Browsing by Subject "SUPPLEMENTATION"

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  • Valkama, Anita J.; Meinila, Jelena M.; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Lindstrom, Jaana; Rono, Kristiina; Tiitinen, Aila E.; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Kautiainen, Hannu J.; Viljakainen, Heli; Andersson, Sture; Eriksson, Johan G. (2018)
    Obesity increases the risk of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) concentrations and gestational diabetes (GDM). We explored whether the association between GDM and change in 25(OH) D concentrations measured in the first (7-18 wk) and second (20-27 wk) trimesters of pregnancy is dependent on maternal BMI. The study was a prospective study of 219 women with BMI of >= 30 kg/m2, a history of GDM, or both. The participants were stratified by first-trimester BMI: BMI of = 35 kg/m(2). In the BMI group >= 35 kg/m(2), those who did not develop GDM during the follow-up showed higher increase in serum 25(OH) D concentrations compared with women who developed GDM (43.2 vs. 11.5%; P <0.001). No associations between 25(OH) D concentrations and GDM were observed in other BMI groups. These findings give an important aspect of the role of maternal body size in the association between vitamin D and GDM in high-risk women.
  • Karvinen, Sira; Fachada, Vasco; Sahinaho, Ulla-Maria; Pekkala, Satu; Lautaoja, Juulia H.; Mäntyselkä, Sakari; Permi, Perttu; Hulmi, Juha J.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Kainulainen, Heikki (2022)
    Impaired lipid metabolism is a common risk factor underlying several metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) that include valine, leucine and isoleucine have been proven to share a role in lipid metabolism and hence in maintaining metabolic health. We have previously introduced a hypothesis suggesting that BCAA degradation mechanistically connects to lipid oxidation and storage in skeletal muscle. To test our hypothesis, the present study examined the effects of BCAA deprivation and supplementation on lipid oxidation, lipogenesis and lipid droplet characteristics in murine C2C12 myotubes. In addition, the role of myotube contractions on cell metabolism was studied by utilizing in vitro skeletal-muscle-specific exercise-like electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). Our results showed that the deprivation of BCAAs decreased both lipid oxidation and lipogenesis in C2C12 myotubes. BCAA deprivation further diminished the number of lipid droplets in the EPS-treated myotubes. EPS decreased lipid oxidation especially when combined with high BCAA supplementation. Similar to BCAA deprivation, high BCAA supplementation also decreased lipid oxidation. The present results highlight the role of an adequate level of BCAAs in healthy lipid metabolism.
  • Uusi-Rasi, Kirsti; Karkkainen, Merja U. M.; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J. E. (2013)
  • Hanisch, Franziska; Toresson, Linda; Spillmann, Thomas (2018)
    Cobalamin is a member of the B-group of vitamins and a cofactor for metabolic processes like nucleic acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and the citric acid cycle. Mammals are unable to synthesize cobalamin and therefore rely on adequate food intake. Cobalamin absorption is a complex process in the stomach, duodenum, and ileum, requiring a functional exocrine pancreas. Thus, a great number of gastrointestinal diseases like chronic enteropathies, intestinal lymphoma, or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency can lead to hypocobalaminemia. Furthermore, some dog breeds (Giant Schnauzer, Border Collie, Australian Sheperd Dog, and Beagle) can have a primary, hereditary cobalamin deficiency (Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome). Clinical signs of cobalamin deficiency comprise anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea, failure to thrive, and neuro-pathies. Laboratory findings like non-regenerative anemia, leukopenia, hypoglycemia, and hyperammonaemia have also been described. When hypocobalaminemia is suspected usually in dogs and cats, the cobalamin concentration is usually measured by immunoassay. Because the concentrations of cobalamin in blood and cells can differ the sole measurement of the vitamin concentration is of limited informative value. Treatment depends on the underlying disease aiming at eliminating the cause of hypocobalaminemia. However, successful therapy of gastrointestinal diseases often requires an additional oral or parenteral cobalamin supplementation. In patients with Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome, a regular and lifelong cobalamin supplementation is essential.
