Browsing by Subject "SURFACE-LAYER"

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  • Arriga, Nicola; Rannik, Ullar; Aubinet, Marc; Carrara, Arnaud; Vesala, Timo; Papale, Dario (2017)
    Footprint models, which simulate source area for scalar fluxes, are fundamental tools for a correct interpretation of micromoeteorological flux measurements and ecosystem exchange inferred from such data. Over the last two decades models of varying complexity have been developed, but all of them suffer from a significant lack of experimental validation. In this study two different experimental tests have been conducted with the aim of offering validation: a manipulation of the vegetation cover and an artificial tracer emission. In the first case the extension of the flux source has been changed progressively by successive cuts of vegetation, while in the second case by varying the distance of a tracer emission line respect to the measurement point. Results have been used to validate two analytical and a numerical footprint models. The experimental data show a good agreement with footprint models and indicate a limited extension of the flux source area, with approximately 75% of the sources confined within a range of 10-20 times the effective measurement height, i.e. the measurement height above the zero plane displacement. Another interesting result was the strong dependence on the surface roughness of both experimental estimates and numerical simulations of footprint. The effect of surface roughness on experimental results and models outputs was comparable to the effect of atmospheric stability. This indicates that surface roughness and turbulence conditions may play a significant role in source area location, in particular above inhomogeneous surfaces with change in roughness, as in the case of the manipulation experiment. Consequently a careful site specific quantification of these parameters seems to be fundamental to obtain realistic footprint estimates and significantly improve eddy covariance flux interpretation at complex sites.
  • Barskov, K. V.; Glazunov, A. V.; Repina, I. A.; Stepanenko, V. M.; Lykossov, V. N.; Mammarella, I. (2018)
    Micrometeorological measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer over a hilly forest terrain have been made on a meteorological tower at several levels from the forest canopy top to a height that exceeds the height of trees almost seven times. A semiempirical length scale depending on the local topography features and the underlying surface type has been proposed and calculated. This scale has been shown to allow the universal functions of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to be corrected for a stable atmospheric boundary layer over complex terrain without substantial modification when compared to the universal functions over a homogeneous surface with small roughness elements. This approach can be used to refine the methods for calculating turbulent momentum fluxes from profile measurements over spatially inhomogeneous landscapes.
  • Zilitinkevich, S. S.; Esau, I.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Kouznetsov, R. D. (2010)
  • Kouznetsov, Rostislav D.; Zilitinkevich, Sergej S. (2010)
  • Wu, Hao; Li, Zhanqing; Li, Hanqing; Luo, Kun; Wang, Yuying; Yan, Peng; Hu, Fei; Zhang, Fang; Sun, Yele; Shang, Dongjie; Liang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dongmei; Wei, Jing; Wu, Tong; Jin, Xiaoai; Fan, Xinxin; Cribb, Maureen; Fischer, Marc L.; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka (2021)
    A new mechanism of new particle formation (NPF) is investigated using comprehensive measurements of aerosol physicochemical quantities and meteorological variables made in three continents, including Beijing, China; the Southern Great Plains site in the USA; and SMEAR II Station in Hyytiala, Finland. Despite the considerably different emissions of chemical species among the sites, a common relationship was found between the characteristics of NPF and the stability intensity. The stability parameter (zeta = Z/L, where Z is the height above ground and L is the Monin-Obukhov length) is found to play an important role; it drops significantly before NPF as the atmosphere becomes more unstable, which may serve as an indicator of nucleation bursts. As the atmosphere becomes unstable, the NPF duration is closely related to the tendency for turbulence development, which influences the evolution of the condensation sink. Presumably, the unstable atmosphere may dilute pre-existing particles, effectively reducing the condensation sink, especially at coarse mode to foster nucleation. This new mechanism is confirmed by model simulations using a molecular dynamic model that mimics the impact of turbulence development on nucleation by inducing and intensifying homogeneous nucleation events.