Browsing by Subject "SURGERY"

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  • Tiihonen, R.; Alaranta, R.; Helkamaa, T.; Nurmi-Lüthje, I.; Kaukonen, J.-P.; Lüthje, P. (2019)
    Background and Aims: Reoperations after operative treatment of hip fracture patients may be associated with higher costs and inferior survival. We examined the acute hospital costs, long-term reoperation rates, and survival of patients with a new hip fracture. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 consecutive new hip fracture patients treated at a single center between 31 December 2004 and 6 December 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Fractures were classified according to Garden and AO. All medical records were checked manually. The costs of reoperations were calculated using the diagnosis-related groups (DRG)-based prices. Survival analysis was performed using the life-table method. The follow-up time was 10 years. Results: In all, 70/490 patients (14.3%) needed reoperations. Of all reoperations, 34.2% were performed during the first month and 72.9% within 1 year after the primary operation. The hemiarthroplasty dislocation rate was 8.5%, and mechanical failures of osteosynthesis occurred in 6.2%. Alcohol abuse was associated with a heightened risk of reoperation. The mean direct costs of primary fracture care were lower than the mean costs of reoperations (euro7500 vs euro9800). The mortality rate at 10 years was 79.8% among non-reoperated patients and 62.9% among reoperated patients. Conclusions: According to our hypothesis, the cost per patient of reoperation in acute care was 31% higher than the corresponding cost of a primary operation. Reoperations increased the overall immediate costs of index fractures by nearly 20%. One-third of all reoperations were performed during the first month and almost 75% within 1 year after the primary operation.
  • Järvinen, Teppo N. L.; Sihvonen, Raine; Englund, Martin (2014)
  • Jokela, Johanna; Tapiovaara, Laura; Lundberg, Marie; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Bäck, Leif; Saarinen, Riitta (2018)
    Objectives. To evaluate the incidence and nature of complications associated with diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopies and to report intervention failures in a prospective setup. Study Design. Prospective observational study. Setting. Academic tertiary care university hospital. Subjects and Methods. Patients who underwent diagnostic or interventional sialendoscopy between October 2015 and December 2016 were prospectively enrolled. Patient data, operation-related factors, treatment failures, and complications were recorded into a database and analyzed. Results. A total of 140 sialendoscopies were attempted or performed on 118 patients; 67 (48%) were for a parotid gland and 73 (52%) for a submandibular gland. The sialendoscopy was interventional in 81 cases (58%), diagnostic in 56 (40%), and not possible to perform in 3 (2.1%). A total of 21 complications were registered for 21 sialendoscopies (15%) and 21 patients (18%). The most common complication was infection, in 9 cases (6.4%). Other observed complications were salivary duct perforation (4 cases), prolonged glandular swelling (3 cases), transient lingual nerve analgesia (2 cases), basket entrapment (2 cases), and transient weakness in the marginal branch of the facial nerve (1 case). All complications were related to interventional procedures or papilla dilatation. Failure to treat occurred in 21 (15%) sialendoscopies: sialendoscopy itself was unsuccessful in 3 cases, and an intended intervention failed in 18 cases. Conclusion. Complications in sialendoscopy are usually related to interventional procedures. The complications are mainly minor and temporary but lead to additional follow-up visits, further treatments, and sometimes hospitalization. Sialendoscopic procedures are safe but not free of complications.