  • Hemilä, Harri (2007)
    Experts of controlled clinical trials argue that decisions on medical interventions should be based on clinically relevant outcomes and not on surrogates such as laboratory measurements. There are quite a few examples in which the effect on a surrogate end point substantially diverged from the effect on a clinically relevant outcome. In this respect, the recent paper by Bruno et al. is problematic as it proposed higher vitamin E intakes for smokers on the basis of greater disappearance rate of alpha-tocopherol in the plasma of smokers. The disappearance rate is a surrogate end point with no validated relation to any clinically relevant outcome.
  • Suikkanen, Julia; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Eriksson, Johan G.; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Kajantie, Eero; Hovi, Petteri (2018)
    Objectives Adults born preterm at very low birthweight (VLBW; Study design The Helsinki Study of VLBW Adults includes 166 VLBW and preterm infants born between 1978 and 1985. We collected postnatal nutrition data among 125 unimpaired subjects, who attended two study visits at the mean ages of 22.5 and 25.1 years. We evaluated the effects of energy and macronutrient intakes during the first three 3-week periods of life on key cardiometabolic risk factors with multiple linear regression models. We also report results adjusted for prenatal, postnatal and adult characteristics. Results Macronutrient and energy intakes were not associated with blood pressure, heart rate, or lipid levels in adulthood. Intakes were neither associated with fasting glucose or most other markers of glucose metabolism. An exception was that the first-three-weeks-of-life intakes predicted higher fasting insulin levels: 1 g/kg/day higher protein intake by 37.6% (95% CI: 8.0%, 75.2%), and 10 kcal/kg/day higher energy intake by 8.6% (2.6%, 14.9%), when adjusted for sex and age. These early intakes similarly predicted the adult homeostasis model assessment index. Further adjustments strengthened these findings. Conclusions Among VLBW infants with relatively low early energy intake, early macronutrient and energy intakes were unrelated to blood pressure, lipid levels and intravenous glucose tolerance test results. Contrary to our hypothesis, a higher macronutrient intake during the first three weeks of life predicted higher fasting insulin concentration in young adulthood.
  • Tuunainen, Petra; Koivunen, Erja; Valaja, Jarmo; Valkonen, Eija; Hiidenhovi, Jaakko; Tupasela, Tuomo; Hongisto, Marja (2016)
    Performance, meat quality and litter quality were determined in 4000 male and female Ross 308 broilers fed on starter diet (soybean meal or rapeseed meal and peas) and grower-finisher diets based on either soybean meal (control) or substituting rapeseed meal or rapeseed meal and pea in different proportions (100/0%, 75/25% or 50/50%) for soybean meal in iso-nitrogenous basis. Performance of the birds fed with soybean meal diets was superior compared to that of the birds fed with rapeseed meal and pea based diets. Bird performance was the poorest and mortality the highest for the birds fed with the rapeseed meal grower diet. In this experiment birds did not reach performance target for the age and strain of bird. Overall, diet based solely on rapeseed meal protein is not suitable for broiler production. However, dietary rapeseed meal inclusion clearly improved fatty acid profile of breast meat. The omega-6/omega-3-ratio was 4.1, 2.4 and 2.7 for soybean meal, rapeseed meal, and rapeseed meal and peas based diets, respectively. There were no differences in sensory quality evaluation of breast meat between the treatments.
