eastern part of Isparta Province. Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata were determined as the most common species in the study.
  • Gladstone-Gallagher, Rebecca V.; Hewitt, Judi E.; Thrush, Simon F.; Brustolin, Marco C.; Villnäs, Anna; Valanko, Sebastian; Norkko, Alf (2021)
    Despite a long history of disturbance–recovery research, we still lack a generalizable understanding of the attributes that drive community recovery potential in seafloor ecosystems. Marine soft‐sediment ecosystems encompass a range of heterogeneity from simple low‐diversity habitats with limited biogenic structure, to species‐rich systems with complex biogenic habitat structure. These differences in biological heterogeneity are a product of natural conditions and disturbance regimes. To search for unifying attributes, we explore whether a set of simple traits can characterize community disturbance–recovery potential using seafloor patch‐disturbance experiments conducted in two different soft‐sediment landscapes. The two landscapes represent two ends of a spectrum of landscape biotic heterogeneity in order to consider multi‐scale disturbance–recovery processes. We consider traits at different levels of biological organization, from the biological traits of individual species, to the traits of species at the landscape scale associated with their occurrence across the landscape and their ability to be dominant. We show that in a biotically heterogeneous landscape (Kawau Bay, New Zealand), seafloor community recovery is stochastic, there is high species turnover, and the landscape‐scale traits are good predictors of recovery. In contrast, in a biotically homogeneous landscape (Baltic Sea), the options for recovery are constrained, the recovery pathway is thus more deterministic and the scale of recovery traits important for determining recovery switches to the individual species biological traits within the disturbed patch. Our results imply that these simple, yet sophisticated, traits can be effectively used to characterize community recovery potential and highlight the role of landscapes in providing resilience to patch‐scale disturbances.
  • Kilpeläinen, Jouni; Barbero-López, Aitor; Adamczyk, Bartosz Wojciech; Aphalo, Pedro J.; Lehto, Tarja (2019)
    Background and aims The aim was to assess possible benefits or drawbacks of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) colonisation compared to no mycorrhizas (NM) in seedlings of the same host species. Eight broadleaf species were tested for mycorrhiza formation. Grey alder (Alnus incana) and four fungal species were selected for further experiments. Methods Grey alder seedlings were inoculated with AM fungi Rhizophagus intraradices and Glomus hoi or EM fungi Paxillus involutus plus an ascomycete isolated from Alnus roots or mock-inoculated (NM). Results EM formed in 70% of root tips and AM in 30% of root length. AM plants were smaller than EM and NM, but their specific root length (SRL) and specific leaf area (SLA) were highest. Net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and shoot water potential did not differ between treatments. Foliar Ca, K, Mg, Mn, N, P and S concentrations (mg g−1) were highest in AM plants. However, total foliar contents (mg per plant) were lowest in AM plants, except for P, K and Zn. Conclusions The larger SRL and SLA suggest more efficient resource usage in AM plants, even though these were smaller than EM and NM plants. Grey alder is proposed as a new model species for comparisons between mycorrhiza types in cold climates.
  • Hui, Nan; Liu, Xinxin; Jumpponen, Ari; Setälä, Heikki; Kotze, D. Johan; Biktasheva, Liliya; Romantschuk, Martin (2018)
    Although soil-inhabiting fungi can affect tree health and biomass production in managed and pristine forests, little is known about the sensitivity of the plant-fungal associations to long-term changes in land use. We aimed to investigate how reforestation of farmlands change soil characteristics and affected the recovery of soil fungal functional guilds. We examined edaphic conditions and fungal communities (Illumina Sequencing) in three land-use types: primary forests (PF), secondary forests (SF, established over two decades ago) and active farmlands during May, July and September in Wuying, China. Edaphic conditions and general fungal communities varied with land-use. Interestingly, overall fungal diversity was higher in soils at the farmland than at the forested sites, possibly as a result of recurring disturbances (tilling) allowing competitive release as described by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Although ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and richness were marginally higher in PF than in SF, the latter still hosted surprisingly diverse and abundant ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Reforestation largely restored fungal communities that were still in transition, as their composition in SF was distinct from that in PF. Our results highlight the ability of fungi grown in previously strongly managed agricultural land to rapidly respond to reforestation and thus provide support for forest trees.