  • Sippola, Suvi; Grönroos, Juha; Sallinen, Ville; Rautio, Tero; Nordström, Pia; Rantanen, Tuomo; Hurme, Saija; Leppäniemi, Ari; Meriläinen, Sanna; Laukkarinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Heini; Virtanen, Johanna; Salminen, Paulina (2018)
    Introduction Recent studies show that antibiotic therapy is safe and feasible for CT-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Spontaneous resolution of acute appendicitis has already been observed over a hundred years ago. In CT-confirmed uncomplicated acute diverticulitis (left-sided appendicitis), studies have shown no benefit from antibiotics compared with symptomatic treatment, but this shift from antibiotics to symptomatic treatment has not yet been widely implemented in clinical practice. Recently, symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis has been demonstrated in a Korean open-label study. However, a double-blinded placebo-controlled study to illustrate the role of antibiotics and spontaneous resolution of uncomplicated acute appendicitis is still lacking. Methods and analysis The APPAC III (APPendicitis ACuta III) trial is a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, superiority randomised study comparing antibiotic therapy with placebo in the treatment CT scan-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis aiming to evaluate the role of antibiotics in the resolution of uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Adult patients (18-60 years) with CT scan-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis (the absence of appendicolith, abscess, perforation and tumour) will be enrolled in five Finnish university hospitals. Primary endpoint is success of the randomised treatment, defined as resolution of acute appendicitis resulting in discharge from the hospital without surgical intervention within 10 days after initiating randomised treatment (treatment efficacy). Secondary endpoints include postintervention complications, recurrent symptoms after treatment up to 1year, late recurrence of acute appendicitis after 1year, duration of hospital stay, sick leave, treatment costs and quality of life. A decrease of 15 percentage points in success rate is considered clinically important difference. The superiority of antibiotic treatment compared with placebo will be analysed using Fisher's one-sided test and CI will be calculated for proportion difference. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Turku University Hospital and the Finnish Medicines Agency (FIMEA). The findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed academic journals. Trial registration number NCT03234296; Pre-results.
  • Renkonen, Suvi; Linden, Riikka; Bäck, Leif; Silen, Robert; Mäenpää, Hanna; Tapiovaara, Laura; Aro, Katri (2017)
    Primary treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with lateral lymph node metastasis is surgery, but the extent of lateral neck dissection remains undefined. Preoperative imaging is used to guide the extent of surgery, although its sensitivity and specificity for defining the number and level of affected lymph nodes on the lateral neck is relatively modest. Our aim was to assess the role of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the requisite levels of neck dissection in patients with regionally metastatic PTC, with a focus on Levels II and V. All patients with PTC and lateral neck metastasis who had undergone neck dissection at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland from 2013 to 2016 and had a preoperative MRI available were retrospectively reviewed. A head and neck radiologist re-evaluated all MRIs, and the imaging findings were compared with histopathology after neck dissection. In the cohort of 39 patients, preoperative MRI showed concordance with histopathology for Levels II and V as follows: sensitivity of 94 and 67%, specificity of 20 and 91%, positive predictive value of 56 and 75%, and negative predictive value of 75 and 87%, respectively. In PTC, MRI demonstrated fairly high specificity and negative predictive value for Level V metastasis, and future studies are needed to verify our results to omit prophylactic dissection of this level. Routine dissection of Level II in patients with regionally metastatic PTC needs to be considered, as MRI showed low specificity.
  • MISiCOL Task Force (2018)
    Aim: To investigate the rate of laparoscopic colectomies for colon cancer using registries and population based studies. To provide a position paper on mini-invasive (MIS) colon cancer surgery based on the opinion of experts leader in this field. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PRISMA guidelines for the rate of laparoscopy in colon cancer. Moreover, Delphi methodology was used to reach consensus among 35 international experts in four study rounds. Consensus was defined as an agreement >= 75.0%. Domains of interest included nosology, essential technical/oncological requirements, outcomes and MIS training. Results: Forty-four studies from 42 articles were reviewed. Although it is still sub-optimal, the rate of MIS for colon cancer increased over the years and it is currently >50% in Korea, Netherlands, UK and Australia. The remaining European countries are un-investigated and presented lower rates with highest variations, ranging 7-35%. Using Delphi methodology, a laparoscopic colectomy was defined as a "colon resection performed using key-hole surgery independently from the type of anastomosis". The panel defined also the oncological requirements recognized essential for the procedure and agreed that when performed by experienced surgeons, it should be marked as best practice in guidelines, given the principles of oncologic surgery be respected (RO procedure, vessel ligation and mesocolon integrity). Conclusion: The rate of MIS colectomies for cancer in Europe should be further investigated. A panel of leaders in this field defined laparoscopic colectomy as a best practice procedure when performed by an experienced surgeon respecting the standards of surgical oncology. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO similar to The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.