  • Helin, T. A.; Zuurveld, M.; Manninen, M.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Lassila, R.; Brinkman, H. J. M. (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Uncontrollable bleeding is the leading cause of death in traumatically injured patients. The extent to which direct factor Xa inhibitors interfere with the applied resuscitation measures is presently unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of the resuscitation fluid s saline, albumin, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and solvent/ detergent (S/D)-treated plasma, fibrinogen concentrate, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and combinations thereof on the hemostatic profile of rivaroxaban-anticoagulated whole blood and plasma. We used rivaroxaban-spiked whole blood and plasma from healthy donors, as well as plasma from patients on rivaroxaban, and mimicked a resuscitation approach in a 50% plasma dilution setting. Thromboelastography, thrombin generation, and fibrin generation clot lysis test were assessed using tissue factor to initiate coagulation and tissue plasminogen activator to induce clot lysis. RESULTS: Rivaroxaban resulted in a hypocoagulant state that remained largely unaltered upon subsequent 50% dilution with S/D-treated plasma or FFP. Using SID treated plasma as a diluent, clot stability decreased due to its low (12-antiplasmin. Dilution with saline and albumin induced a profibrinolytic state and further deteriorated the impaired hemostatic potential of rivaroxabananticoagulated blood, even after PCC and fibrinogen support. Combined use of plasma (either FFP or S/D treated) and PCC, however, considerably improved both coagulation and clot stability. CONCLUSION: In the setting of rivaroxaban anticoagulation and major blood loss, transfusing plasma together with PCC may provide the most effective resuscitation approach with the notion that additional antifibrinolytic drug support (e.g., tranexamic acid) is likely required.
  • Pokharel, Kisun; Peippo, Jaana; Honkatukia, Mervi; Seppälä, Arja; Rautiainen, Johanna; Ghanem, Nasser; Hamama, Tuula-Marjatta; Crowe, Mark A.; Andersson, Magnus; Li, Meng-Hua; Kantanen, Juha (2018)
    Background: The highly prolific breeds of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are globally valuable genetic resources for sheep industry. Genetic, nutritional and other environmental factors affect prolificacy traits in sheep. To improve our knowledge of the sheep prolificacy traits, we conducted mRNA-miRNA integrated profiling of ovarian tissues from two pure breeds with large (Finnsheep) vs. small (Texel) litter sizes and their F1 crosses, half of which were fed a flushing diet. Results: Among the samples, 16,402 genes (60.6% known ovine genes) were expressed, 79 novel miRNAs were found, and a cluster of miRNAs on chromosome 18 was detected. The majority of the differentially expressed genes between breeds were upregulated in the Texel with low prolificacy, owing to the flushing diet effect, whereas a similar pattern was not detected in the Finnsheep. F1 ewes responded similarly to Finnsheep rather than displaying a performance intermediate between the two pure breeds. Conclusions: The identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes and miRNAs in the ovaries of sheep provided insights into genetic and environmental factors affecting prolificacy traits. The three genes (CST6, MEPE and HBB) that were differentially expressed between the group of Finnsheep and Texel ewes kept in normal diet appeared to be candidate genes of prolificacy traits and will require further validation.
  • Korpela, Katri; Blakstad, Elin W.; Moltu, Sissel J.; Strommen, Kenneth; Nakstad, Britt; Ronnestad, Arild E.; Braekke, Kristin; Iversen, Per O.; Drevon, Christian A.; de Vos, Willem (2018)
    The intestinal microbiota is an important contributor to the health of preterm infants, and may be destabilized by a number of environmental factors and treatment modalities. How to promote the development of a healthy microbiota in preterm infants is largely unknown. We collected fecal samples from 45 breastfed preterm very low birth weight (birth weight <1500 g) infants from birth until 60 days postnatal age to characterize the intestinal microbiota development during the first weeks of life in preterm infants. Fecal microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The main driver of microbiota development was gestational age; antibiotic use had strong but temporary effects and birth mode had little influence. Microbiota development proceeded in four phases indicated by the dominance of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, and finally Bifidobacterium. The Enterococcus phase was only observed among the extremely premature infants and appeared to delay the microbiota succession. The results indicate that hospitalized preterm infants receiving breast milk may develop a normal microbiota resembling that of term infants.
