Browsing by Subject "SURFACE OZONE"

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  • Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Arar, Sharif; Khoder, Mamdouh; Abdelmaksoud, Ahmad S.; Al-Jeelani, Hisham; Lihavainen, Heikki; Hyvärinen, Antti; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I.; Almehmadi, Fahd M.; Zaidan, Martha A.; Hussein, Tareq; Dada, Lubna (2019)
    Ground level ozone (O-3) plays an important role in controlling the oxidation budget in the boundary layer and thus affects the environment and causes severe health disorders. Ozone gas, being one of the well-known greenhouse gases, although present in small quantities, contributes to global warming. In this study, we present a predictive model for the steady-state ozone concentrations during daytime (13:00-17:00) and nighttime (01:00-05:00) at an urban coastal site. The model is based on a modified approach of the null cycle of O-3 and NOx and was evaluated against a one-year data-base of O-3 and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) measured at an urban coastal site in Jeddah, on the west coast of Saudi Arabia. The model for daytime concentrations was found to be linearly dependent on the concentration ratio of NO2 to NO whereas that for the nighttime period was suggested to be inversely proportional to NO2 concentrations. Knowing that reactions involved in tropospheric O-3 formation are very complex, this proposed model provides reasonable predictions for the daytime and nighttime concentrations. Since the current description of the model is solely based on the null cycle of O-3 and NOx, other precursors could be considered in future development of this model. This study will serve as basis for future studies that might introduce informing strategies to control ground level O-3 concentrations, as well as its precursors' emissions.
  • von Schneidemesser, Erika; Monks, Paul S.; Allan, James D.; Bruhwiler, Lori; Forster, Piers; Fowler, David; Lauer, Axel; Morgan, William T.; Paasonen, Pauli; Righi, Mattia; Sindelarova, Katerina; Sutton, Mark A. (2015)
  • Clifton, O.E.; Paulot, F.; Fiore, A.M.; Horowitz, L.W.; Correa, G.; Baublitz, C.B.; Fares, S.; Goded, I.; Goldstein, A.H.; Gruening, C.; Hogg, A.J.; Loubet, B.; Mammarella, I.; Munger, J.W.; Neil, L.; Stella, P.; Uddling, J.; Vesala, T.; Weng, E. (2020)
    Identifying the contributions of chemistry and transport to observed ozone pollution using regional-to-global models relies on accurate representation of ozone dry deposition. We use a recently developed configuration of the NOAA GFDL chemistry-climate model - in which the atmosphere and land are coupled through dry deposition-to investigate the influence of ozone dry deposition on ozone pollution over northern midlatitudes. In our model, deposition pathways are tied to dynamic terrestrial processes, such as photosynthesis and water cycling through the canopy and soil. Small increases in winter deposition due to more process-based representation of snow and deposition to surfaces reduce hemispheric-scale ozone throughout the lower troposphere by 5-12 ppb, improving agreement with observations relative to a simulation with the standard configuration for ozone dry deposition. Declining snow cover by the end of the 21st-century tempers the previously identified influence of rising methane on winter ozone. Dynamic dry deposition changes summer surface ozone by -4 to +7 ppb. While previous studies emphasize the importance of uptake by plant stomata, new diagnostic tracking of depositional pathways reveals a widespread impact of nonstomatal deposition on ozone pollution. Daily variability in both stomatal and nonstomatal deposition contribute to daily variability in ozone pollution. Twenty-first century changes in summer deposition result from a balance among changes in individual pathways, reflecting differing responses to both high carbon dioxide (through plant physiology versus biomass accumulation) and water availability. Our findings highlight a need for constraints on the processes driving ozone dry deposition to test representation in regional-to-global models.