  • Moriyama, Noriaki; Laakso, Teemu; Raivio, Peter; Dahlbacka, Sebastian; Kinnunen, Eeva-Maija; Juvonen, Tatu; Valtola, Antti; Husso, Annastiina; Jalava, Maina P.; Ahvenvaara, Tuomas; Tauriainen, Tuomas; Piuhola, Jarkko; Lahtinen, Asta; Niemelä, Matti; Mäkikallio, Timo; Virtanen, Marko; Maaranen, Pasi; Eskola, Markku; Savontaus, Mikko; Airaksinen, Juhani; Biancari, Fausto; Laine, Mika (2021)
    Background: The data on acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are limited. The study sought to compare the incidence of AKI and its impact on 5-year mortality after TAVR and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients without CKD. Methods: This registry included data from 6463 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR or SAVR. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate Results: The study included 4555 consecutive patients (TAVR, n = 1215 and SAVR, n = 3340) without CKD. Propensity-score matching identified 542 pairs. Patients who underwent TAVR had a significantly lower incidence of AKI in comparison to those who underwent SAVR (unmatched 4.7% vs 16.4%, P <0.001, multivariable analysis: odds ratio, 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-0.41; matched 5.9% vs 19.0%, P <0.001). Patients with AKI had significantly increased 5-year mortality compared with those without AKI (unmatched 36.0% vs 19.1%, log-rank P <0.001; matched 36.3% vs 24.0%, log-rank P <0.001). The adjusted hazard ratios for 5-year mortality were 1.58 (95% CI, 1.20-2.08) for AKI grade 1, 3.27 (95% CI, 2.09-5.06) for grade 2, and 4.82 (95% CI, 2.93-8.04) for grade 3. Conclusions: TAVR in patients without CKD was associated with a significantly less frequent incidence of AKI compared with SAVR. AKI significantly increased the risk of 5-year mortality after either TAVR or SAVR, and increasing severity of AKI was incrementally associated with 5-year mortality.
  • Sandberg, Lars Johan; Tonseth, Kim A.; Kloster-Jensen, Kristine; Liu, Jun; Robe, Charee; Reece, Gregory; Hansen, Elisabeth H.; Berntsen, Karin; Halle, Martin; Edsander-Nord, Asa; Höckerstedt, Anna; Kauhanen, Susanna; Sneistrup, Christian; Tindholdt, Tyge; Petter Gullestad, Hans; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Berg, Erik; Creed Selber, Jesse (2020)
    Background: There is little consensus about the relative determinative value of each individual factor in female breast aesthetics. When performing breast surgery with an aesthetic goal, certain factors will be more important than others. The purpose of this study was to make an aesthetic factor rank list to determine the relative contributions to overall breast aesthetics. Method: Volunteers were scanned using the 3-dimensional Vectra system. Ten Scandinavian plastic surgeons rated 37 subjects, using a validated scoring system with 49 scoring items. The correlation between specific aesthetic factors and overall breast aesthetic scores of the subjects were calculated using Pearson's r, Spearman's rho, and Kendall's tau. Results: A very strong correlation was found between overall breast aesthetic score and lower pole shape (0.876, P <0.0001). This was also true for upper pole shape (0.826, P <0.0001) and breast height (0.821, P <0.0001). A strong correlation was found between overall breast aesthetic score and nipple position (0.733, P <0.0001), breast size (0.644, P <0.0001), and breast width (0.632, P <0.0001). Factors that were only moderately correlated with aesthetic score were intermammary distance (0.496, P = 0.002), nipple size and projection (0.588, P <0.0001), areolar diameter (0.484, P <0.0001), and areolar shape (0.403, P <0.0001). Perceived symmetry was a weak factor (0.363, P = 0.027). Conclusions: Aesthetic factors of the female breast can be ranked in a priority list. Shape of the lower pole and upper pole and breast height are primary factors of female breast aesthetics. These should be prioritized in any aesthetic breast surgery. Vertical dimensional factors seem to be more determinative than horizontal factors.