  • Räisänen, Susanna Elisabeth; Lage, C. F.A.; Zhou, C.; Melgar, A.; Silvestre, T.; Wasson, D. E.; Cueva, S. F.; Werner, J.; Takagi, T.; Miura, M.; Hristov, A. N. (2022)
    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary levels of digestible histidine (dHis) and MP on lactational performance and plasma and muscle concentrations of free AA in dairy cows. A randomized block design experiment was conducted with 48 Holstein cows, including 20 primiparous, averaging (±SD) 103 ± 22 d in milk and 45 ± 9 kg/d milk yield at the beginning of the experiment. A 2-wk covariate period preceded 12 experimental wk, of which 10 wk were for data and sample collection. Experimental treatments were (1) MP-adequate (MPA) diet with 2.1% dHis of MP (MPA2.1), (2) MPA with 3.0% dHis (MPA3.0), (3) MP-deficient (MPD) diet with 2.1% dHis (MPD2.1), and (4) MPD with 3.0% dHis (MPD3.0). Actual dHis supply was estimated at 64, 97, 57, and 88 g/d, respectively. Diets supplied MP at 110% (MPA) and 96% (MPD) of NRC 2001 dairy model requirements calculated based on DMI and production data during the experiment. Dry matter intake and milk yield data were collected daily, milk samples for composition and blood samples for AA analysis were collected every other week, and muscle biopsies at the end of covariate period, and during wk 12 of the experiment. The overall DMI was not affected by dHis or MP level. Milk yield tended to be increased by 3.0% dHis compared with 2.1% dHis. Milk true protein concentration and yield were not affected by treatments, whereas milk urea nitrogen concentration was lower for MPD versus the MPA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for MPD versus MPA. There was a MP × dHis interaction for milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk; milk fat was lower for MPD3.0 versus MPD2.1, but similar for cows fed the MPA diet regardless of dHis level whereas energy-corrected milk was greater for MPA3.0 versus MPA2.1 but tended to be lower for MPD3.0 versus MPD2.1. Plasma His concentration was greater for cows fed dHis3.0, and concentration of sum of essential AA was greater, whereas carnosine, 1-Methyl-His and 3-Methyl-His concentrations were lower for cows fed MPA versus MPD diet. Muscle concentration of His was greater for cows fed dHis3.0 treatment. The apparent efficiency of His utilization was increased at lower MP and His levels. Overall, cows fed a corn silage-based diet supplying MP at 110% of NRC (2001) requirements tended to have increased ECM yield and similar milk protein yield to cows fed a diet supplying MP at 96% of requirements. Supplying dHis at 3.0% of MP (or 86 and 96 g/d, for MPD3.0 and MPA3.0, respectively) tended to increase milk yield and increased plasma and muscle concentrations of His but had minor or no effects on other production variables in dairy cows.
  • Erkkilä, Arja T.; Manninen, Suvi; Fredrikson, Linda; Bhalke, Monika; Holopainen, Minna; Ruuth, Maija; Lankinen, Maria; Käkelä, Reijo; Öörni, Katariina; Schwab, Ursula S. (2021)
    Background: There is little knowledge on the effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on the LDL lipidome and aggregation of LDL particles. Objective: We examined if consumption of Camelina sativa oil (CSO) as a source of ALA, fatty fish (FF) as a source of n-3 LCPUFA and lean fish (LF) as a source of fish protein affect the lipidome of LDL as compared to a control diet. Methods: Participants with impaired glucose tolerance (39 women and 40 men) were randomized to 4 study groups (CSO providing 10 g/d ALA, FF and LF [both 4 fish meals/wk] and control limiting their fish and ALA intake) in a 12-week, parallel trial. Diets were instructed and dietary fats were provided to the participants. The lipidome of LDL particles isolated from samples collected at baseline and after intervention was analyzed with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: In the CSO group, the relative concentrations of saturated and monounsaturated cholesteryl ester species in LDL decreased and the species with ALA increased. In the FF group, LDL phosphatidylcholine (PC) species containing n-3 LCPUFA increased. There was a significant positive correlation between the change in total sphingomyelin and change in LDL aggregation, while total PC and triunsaturated PC species were inversely associated with LDL aggregation when all the study participants were included in the analysis. Conclusion: Dietary intake of CSO and FF modifies the LDL lipidome to contain more polyunsaturated and less saturated lipid species. The LDL surface lipids are associated with LDL aggregation. (c) 2021 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
  • Saarnio, Elisa; Pekkinen, Minna; Itkonen, Suvi T.; Kemi, Virpi; Karp, Heini; Ivaska, Kaisa K.; Risteli, Juha; Koivula, Marja-Kaisa; Kärkkäinen, Merja; Mäkitie, Outi; Sievänen, Harri; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel (2018)