  • Wang, Jiaping; Virkkula, Aki; Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shuncheng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Nie, Wei; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Zheng; Huang, Xin; Wang, Tao; Cui, Long; Ding, Aijun (2017)
    Temporal variations in aerosol optical properties were investigated at a coastal station in Hong Kong based on the field observation from February 2012 to February 2015. At 550 nm, the average light-scattering (151 +/- 100Mm(-1) / and absorption coefficients (8.3 +/- 6.1Mm(-1) / were lower than most of other rural sites in eastern China, while the single-scattering albedo (SSA = 0.93 +/- 0.05) was relatively higher compared with other rural sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Correlation analysis confirmed that the darkest aerosols were smaller in particle size and showed strong scattering wavelength dependencies, indicating possible sources from fresh emissions close to the measurement site. Particles with D-p of 200-800 nm were less in number, yet contributed the most to the light-scattering coefficients among submicron particles. In summer, both Delta BC / Delta CO and SO2 / BC peaked, indicating the impact of nearby combustion sources on this site. Multi-year backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) and potential source contribution (PSC) analysis revealed that these particles were mainly from the air masses that moved southward over Shenzhen and urban Hong Kong and the polluted marine air containing ship exhausts. These fresh emission sources led to low SSA during summer months. For winter and autumn months, contrarily, Delta BC / Delta CO and SO2 / BC were relatively low, showing that the site was more under influence of well-mixed air masses from long-range transport including from South China, East China coastal regions, and aged aerosol transported over the Pacific Ocean and Taiwan, causing stronger abilities of light extinction and larger variability of aerosol optical properties. Our results showed that ship emissions in the vicinity of Hong Kong could have visible impact on the light-scattering and absorption abilities as well as SSA at Hok Tsui.
  • Liu, Jingda; Wang, Lili; Li, Mingge; Liao, Zhiheng; Sun, Yang; Song, Tao; Gao, Wenkang; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Yan; Ji, Dongsheng; Hu, Bo; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Wang, Yuesi; Kulmala, Markku (2019)
    The characteristics of ozone variations and the impacts of synoptic and local meteorological factors in northern China were quantitatively analyzed during the warm season from 2013 to 2017 based on multi-city in situ ozone and meteorological data as well as meteorological reanalysis. The domain-averaged maximum daily 8 h running average O-3 (MDA8 O-3) concentration was 122 +/- 11 mu g m(-3), with an increase rate of 7.88 lug mu g m(-3) yr(-1), and the three most polluted months were closely related to the variations in the synoptic circulation patterns, which occurred in June (149 mu m(-3)), May (138 mu m(-3)) and July (132 mu g m(-3)). A total of 26 weather types (merged into five weather categories) were objectively identified using the Lamb-Jenkinson method. The highly polluted weather categories included the S-W-N directions (geostrophic wind direction diverts from south to north), low-pressure-related weather types (LP) and cyclone type, which the study area controlled by a low-pressure center (C), and the corresponding domain-averaged MDA8 03 concentrations were 122, 126 and 128 mu g m(-3), respectively. Based on the frequency and intensity changes of the synoptic circulation patterns, 39.2 % of the interannual increase in the domain-averaged O-3 from 2013 to 2017 was attributed to synoptic changes, and the intensity of the synoptic circulation patterns was the dominant factor. Using synoptic classification and local meteorological factors, the segmented synoptic-regression approach was established to evaluate and forecast daily ozone variability on an urban scale. The results showed that this method is practical in most cities, and the dominant factors are the maximum temperature, southerly winds, relative humidity on the previous day and on the same day, and total cloud cover. Overall, 41 %-63 % of the day-today variability in the MDA8 O-3 concentrations was due to local meteorological variations in most cities over northern China, except for two cities: QHD (Qinhuangdao) at 34 % and ZZ (Zhengzhou) at 20 %. Our quantitative exploration of the influence of both synoptic and local meteorological factors on interannual and day-to-day ozone variability will provide a scientific basis for evaluating emission reduction measures that have been implemented by the national and local governments to mitigate air pollution in northern China.