  • Milatovic, B.; Saponjski, J.; Huseinagic, H.; Moranjkic, M.; Medenica, S. Milosevic; Marinkovic, I.; Nikolic, Milos; Marinkovic, S. (2018)
    Background: Identification and anatomic features of the feeding arteries of the arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is very important due to neurologic, radiologic, and surgical reasons. Materials and methods: Seventy-seven patients with AVMs were examined by using a digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) and computerised tomographic (CT) examination, including three-dimensional reconstruction of the brain vessels. In addition, the arteries of 4 human brain stems and 8 cerebral hemispheres were microdissected. Results: The anatomic examination showed a sporadic hypoplasia, hyperplasia, early bifurcation and duplication of certain cerebral arteries. The perforating arteries varied from 1 to 8 in number. The features of the leptomeningeal and choroidal vessels were presented. The radiologic examination revealed singular (22.08%), double (32.48%) or multiple primary feeding arteries (45.45%), which were dilated and elongated in 58.44% of the patients. The feeders most often originated from the middle cerebral artery (MCA; (23.38%), less frequently from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA; 12.99%), and the posterior cerebral artery (PCA; 10.39%). Multiple feeders commonly originated from the ACA and MCA (11.69%), the MCA and PCA (10.39%), the ACA and PCA (7.79%), and the ACA, MCA and PCA (5.19%). The infratentorial feeders were found in 9.1% of the AVMs. Contribution from the middle meningeal and occipital arteries was seen in 3.9% angiograms. Two cerebral arteries had a saccular aneurysm. The AVM haemorrhage appeared in 63.6% of patients. Conclusions: The knowledge of the origin and anatomic features of the AVMs feeders is important in the explanation of neurologic signs, and in a decision regarding the endovascular embolisation, neurosurgical and radiosurgical treatments.
  • Välkki, Kirsi Johanna; Thomson, Katariina Hanne; Grönthal, Thomas Sven Christer; Junnila, Jouni Juho Tapio; Rantala, Merja Hilma Johanna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi Maria; Mölsä, Sari Helena (2020)
    Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To lower the incidence of SSI, antimicrobial prophylaxis is given 30-60 min before certain types of surgeries in both human and veterinary patients. However, due to the increasing concern of antimicrobial resistance, the benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean orthopaedic and neurosurgeries warrants investigation. The aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to review the rate of SSI and evaluate the compliance with antimicrobial guidelines in dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2012-2016. In addition, possible risk factors for SSI were assessed. Results Nearly all dogs (377/406; 92.9%) received antimicrobial prophylaxis. Twenty-nine dogs (7.1%) did not receive any antimicrobials and only four (1.1%) received postoperative antimicrobials. The compliance with in-house and national protocols was excellent regarding the choice of prophylactic antimicrobial (cefazolin), but there was room for improvement in the timing of prophylaxis administration. Follow-up data was available for 89.4% (363/406) of the dogs. Mean follow-up time was 464 days (range: 3-2600 days). The overall SSI rate was 6.3%: in orthopaedic surgeries it was 6.7%, and in neurosurgeries it was 4.2%. The lowest SSI rates (0%) were seen in extracapsular repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture, ulnar ostectomy, femoral head and neck excision, arthrotomy and coxofemoral luxation repair. The highest SSI rate (25.0%) was seen in arthrodesis. Omission of antimicrobials did not increase the risk for SSI (P = 0.56; OR 1.7; CI(95%)0.4-5.0). Several risk factors for SSI were identified, including methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus pseudintermediuscarriage (P = 0.02; OR 9.0; CI(95%)1.4-57.9) and higher body temperature (P = 0.03; OR 1.69; CI(95%)1.0-2.7; mean difference + 0.4 degrees C compared to dogs without SSI). Conclusions Antimicrobial prophylaxis without postoperative antimicrobials is sufficient to maintain the overall rate of SSI at a level similar to published data in canine clean orthopedic and neurosurgeries.
  • Järvinen, Teppo L. N.; Sihvonen, Raine; Englund, Martin (2014)
  • Gunnarsson, Ulf; Strigård, Karin; Edin, Sofia; Gkekas, Ioannis; Mustonen, Harri; Kaprio, Tuomas; Böckelman, Camilla; Hagström, Jaana; Palmqvist, Richard; Haglund, Caj (2020)
    Systemic inflammatory response in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been established as a prognostic factor for impaired cancer-specific survival, predominantly in patients with right-sided tumors. On the other hand, defective mismatch repair (dMMR) tumors, primarily located in the right colon, are known to have favorable survival and dense local immune infiltration. The aim of this study was to see if there is any form of relationship between these seemingly diverse entities.