    Background Studies have shown altered vitamin D metabolism in obesity. We assessed differences between obese and normal-weight subjects in total, free, and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D, 25(OH) D-Free, and 25(OH) D-Bio, respectively), vitamin D binding protein (DBP), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone traits. Methods 595 37-47-year-old healthy Finnish men and women stratified by BMI were examined in this cross-sectional study. Background characteristic and intakes of vitamin D and calcium were collected. The concentrations of 25(OH) D, PTH, DBP, albumin and bone turnover markers were determined from blood. 25(OH) D-Free and 25(OH) D-Bio were calculated. pQCT was performed at radius and tibia. Results Mean +/- SE (ANCOVA) 25(OH) D-Free (10.8 +/- 0.6 vs 12.9 +/- 0.4 nmol/L; P = 0.008) and 25(OH) DBio (4.1 +/- 0.3 vs 5.1 +/- 0.1 nmol/L; P = 0.003) were lower in obese than in normal-weight women. In men, 25(OH) D (48.0 +/- 2.4 vs 56.4 +/- 2.0 nmol/L, P = 0.003), 25(OH) D-Free (10.3 +/- 0.7 vs 12.5 +/- 0.6 pmol/L; P = 0.044) and 25(OH) D-Bio (4.2 +/- 0.3 vs 5.1 +/- 0.2 nmol/L; P = 0.032) were lower in obese. Similarly in all subjects, 25(OH) D, 25(OH) D-Free and 25(OH) D-Bio were lower in obese (P Conclusions The associations between BMI and 25(OH) D, 25(OH) D-Free, and 25(OH) D-Bio, DBP, and PTH suggest that obese subjects may differ from normal-weight subjects in vitamin D metabolism. BMI associated positively with trabecular bone traits and CSI in our study, and slightly negatively with cortical bone traits. Surprisingly, there was a negative association of free and bioavailable 25(OH) D and some of the bone traits in obese women.
  • Tuokkola, Jetta; Luukkainen, Päivi; Kaila, Minna; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Niinisto, Sari; Veijola, Riitta; Virta, Lauri J.; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Virtanen, Suvi M. (2016)
    Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows' milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation were addressed in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Mothers of 4921 children during pregnancy and 2940 children during lactation provided information on maternal dietary intake during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation using a detailed, validated FFQ. Information on diagnosed CMA in the offspring was obtained from a medical registry as well as queried from the parents. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate nutrient intake. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses. Folate intake and folic acid and vitamin D supplement use were associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of CMA. Thus, maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation may affect the development of CMA in offspring. Supplementation with folic acid may not be beneficial in terms of CMA development, especially in children of allergic mothers. The association between dietary supplement use and CMA risk can at least partly be explained by increased health-seeking behaviour among more educated mothers who also use more dietary supplements.
  • Sammallahti, Sara; Kajantie, Eero; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Pyhälä, Riikka; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Marius; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hovi, Petteri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Raikkonen, Katri (2017)
    Background Preterm birth ( Methods In 86 participants of the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults (birthweight <1500g), we examined if higher intakes of energy, macronutrients, and human milk during the first nine weeks after preterm birth predict performance in tests of cognitive ability at 25.1 years of age (SD = 2.1). Results 10 kcal/kg/day higher total energy intake at 3 to 6 weeks of age was associated with 0.21 SD higher adult IQ (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.07-0.35). Higher carbohydrate and fat intake at 3-6 weeks, and higher energy intake from human milk at 3-6 and at 6-9 weeks were also associated with higher adult IQ: these effect sizes ranged from 0.09 SD (95% CI 0.01-0.18) to 0.34 SD (0.14-0.54) higher IQ, per one gram/kg/day more carbohydrate and fat, and per 10 kcal/kg/day more energy from human milk. Adjustment for neonatal complications attenuated the associations: intraventricular hemorrhage, in particular, was associated with both poorer nutrition and poorer IQ. Conclusion In preterm neonates with very low birth weight, higher energy and human milk intake predict better neurocognitive abilities in adulthood. To understand the determinants of these infants' neurocognitive outcome, it seems important to take into account the role of postnatal nutrition, not just as an isolated exposure, but as a potential mediator between neonatal illness and long-term neurodevelopment.
