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  • Roldin, P.; Liao, L.; Mogensen, D.; Dal Maso, M.; Rusanen, A.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Mentel, T. F.; Wildt, J.; Kleist, E.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillmann, R.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, Markku; Boy, M. (2015)
    We used the Aerosol Dynamics gas- and particle-phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM) to simulate the contribution of BVOC plant emissions to the observed new particle formation during photooxidation experiments performed in the Julich Plant-Atmosphere Chamber and to evaluate how well smog chamber experiments can mimic the atmospheric conditions during new particle formation events. ADCHAM couples the detailed gas-phase chemistry from Master Chemical Mechanism with a novel aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module. Our model simulations reveal that the observed particle growth may have either been controlled by the formation rate of semi- and low-volatility organic compounds in the gas phase or by acid catalysed heterogeneous reactions between semi-volatility organic compounds in the particle surface layer (e.g. peroxyhemiacetal dimer formation). The contribution of extremely low-volatility organic gas-phase compounds to the particle formation and growth was suppressed because of their rapid and irreversible wall losses, which decreased their contribution to the nano-CN formation and growth compared to the atmospheric situation. The best agreement between the modelled and measured total particle number concentration (R-2 > 0.95) was achieved if the nano-CN was formed by kinetic nucleation involving both sulphuric acid and organic compounds formed from OH oxidation of BVOCs.
  • Lee, Shan-Hu; Gordon, Hamish; Yu, Huan; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Haley, Ryan; Li, Yixin; Zhang, Renyi (2019)
    New particle formation (NPF) represents the first step in the complex processes leading to formation of cloud condensation nuclei. Newly formed nanoparticles affect human health, air quality, weather, and climate. This review provides a brief history, synthesizes recent significant progresses, and outlines the challenges and future directions for research relevant to NPF. New developments include the emergence of state-of-the-art instruments that measure prenucleation clusters and newly nucleated nanoparticles down to about 1 nm; systematic laboratory studies of multicomponent nucleation systems, including collaborative experiments conducted in the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at CERN; observations of NPF in different types of forests, extremely polluted urban locations, coastal sites, polar regions, and high-elevation sites; and improved nucleation theories and parameterizations to account for NPF in atmospheric models. The challenges include the lack of understanding of the fundamental chemical mechanisms responsible for aerosol nucleation and growth under diverse environments, the effects of SO2 and NOx on NPF, and the contribution of anthropogenic organic compounds to NPF. It is also critical to develop instruments that can detect chemical composition of particles from 3 to 20 nm and improve parameterizations to represent NPF over a wide range of atmospheric conditions of chemical precursor, temperature, and humidity. Plain Language Summary In the atmosphere, invisible to the human eye, there are many microscopic particles, or nanoparticles, that affect human health, air quality, and climate. We do not fully understand the chemical processes that allow these fine particles to form and be suspended in the air nor how they influence heat flow in Earth's atmosphere. Laboratory experiments, field observations, and modeling simulations have all shown different results for how these particles behave. These inconsistencies make it difficult to accurately represent the processes of new particle formation in regional and global atmospheric models. Scientists still need to develop instruments that can measure the smallest range of nanoparticles and to find ways to describe particle formation that allow for differences in temperature, humidity, and level of pollution.
  • Kulmala, Markku; Petaja, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kujansuu, Joni; Ruuskanen, Taina; Ding, Aijun; Nie, Wei; Hu, Min; Wang, Zhibin; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Lin; Worsnop, Douglas R. (2016)
    Formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles is a global phenomenon that has been observed to take place in even heavily-polluted environments. However, in all environments there appears to be a threshold value of the condensation sink (due to pre-existing aerosol particles) after which the formation rate of 3 nm particles is no longer detected. In China, new particle production has been observed at very high pollution levels (condensation sink about 0.1 s(-1)) in several megacities, including Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing as well as in Pearl River Delta (PRD). Here we summarize the recent findings obtained from these studies and discuss the various implications these findings will have on future research and policy. (C) Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016
  • Xiao, S.; Wang, M. Y.; Yao, L.; Kulmala, M.; Zhou, B.; Yang, X.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, D. F.; Fu, Q. Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wang, L. (2015)
  • Baranizadeh, Elham; Arola, Antti; Hamed, Amar; Nieminen, Tuomo; Mikkonen, Santtu; Virtanen, Annele; Kulmala, Markku; Lehtinen, Kari; Laaksonen, Ari (2014)
  • Nieminen, Tuomo; Asmi, Ari; Dal Maso, Miikka; Aalto, Pasi P.; Keronen, Petri; Petaja, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2014)