Browsing by Subject "SURFACE WATERS"

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  • Scopetani, Costanza; Chelazzi, David; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda (2019)
    In the last few years, several studies have investigated microplastics (MPs) in marine ecosystems, but data monitoring and assessing the occurrence in freshwater environments are still scarce. The present study aims to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and chemical composition of MP pollution in Vesijärvi lake and Pikku Vesijärvi pond close to the city of Lahti (Finland) in winter. Sediment, snow, and ice core samples were collected near the shore of these two aquatic systems. MPs were analysed and identified by a non-destructive method using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) 2D imaging. The mean concentrations of MPs detected in sediment, snow, and ice samples were 395.5 ± 90.7 MPs/kg, 117.1 ± 18.4 MPs/L, and 7.8 ± 1.2 MPs/L, respectively. FTIR results showed the predominant abundance of microplastics, such as polyamides (up to 53.3%), polyethylene and polypropylene (up to 17.1%), and natural fragments such as cellulose (up to 45.8%) and wool (up 18.8%) in the same size range. The potential release of MPs arising from stormwaters and sport and recreational activities was evidenced.
  • Balleste, Elisenda; Blanch, Anicet R.; Mendez, Javier; Sala-Comorera, Laura; Maunula, Leena; Monteiro, Silvia; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Tiehm, Andreas; Jofre, Joan; Garcia-Aljaro, Cristina (2021)
    The detection of fecal viral pathogens in water is hampered by their great variety and complex analysis. As traditional bacterial indicators are poor viral indicators, there is a need for alternative methods, such as the use of somatic coliphages, which have been included in water safety regulations in recent years. Some researchers have also recommended the use of reference viral pathogens such as noroviruses or other enteric viruses to improve the prediction of fecal viral pollution of human origin. In this work, phages previously tested in microbial source tracking studies were compared with norovirus and adenovirus for their suitability as indicators of human fecal viruses. The phages, namely those infecting human-associated Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain GA17 (GA17PH) and porcine-associated Bacteroides strain PG76 (PGPH), and the human-associated crAssphage marker (crAssPH), were evaluated in sewage samples and fecal mixtures obtained from different animals in five European countries, along with norovirus GI + GII (NoV) and human adenovirus (HAdV). GA17PH had an overall sensitivity of >= 83% and the highest specificity (>88%) for human pollution source detection. crAssPH showed the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) in northern European countries but a much lower specificity in Spain and Portugal (10 and 30%, respectively), being detected in animal wastewater samples with a high concentration of fecal indicators. The correlations between GA17PH, crAssPH, or the sum of both (BACPH) and HAdV or NoV were higher than between the two human viruses, indicating that bacteriophages are feasible indicators of human viral pathogens of fecal origin and constitute a promising, easy to use and affordable alternative to human viruses for routine water safety monitoring.
  • Arvola, Lauri; Leppäranta, Matti; Äijälä, Cecilia (2017)
    In lakes and rivers, the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are closely related. We analysed three large spectrophotometer data sets of Finnish inland waters from the years 1913–1914, 1913–1931 and 2014 for long-term changes in optical properties. The first data set consists of absorption spectra in the band 467–709 nm of 212 filtered water samples, the second one contains 11– 19 years of data for seven rivers, and the third one contains 153 sites with high resolution spectra over the band 200–750 nm. These data sets were supplemented with more recent monitoring data of DOC. The sites represent typical optical inland water types of north-eastern Europe. The results did not show any consistent large-scale changes in CDOM concentrations over the 101-year time period. The statistics of the absorption coefficients in 1913 and 2014 were almost identical, at 467 nm they were 1.9 ± 1.0 m−1 in 1913 and 1.7 ± 1.2 m−1 in 2014, and the shape of the CDOM absorption spectrum was unchanged, proportional to exp(–S·λ), S = 0.011 nm−1 and λ is wavelength. Catchment properties, primarily lake and peat-land percentages, explained 50% of the variation of CDOM concentration in the lakes, and hydrological conditions explained 50% of the variation of CDOM in the rivers. Both illustrate the importance of catchments and hydrology to CDOM concentrations of boreal inland waters.
  • Holmberg, Maria; Futter, Martyn N.; Kotamaki, Niina; Fronzek, Stefan; Forsius, Martin; Kiuru, Petri; Pirttioja, Nina; Rasmus, Kai; Starr, Mike; Vuorenmaa, Jussi (2014)
  • Atashgahi, Siavash; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Humans and their associated microbiomes are exposed to numerous xenobiotics through drugs, dietary components, personal care products as well as environmental chemicals. Most of the reciprocal interactions between the microbiota and xenobiotics, such as halogenated compounds, occur within the human gut harboring diverse and dense microbial communities. Here, we provide an overview of the flux of halogenated compounds in the environment, and diverse exposure routes of human microbiota to these compounds. Subsequently, we review the impact of halogenated compounds in perturbing the structure and function of gut microbiota and host cells. In turn, cultivation-dependent and metagenomic surveys of dehalogenating genes revealed the potential of the gut microbiota to chemically alter halogenated xenobiotics and impact their fate. Finally, we provide an outlook for future research to draw attention and attract interest to study the bidirectional impact of halogenated and other xenobiotic compounds and the gut microbiota.