  • Kallio, Sampo; Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina; Savilahti, Erkki; Kuitunen, Mikael (2019)
    Background: The long-term effects of probiotic intervention for primary prevention of allergic diseases are not well known. We previously reported less eczema until 10 years in our probiotic intervention trial. Objective: To investigate the effect of early probiotic intervention on the prevalence of allergic diseases up to 13 years of age. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 1223) carrying a child at a high risk of allergy (at least one parent with allergic disease) were randomized to receive a mixture of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG and LC705, Bifidobacterium breve Bb99 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii) or placebo in a double-blind manner from 36 weeks of gestation until birth. Their infants received the same product for the first six months (registration number NCT00298337). At 13-year follow-up, the participants were requested to return a questionnaire and to provide a blood sample. Results: A questionnaire was returned by 642 participants (63.1% of intention-to-treat infants), and 459 provided a blood sample. In the whole cohort, there were no statistically significant differences in doctor-diagnosed allergic disease (55.2% and 59.0%, probiotic and placebo group, respectively) or allergic disease (47.9% and 51.6%) based on the ISAAC questionnaire data. Inhalant-specific IgE sensitization (>0.7 kU/L) was 59.3% in the probiotic group and 49.8% in the placebo group (P = 0.040). In a post hoc analysis made in Caesarean-delivered subgroup, allergy was reported in 41.5% of the probiotic group and 67.9% of the placebo group (P = 0.006), and eczema in 18.9% and 37.5%, respectively (P = 0.031). In the whole cohort, 8.5% of the probiotic group had suffered from wheezing attacks during the previous 12 months vs 14.7% in the placebo group (P = 0.013). There were no statistically significant differences discovered between the characteristics of the participating group and the dropout group. Conclusions: Probiotic intervention protected Caesarean-delivered subgroup from allergic disease and eczema, but not the total cohort.
  • Hemilä, H; Kaprio, J; Albanes, D; Virtamo, J (2006)
    It has been proposed that moderate exercise may enhance the immune system. We evaluated whether physical activity at work or at leisure is associated with the risk of pneumonia, and whether the antioxidants vitamin E and beta-carotene affect pneumonia risk in physically active people. A cohort of 16 804 male smokers aged 50 - 69 years and working at study entry was drawn from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, which examined the effect of vitamin E, 50 mg/day, and beta-carotene, 20 mg/day, on lung and other cancers. Physical activity at work, and the type of leisure-time exercise, were recorded at study entry. We retrieved the first occurrence of hospital-treated pneumonia during a 3-year follow-up from the National Hospital Discharge Register (133 cases). Physical activity at work and at leisure had no association with the risk of pneumonia. In participants with physically loading jobs, neither vitamin E nor beta-carotene affected the risk of pneumonia. In participants carrying out moderate or heavy exercise at leisure, beta-carotene had no effect, but vitamin E reduced the risk of pneumonia by 50% (95% CI: 16-70%). Previously, exercise has been shown to affect diverse laboratory measures of the immune system which are, however, only surrogate markers for the resistance to infections. The lack of association between physical activity and the risk of pneumonia observed in our study emphasizes the problem of drawing conclusions from surrogate end points. The finding that vitamin E reduced the risk of pneumonia in persons carrying out leisure-time exercise warrants further study.