  • Kangas, Laura; Maanavilja, Liisa; Hajek, Tomas; Juurola, Eija; Chimner, Rodney A.; Mehtatalo, Lauri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (2014)
  • Yirdaw, Eshetu; Monge Monge, Adrian; Austin, Denis; Toure, Ibrahim (2019)
    In Laos, there are extensive shifting cultivation areas and regrowth forests spontaneously established on fallow lands. The aims of the study were to conduct a comparative study of old-growth and regrowth forests in terms of structure, woody species diversity and composition as well as to investigate the potential role of regrowth forests in the conservation and restoration of degraded forest lands in Laos and the tropics in general. Systematic plot sampling was used to survey the floristic diversity, species composition and structure of old-growth and regrowth forests. Concentric circular plots with an area of 200 m2 and 500 m2 were laid on line transects. A total of 24 plots were sampled from two sites. In comparison to regrowth forests, old-growth forests had higher structural heterogeneity because of higher canopy height variations, vertical stratification, and tree sizes and their variations. Species richness and diversity indices values were similar, but abundance and species composition were significantly different between old-growth and regrowth forests. It appears that species richness recovers first followed by forest structure and species composition. Regrowth forests are important for in situ conservation of tropical biodiversity and they can also serve as a conduit for the restoration of degraded lands and forests. Regrowth forests provide habitats, serve as buffer zones around the fragmented old-growth forests, function as source of propagules, and enhance landscape connectivity. Utilization of regrowth forests for restoration purposes is comparatively inexpensive. Regrowth forests should be given the due considerations in the national forest conservation and restoration policy of Laos.
  • Sundell, Janne; Liao, Wenfei; Nummi, Petri (2021)
    One of the less studied positive interactions among organisms is facilitation. Facilitation may have significant impact on diversity of species especially in low productive environments. We studied the effects of well-known facilitator and ecosystem engineer, the North American beaver (Castor canadensis), on small mammal assemblages in the boreal zone. The small mammals, namely voles, mice, and shrews, were trapped over 2 years in ten beaver-modified habitats and in ten control sites. Contrary to our expectations, we did not observe any differences between species or individual numbers between beaver-modified and control sites. However, there were differences in species composition between sites; grass-eating field voles (Microtus agrestis) and invertebrate-eating shrews (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens) tended to be more common in beaver sites while forest-dwelling wood lemmings (Myopus schisticolor) and yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) were only captured in control sites. The most common species in both habitats was the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), which is a generalist in its habitat requirements. The bank vole’s population structures were similar between the two habitat types. The actions of beavers in water bodies within boreal forests seem to have no effect on the small mammal diversity and their numbers at the regional scale but may have positive effect on them at the larger landscape level as beavers are increasing the overall habitat diversity in the landscape.