  • Arnulfo, Gabriele; Narizzano, Massimo; Cardinale, Francesco; Fato, Marco Massimo; Palva, Jaakko Matias (2015)
    Background: Invasive monitoring of brain activity by means of intracerebral electrodes is widely practiced to improve pre-surgical seizure onset zone localization in patients with medically refractory seizures. Stereo-Electroencephalography (SEEG) is mainly used to localize the epileptogenic zone and a precise knowledge of the location of the electrodes is expected to facilitate the recordings interpretation and the planning of resective surgery. However, the localization of intracerebral electrodes on post-implant acquisitions is usually time-consuming (i.e., manual segmentation), it requires advanced 3D visualization tools, and it needs the supervision of trained medical doctors in order to minimize the errors. In this paper we propose an automated segmentation algorithm specifically designed to segment SEEG contacts from a thresholded post-implant Cone-Beam CT volume (0.4 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.8 mm). The algorithm relies on the planned position of target and entry points for each electrode as a first estimation of electrode axis. We implemented the proposed algorithm into DEETO, an open source C++ prototype based on ITK library. Results: We tested our implementation on a cohort of 28 subjects in total. The experimental analysis, carried out over a subset of 12 subjects (35 multilead electrodes; 200 contacts) manually segmented by experts, show that the algorithm: (i) is faster than manual segmentation (i.e., less than 1s/subject versus a few hours) (ii) is reliable, with an error of 0.5 mm +/- 0.06 mm, and (iii) it accurately maps SEEG implants to their anatomical regions improving the interpretability of electrophysiological traces for both clinical and research studies. Moreover, using the 28-subject cohort we show here that the algorithm is also robust (error <0.005 mm) against deep-brain displacements (<12 mm) of the implanted electrode shaft from those planned before surgery. Conclusions: Our method represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first automatic algorithm for the segmentation of SEEG electrodes. The method can be used to accurately identify the neuroanatomical loci of SEEG electrode contacts by a non-expert in a fast and reliable manner.
  • Luukkainen, Veera; Kivekäs, Ilkka; Silvola, Juha; Jero, Jussi; Sinkkonen, Saku T. (2018)
    Balloon Eustachian tuboplasty (BET) aims to improve the function of the Eustachian tube (ET). The objective of this study was to review the long-term outcome of BET and present the process and results of outlining indications for BET by the Finnish Otosurgical Society. The literature review is based on a database search performed in May 2017. The search resulted in 100 individual articles, which were screened for relevance. Five articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria (follow-up >= 12 months). Five additional articles (follow-up, 6-11 months) were analyzed to obtain supportive information. The proposed BET indications were constituted in the 2016 annual meeting of the Finnish Otosurgical Society. The workshop included a review of the Eustachian tube physiology, middle ear aeration mechanisms, and BET outcome studies. Thereafter, the members of the Society first voted and then discussed 14 cases in order to conclude whether BET was indicated in each case, and subsequently, a consensus statement on the indications for BET was outlined. The long-term follow-up studies were heterogeneous regarding the Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) definition, patient selection, follow-up duration, additional treatments, and outcome measures. The current, but limited, evidence suggests that BET is effective in the long-term. However, more long-term studies with uniform criteria and outcome measures as well as placebo-controlled studies are needed. The proposed indications for BET by the Finnish Otosurgical Society include chronic bothersome symptoms referring to ETD, ETD-related symptoms when pressure changes rapidly, or recurring serous otitis media. With the current evidence, we suggest treating only adults with BET.
  • Saarinen, Tuure; Räsänen, Jari Veli; Salo, Jarmo; Loimaala, Antti; Pitkonen, Miia; Leivonen, Marja; Juuti, Anne (2017)
    Significant weight-loss and diabetes remission have been reported after mini-gastric bypass (MGB). Concern has been raised regarding postoperative bile reflux (BR), but it has not been demonstrated in previous studies. We set out to find out if BR is evident in hepatobiliary scintigraphy after MGB. Nine consecutive patients, seven with type 2 diabetes, underwent MGB (15 cm gastric tube, 250-275 cm biliary limb) at our institution with a 12-month follow-up, with none lost to follow-up. Then, 10.7 months (8.6-13.0) after MGB, all patients underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy and a reflux symptom questionnaire (GerdQ) was filled out. A gastroscopy with biopsies was done for all patients with a bile-reflux-positive scintigraphy. Mean age at operation was 56 years (41-65) and preoperative BMI 43.1 kg/m(2) (34.2-54.6). Mean %EWL was 83.9 (49.5-128.3) at 12 months. Four patients reached diabetes remission and two became insulin-independent. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed a transient BR into the gastric tube for five patients. Bile tracer was found in the gastric tube at 23-58 min after the tracer injection and highest activity was 8% (1-8%) at 58 min. Bile tracer was not found in the esophagus of any of the patients. One patient with a positive scintigraphy in the gastric tube required re-operation. Two patients with reflux symptoms had a negative scintigraphy. Our results indicate that transient bile reflux is common after MGB in the gastric tube, but not in the esophagus. The clinical relevance of bile reflux needs further studies.