  • Itkonen, Suvi T.; Pajula, Elina T.; Dowling, Kirsten G.; Hull, George L. J.; Cashman, Kevin D.; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J. E. (2018)
    Ultraviolet-irradiated yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) can be used to biofortify bakery products with vitamin D, but in bread, it was not effective in increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in humans, possibly because of the low digestibility of the yeast matrix. We investigated the effects of vitamin D-2-rich intact yeast cells and their separated fraction, yeast cell walls, which we hypothesized to provide vitamin D-2 in a more bioavailable form, on serum 25(OH)D and its metabolites in growing female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 54) compared to vitamin D-2 and D-3 supplements (8 treatment groups: 300 or 600 IU vitamin D/d, and a control group, 8-week intervention). The D-3 supplement groups had the highest 25(OH)D concentrations, and the vitamin D-2 supplement at the 600-IU dose increased 25(OH)D better than any yeast form (P <.001 for all, analysis of covariance, adjusted for body weight). There were no significant differences between the yeast forms at the same dose (P > .05). Serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (a vitamin D catabolite) concentrations and the trend in the differences between the groups were in line with 25 (OH)D (P <.001 for all). The 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to 25(OH)D ratio between the D-2 supplement and the yeast groups did not differ (P > .05). These findings do not support the hypothesis: the ability of the different ultraviolet-treated vitamin D-2-containing yeast forms to increase 25(OH)D did not differ, and the poor bioavailability of vitamin D-2 in the yeasts compared D-3 or D-2 supplements could not be explained by the increased vitamin D catabolism in the yeast-treated groups. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hemilä, Harri (2011)
    Lykkesfeldt and Poulsen's review has a promising title, and in the introductory paragraph, they state that ‘over the years, it has been suggested that vitamin C be used as a remedy against many diseases as different as common colds and cancers’(1). Given their title and introduction, one would expect a discussion about randomised controlled trials (RCT) on vitamin C and the common cold. However, this topic is ignored in their review. This is an unfortunate omission because the common cold studies give interesting information on the issues that Lykkesfeldt and Poulsen discuss.
  • Nurmi-Lüthje, I.; Tiihonen, R.; Paattiniemi, E. -L.; Naboulsi, H.; Pigg, S.; Sarkkinen, H.; Kaukonen, J-P; Toivanen, A.; Salmio, K.; Kataja, M.; Lüthje, P. (2018)
    Hypovitaminosis D is a problem among hip fracture patients. In a 1-year cohort study comprising 245 hip fracture patients (mean age of females 81 years and males 78 years) from south-eastern Finland, the mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentration was 73(SD 31) nmol/L. Vitamin D supplementation has been integrated into our current practice. The objectives of this study are to verify vitamin D levels among hip fracture patients and to compare the results with a similar study conducted in the same two hospitals covering the same geographic area 12 years ago. A prospective cohort comprising 245 Caucasian hip fracture patients was enrolled in the study in two acute hospitals in south-eastern Finland (61A degrees N) over a 12-month period in 2015-2016. The S-25(OH)D was measured using 25-hydroxyvitamin D electrochemiluminescence binding assay. The S-25(OH)D concentrations were compared with the corresponding concentrations of a similar cohort analyzed in the same two hospitals 12 years ago. Of the 245 patients, 70% were women with a mean age of 81 (SD 10) years, while the men had a mean age of 78 (SD 12) years (p <0.01). The total mean S-25(OH)D concentration was 73 (SD 31.3) nmol/L. Regional differences were found: 15% in hospital A and 36% in hospital B had a S-25(OH(D level <50 nmol/L, and the mean S-25(OH)D level was 79.2 (SD 31.7) nmol/L in hospital A and 62.4 (SD 27.5) nmol/L in hospital B (p <0.001). No differences were found in S-25(OH)D concentrations by either the place of residence or the time of year. Overall, the percentage of patients with a sufficient vitamin D level (> 50 nmol/L) was remarkably higher in 2015-2016 (77%) than in 2003-2004 (22%). Our results indicate that vitamin D supplementation has been widely integrated into our current practice. However, regional differences were found in the S-25(OH)D concentrations for which the reasons are unknown.