  • Rask, Martti; Malinen, Tommi; Olin, Mikko; Nyberg, Kari; Ruuhijarvi, Jukka; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Verta, Matti; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Blauberg, Tarja-Riitta; Arvola, Lauri (2021)
    High dissolved organic carbon and low pH are often associated with elevated mercury content of fish in boreal lakes, but less is known about the fish mercury dynamics in lakes recovering from acidification stress. We measured total mercury concentration (THg) in muscle of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and evaluated the overall correlation with environmental and growth variables in 24 boreal headwater lakes in the 2010s. We found negative correlations of length-corrected perch THg with lake pH and perch growth, but no correlation with dissolved organic carbon. The main emphasis in the present study was focused to a subset of ten lakes in southern Finland with known perch THg during severe acidification in the 1980-1990s. The comparison of perch THg concentrations in the 2010s with values determined in the 1980-1990s showed a sharp increase in most acidic lakes where the perch populations suffered from severe acid stress in the 1980s. This increase was attributed to growth condensation caused by sharp decrease in perch growth during recovery of reproduction capacity and the consequent increases in population densities of perch. Our results highlight the importance of perch growth rate and population density for understanding the variability of fish Hg in boreal headwater lakes, where recovery from acidification can lead to higher mercury concentration of fish in certain cases.
  • Provenzale, Maria; Ojala, Anne; Heiskanen, Jouni; Erkkila, Kukka-Maaria; Mammarella, Ivan; Hari, Pertti; Vesala, Timo (2018)
    Lakes are important actors in biogeochemical cycles and a powerful natural source of CO2. However, they are not yet fully integrated in carbon global budgets, and the carbon cycle in the water is still poorly understood. In freshwater ecosystems, productivity studies have usually been carried out with traditional methods (bottle incubations, C-14 technique), which are imprecise and have a poor temporal resolution. Consequently, our ability to quantify and predict the net ecosystem productivity (NEP) is limited: the estimates are prone to errors and the NEP cannot be parameterised from environmental variables. Here we expand the testing of a free-water method based on the direct measurement of the CO2 concentration in the water. The approach was first proposed in 2008, but was tested on a very short data set (3 days) under specific conditions (autumn turnover); despite showing promising results, this method has been neglected by the scientific community. We tested the method under different conditions (summer stratification, typical summer conditions for boreal dark-water lakes) and on a much longer data set (40 days), and quantitatively validated it comparing our data and productivity models. We were able to evaluate the NEP with a high temporal resolution (minutes) and found a very good agreement (R-2 >= 0.71) with the models. We also estimated the parameters of the productivity-irradiance (PI) curves that allow the calculation of the NEP from irradiance and water temperature. Overall, our work shows that the approach is suitable for productivity studies under a wider range of conditions, and is an important step towards developing this method so that it becomes more widely used.
  • Arzel, Celine; Nummi, Petri; Arvola, Lauri; Pöysä, Hannu; Davranche, Aurélie; Rask, Martti; Olin, Mikko; Holopainen, Sari; Viitala, Risto; Einola, Eeva; Manninen-Johansen, Sanni (2020)
    Surface water browning affects boreal lakes in the Northern Hemisphere. This process is expected to increase with global warming. Boreal lakes are the most numerous lakes on Earth. These ecosystems are particularly sensitive to disturbances due to their low biodiversity compared to other aquatic environments. The recent darkening of surface water is expected to hinder key ecosystem processes, particularly through lower primary productivity and loss of biodiversity. However, studies based on long-term data collections have rarely been conducted on the ecological consequences of water browning on aquatic food webs, especially concerning its impacts on invertebrate communities. For the first time, our analysis based on two decades of data collection in Finnish lakes highlighted a relation between water browning and a decline in aquatic macroinvertebrate abundances. Aquatic invertebrates are the main food resource for many secondary predators such as fish and waterbirds, hence such effect on their populations may have major consequences for boreal ecosystem functioning.