  • Kaarlejarvi, Elina; Salemaa, Maija; Tonteri, Tiina; Merila, Paivi; Laine, Anna-Liisa (2021)
    Aim The diversity and composition of natural communities are rapidly changing due to anthropogenic disturbances. Magnitude of this compositional reorganization varies across the globe, but reasons behind the variation remain largely unknown. Disturbances induce temporal turnover by stimulating species colonizations, causing local extinctions, altering dominance structure, or all of these. We test which of these processes drive temporal community changes, and whether they are constrained by natural environmental gradients. Moreover, we assess to what degree identity shifts translate to changes in dominance structure. Location Finland. Time period Observations 1985-2006, disturbance history > 140 years. Major taxa studied Vascular plants. Methods We investigated temporal turnover of boreal forest understorey in response to disturbance, here forest management, along a soil fertility gradient. We disentangle the roles of species gains, losses and abundance changes in driving temporal turnover in response to and after disturbance by comparing turnover rates in different forest age categories along a fertility gradient. We quantify temporal turnover using richness-based complement of Jaccard's similarity index and proportional-abundance based dissimilarity index. We also test whether disturbance history or fertility influence the relationship between identity shifts and dominance structure. Results We found that the impact of disturbance on temporal turnover depends on soil fertility. The greatest turnover occurred in the most fertile forests immediately after disturbance. There, species gains and losses strongly altered dominance structure leading to high turnover, whereas undisturbed old forests and nutrient-poor habitats were characterized by stable dominant species even when the majority of species shifted their identity. Main conclusions Our results suggest that human impacts on temporal biodiversity change vary along environmental gradients. In boreal forests, the fertile habitats have a higher probability than nutrient-poor sites of changing their composition in response to anthropogenic disturbances. Resource availability and disturbance history may thus influence consequences of temporal turnover for ecosystem functioning.
  • Kulha, Niko; Pasanen, Leena; Holmström, Lasse; Grandpre, Louis de; Gauthier, Sylvie; Kuuluvainen, Timo; Aakala, Tuomas (2020)
    Context: Changes in the structure of boreal old-growth forests are typically studied at a specific spatial scale. Consequently, little is known about forest development across different spatial scales. Objectives: We investigated how and at what spatial scales forest structure changed over several decades in three 4 km² boreal old-growth forests landscapes in northeastern Finland and two in Quebec, Canada. Methods: We used canopy cover values visually interpreted to 0.1-ha grid cells from aerial photographs taken at three time points between the years 1959 and 2011, and error distributions quantified for the interpretation. We identified the spatial scales at which canopy cover changed between the time points, and examined the credibility of changes at these scales using the error distributions in Bayesian inference. Results: Canopy cover changed at three to four spatial scales, the number of scales depending on the studied landscape and time interval. At large scales (15.4–321.7 ha), canopy cover increased in Finland during all time intervals. In Quebec, the direction of the large-scale change varied between the studied time intervals, owing to the occurrence of an insect outbreak and a consequent recovery. However, parts of these landscapes also showed canopy cover increase. Superimposed on the large-scale developments, canopy cover changed variably at smaller scales (1.3–2.8-ha and 0.1-ha). Conclusions: Our findings support the idea that the structure of boreal old-growth forests changes at discernible spatial scales. Instead of being driven by gap dynamics, the old-growth forests in the studied regions are currently reacting to large-scale drivers by an increase in canopy cover.
  • Laine, Anna M.; Tolvanen, Anne; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (2016)
    Young coastal fens are rare ecosystems in the first stages of peatland succession. Their drainage compromises their successional development toward future carbon (C) reservoirs. We present the first study on the success of hydrological restoration of young fens. We carried out vegetation surveys at six young fens that represent undrained, drained, and restored management categories in the Finnish land uplift coast before and after restoration. We measured plant level carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) from 17 most common plant species present at the sites. Within 5 years of restoration, the vegetation composition of restored sites had started to move toward the undrained baseline. The cover of sedges increased the most in response to restoration, while the cover of deciduous shrubs decreased the most. The rapid response indicates high resilience and low resistance of young fen ecosystems toward changes in hydrology. Forbs had higher photosynthetic and respiration rates than sedges, deciduous shrubs, and grasses, whereas rates were lowest for evergreen shrubs and mosses. The impact of management category on CO2 assimilation was an indirect consequence that occurred through changes in plant species composition: Increase in sedge cover following restoration also increased the potential photosynthetic capacity of the ecosystem. Synthesis and applications. Restoration of forestry drained young fens is a promising method for safeguarding them and bringing back their function as C reservoirs. However, their low resistance to water table draw down introduces a risk that regeneration may be partially hindered by the heavy drainage in the surrounding landscape. Therefore, restoration success is best safeguarded by managing the whole catchments instead of carrying out small-scale projects.