  • Merkkola-von Schantz, Paivi A.; Kauhanen, Susanna M. C.; Jahkola, Tiina A.; Krogerus, Leena; Hukkinen, Katja S. (2017)
    Background The role of preoperative imaging and the usability of different imaging modalities is highly variable and controversial in reduction mammaplasty patients. Our study describes the imaging process in a single center in regard to modality selection, age and timing, and of the association between imaging and histopathological findings in reduction mammaplasty specimens. Methods Nine hundred eighteen women, who underwent reduction mammaplasty during 1.1.2007-31.12.2011, were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, preoperative imaging, further preoperative examinations, and pathology reports. Results Preoperative imaging had been conducted for 89.2% (n = 819) of the patients. In 49 (6.0%) patients, suspicious preoperative imaging led to further examinations revealing 2 high-risk lesions (atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)), and 2 cancers preoperatively. Postoperatively abnormal histopathology specimens were revealed in 88 (10.4%) patients. The incidence of high-risk lesions was 5.5% (n = 47), and the incidence of cancer was 1.2% (n = 10). Preoperative imaging was normal (BI-RADS 1 and BI-RADS 2) in 80.8% of these patients. The sensitivity of the preoperative imaging for cancer detection was 20.0%, and the specificity was 100.0%. Conclusions Preoperative imaging and further examinations do not sufficiently detect malignant or cancer risk-increasing findings. Therefore, histopathological analysis of reduction mammaplasty specimens seems mandatory.
  • Aaronson, Alexander; Viljanen, Antti; Kanclerz, Piotr; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Tuuminen, Raimo (2020)
    Background: To evaluate the learning-curve in performing cataract surgery with respect to developments in technology and different teaching strategies by comparing the incidence of capsular bag-related complications to operator experience. Methods: A review of the registry of 14,520 cataract surgeries carried out at the Ophthalmology Unit of Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Kotka, Finland, from August 8, 2009 to July 31, 2017. Results: We identified 144 cases with posterior capsule rupture and/or loss of capsular bag support (incidence 0.99% of all surgeries). The mean age of patients was 76.99.1 years and gender distribution ratio 29:71 male:female. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF; incidence 21%) and small pupil (incidence 14%) were over-represented in complication eyes, especially at the beginning of the study. Capsular bag-related complication rates were reported in 0.36% of surgeries for senior and 7.03% for resident surgeons at the beginning of the study, compared to 0.32% and 1.32%, respectively, at the end of the study. Best-corrected visual acuity at the final post-operative visit was 0.61 +/- 0.16 decimals at the beginning of the study, and 0.81 +/- 0.19 decimals at the end of the study. The mean number of post-operative visits was 4.3 +/- 2.7 and did not show trend over the study period. Conclusions: Real-world evidence suggests PXF and small pupil as significant risk factors in cataract surgery. A gradual decline in the rate complications was noted with increasing surgical experience, also among residents over the follow-up period.