  • Tattari, Sirkka; Koskiaho, Jari; Kosunen, Maiju; Lepisto, Ahti; Linjama, Jarmo; Puustinen, Markku (2017)
    Long-term data from a network of intensively monitored research catchments in Finland was analysed. We studied temporal (1981-2010) and spatial variability in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), from 1987 losses, both from agricultural and forestry land. Based on trend analysis, total nitrogen (TN) concentrations increased in two of the four agricultural sites and in most of the forested sites. In agricultural catchments, the total phosphorus (TP) trends were decreasing in two of the four catchments studied. Dissolved P (DRP) concentrations increased in two catchments and decreased in one. The increase in DRP concentration can be a result of reducing erosion by increased non-plough cultivation and direct sowing. In forested catchments, the TP trends in 1987-2011 were significantly decreasing in three of the six catchments, while DRP concentrations decreased significantly in all sites. At the same time, P fertilisation in Finnish forests has decreased significantly, thus contributing to these changes. The mean annual specific loss for agricultural land was on average 15.5 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for N and 1.1 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for P. In the national scale, total TN loading from agriculture varied between 34,000-37,000 t year(-1) and total P loading 2400-2700 t year(-1) These new load estimates are of the same order than those reported earlier, emphasising the need for more efforts with wide-ranging and carefully targeted implementation of water protection measures.
  • Ortúzar, Maite; Esterhuizen, Maranda; Olicón-Hernández, Darío Rafael; González-López, Jesús; Aranda, Elisabet (2022)
    The presence of emerging contaminants in the environment, such as pharmaceuticals, is a growing global concern. The excessive use of medication globally, together with the recalcitrance of pharmaceuticals in traditional wastewater treatment systems, has caused these compounds to present a severe environmental problem. In recent years, the increase in their availability, access and use of drugs has caused concentrations in water bodies to rise substantially. Considered as emerging contaminants, pharmaceuticals represent a challenge in the field of environmental remediation; therefore, alternative add-on systems for traditional wastewater treatment plants are continuously being developed to mitigate their impact and reduce their effects on the environment and human health. In this review, we describe the current status and impact of pharmaceutical compounds as emerging contaminants, focusing on their presence in water bodies, and analyzing the development of bioremediation systems, especially mycoremediation, for the removal of these pharmaceutical compounds with a special focus on fungal technologies.
  • Denfeld, Blaize A.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Rantakari, Miitta; Sobek, Sebastian; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A. (2016)
    Northern lakes are ice-covered for considerable portions of the year, where carbon dioxide (CO2) can accumulate below ice, subsequently leading to high CO2 emissions at ice-melt. Current knowledge on the regional control and variability of below ice partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) is lacking, creating a gap in our understanding of how ice cover dynamics affect the CO2 accumulation below ice and therefore CO2 emissions from inland waters during the ice-melt period. To narrow this gap, we identified the drivers of below ice pCO(2) variation across 506 Swedish and Finnish lakes using water chemistry, lake morphometry, catchment characteristics, lake position, and climate variables. We found that lake depth and trophic status were the most important variables explaining variations in below ice pCO(2) across the 506 lakes(.) Together, lake morphometry and water chemistry explained 53% of the site-to-site variation in below ice pCO(2). Regional climate (including ice cover duration) and latitude only explained 7% of the variation in below ice pCO(2). Thus, our results suggest that on a regional scale a shortening of the ice cover period on lakes may not directly affect the accumulation of CO2 below ice but rather indirectly through increased mobility of nutrients and carbon loading to lakes. Thus, given that climate-induced changes are most evident in northern ecosystems, adequately predicting the consequences of a changing climate on future CO2 emission estimates from northern lakes involves monitoring changes not only to ice cover but also to changes in the trophic status of lakes.
  • Samadi, Afshin; Kim, Youngsam; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kim, Young Jun; Esterhuizen, Maranda (2022)
    The environmental impacts of plastic pollution have recently attracted universal attention, especially in the aquatic environment. However, research has mostly been focused on marine ecosystems, even though freshwater ecosystems are equally if not more polluted by plastics. In addition, the mechanism and extent to which plastic pollution affects aquatic biota and the rates of transfer to organisms through food webs eventually reaching humans are poorly understood, especially considering leaching hazardous chemicals. Several studies have demonstrated extreme toxicity in freshwater organisms such Daphnia. When such keystone species are affected by ambient pollution, entire food webs are destabilized and biodiversity is threatened. The unremitting increase in plastic contaminants in freshwater environments would cause impairments in ecosystem functions and structure, leading to various kinds of negative ecological consequences. As various studies have reported the effects on daphnids, a consolidation of this literature is critical to discuss the limitations and knowledge gaps and to evaluate the risk posed to the aquatic environment. This review was undertaken due to the evident need to evaluate this threat. The aims were to provide a meaningful overview of the literature relevant to the potential impact of plastic pollution and associated contaminants on freshwater daphnids as primary consumers. A critical evaluation of research gaps and perspectives is conducted to provide a comprehensive risk assessment of microplastic as a hazard to aquatic environments. We outlined the challenges and limitations to microplastic research in hampering better-focused investigations that could support the development of new plastic materials and/or establishment of new regulations.