  • Wibroe, Morten; Cappelen, Johan; Castor, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels; Grillner, Pernilla; Gudrunardottir, Thora; Gupta, Ramneek; Gustavsson, Bengt; Heyman, Mats; Holm, Stefan; Karppinen, Atte; Klausen, Camilla; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Mathiasen, Rene; Nilsson, Pelle; Nysom, Karsten; Persson, Karin; Rask, Olof; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Sehested, Astrid; Thomassen, Harald; Tonning-Olsson, Ingrid; Zetterqvist, Barbara; Juhler, Marianne (2017)
    Background: Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has been reported in up to 39% of the patients but the exact incidence is uncertain since milder cases may be unrecognized. Recovery is usually incomplete. Reported risk factors are tumour type, midline location and brainstem involvement, but the exact aetiology, surgical and other risk factors, the clinical course and strategies for prevention and treatment are yet to be determined. Methods: This observational, prospective, multicentre study will include 500 children with posterior fossa tumours. It opened late 2014 with participation from 20 Nordic and Baltic centres. From 2016, five British centres and four Dutch centres will join with a total annual accrual of 130 patients. Three other major European centres are invited to join from 2016/17. Follow-up will run for 12 months after inclusion of the last patient. All patients are treated according to local practice. Clinical data are collected through standardized online registration at pre-determined time points pre- and postoperatively. Neurological status and speech functions are examined pre- operatively and postoperatively at 1-4 weeks, 2 and 12 months. Pre- and postoperative speech samples are recorded and analysed. Imaging will be reviewed centrally. Pathology is classified according to the 2007 WHO system. Germline DNA will be collected from all patients for associations between CMS characteristics and host genome variants including pathway profiles. Discussion: Through prospective and detailed collection of information on 1) differences in incidence and clinical course of CMS for different patient and tumour characteristics, 2) standardized surgical data and their association with CMS, 3) diversities and results of other therapeutic interventions, and 4) the role of host genome variants, we aim to achieve a better understanding of risk factors for and the clinical course of CMS - with the ultimate goal of defining strategies for prevention and treatment of this severely disabling condition.
  • Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Craigie, Samantha; Schünemann, Holger J.; Guyatt, Gordon H. (2018)
    Objectives: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rating certainty of evidence includes five domains of reasons for rating down certainty. Only one of these, precision, is easily amenable through the confidence interval to quantitation. The other four (risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, and publication bias) are not. Nevertheless, conceptually, one could consider a quantified "certainty range" within which the true effect lies. The certainty range would be at least as wide as the confidence interval and would expand with each additional reason for uncertainty. Study Design and Setting: We have applied this concept to rating the certainty of evidence in the baseline risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding in patients undergoing urological surgery. We considered rating up moderate or low quality evidence when the net benefit of VTE prophylaxis was unequivocally positive, that is, when the smallest plausible value of VTE reduction was greater than the largest plausible value of increased bleeding. To establish whether the net benefit was unequivocally positive, we expanded the range of plausible values by 20% for each of the four nonquantitative domains in which there were serious limitations. Results: We present how we applied these methods to examples of open radical cystectomy and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. In high-VTE risk laparoscopic partial nephrectomy patients and high-and medium-VTE risk open radical cystectomy patients, results proved robust to expanded certainty intervals, justifying rating up quality of evidence. In low -risk patients, the results were not robust, and rating up was therefore not appropriate. Conclusion: This work represents the first empirical application in a decision -making context of the previously suggested concept of certainty ranges and should stimulate further exploration of the associated theoretical and practical issues. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Aaronson, Alexander; Achiron, Asaf; Tuuminen, Raimo (2020)
    Background: To evaluate the clinical course of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) treated with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Methods: An analysis of the clinical course of PCME consisting of 536 eyes of 536 patients from five consecutive randomized clinical trials aimed at the optimization of anti-inflammatory medication in patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. PCME was classified as (i) grade 0a; no macular thickening, (ii) grade 0b; macular thickening (central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) increase of at least 10%) without signs of macular edema, (iii) grade I; subclinical PCME, (iv) grade II; acute PCME, (v) grade III; long-standing PCME. Eyes with PCME classification from grade I onwards were treated with nepafenac 1 mg/mL t.i.d. for two months. Results: CSMT increase of at least 10% at any postoperative timepoint with cystoid changes-a criterion for PCME-was found in 19 of 536 eyes (total incidence 3.5%). Of these 19 eyes, 13 eyes (total incidence 2.4%) had clinically significant PCME. PCME was considered clinically significant when both of the following visual acuity criteria were fulfilled. At any timepoint after the cataract surgery both the corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) gain was less than 0.4 decimals from that of preoperative CDVA, and the absolute CDVA level remained below 0.8 decimals. Only one of the 19 eyes with criteria for PCME (total incidence 0.2%, incidence of PCME eyes 5.3%) showed no macular edema resolution within 2 months after topical nepafenac administration.Conclusions:PCME in most cases is self-limiting using topical nepafenac without any further need for intravitreal treatment.