Browsing by Subject "SURVIVORS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 20
  • Perkins, Gavin D.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Haywood, Kirstie; Neumar, Robert W.; Lilja, Gisela; Rowland, Matthew J.; Sawyer, Kelly N.; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Nolan, Jerry P. (2021)
    As more people are surviving cardiac arrest, focus needs to shift towards improving neurological outcomes and quality of life in survivors. Brain injury after resuscitation, a common sequela following cardiac arrest, ranges in severity from mild impairment to devastating brain injury and brainstem death. Effective strategies to minimise brain injury after resuscitation include early intervention with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, restoration of normal physiology, and targeted temperature management. It is important to identify people who might have a poor outcome, to enable informed choices about continuation or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments. Multimodal prediction guidelines seek to avoid premature withdrawal in those who might survive with a good neurological outcome, or prolonging treatment that might result in survival with severe disability. Approximately one in three admitted to intensive care will survive, many of whom will need intensive, tailored rehabilitation after discharge to have the best outcomes.
  • Humaloja, Jaana; Ashton, Nicholas J.; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2022)
    This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2022. Other selected articles can be found online at https://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2022. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from https://link. springer.com/bookseries/8901.
  • Kokkonen, Kristiina; Tasmuth, Tiina; Lehto, Juho T.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Elme, Anneli; Jaaskelainen, Anna-Stina; Saarto, Tiina (2019)
    Background/Aim: To observe changes in symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) over 7 years among cancer patients at different stages of the disease. Patients and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study at the Helsinki University Hospital Cancer Center, was carried out in 2006 and repeated in 2013. All participants filled in the EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Results: Altogether, 581 patients responded (49% in 2006 and 54% in 2013). The disease was local in 51% and advanced in 49% of patients. The HRQoL was significantly lower, except for emotional and cognitive functions, and the symptom burden more severe in advanced cancer. The most prevalent symptoms were fatigue (93% and 85%; moderate/severe 22% and 9%), pain (65% and 47%; moderate/severe 16% and 5%), and insomnia (64% and 60%; moderate/severe 20 and 21%), respectively. No changes in HRQoL or symptoms were found at 7 years. Conclusion: There is a need for early integrated palliative care to improve HRQoL during cancer treatments.
  • Tharmalingam, Melissa D.; Matilionyte, Gabriele; Wallace, William H. B.; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Oliver, Elizabeth; Goriely, Anne; Lane, Sheila; Guo, Jingtao; Cairns, Bradley; Jorgensen, Anne; Allen, Caroline M.; Lopes, Federica; Anderson, Richard A.; Spears, Norah; Mitchell, Rod T. (2020)
    Background Clinical studies indicate chemotherapy agents used in childhood cancer treatment regimens may impact future fertility. However, effects of individual agents on prepubertal human testis, necessary to identify later risk, have not been determined. The study aimed to investigate the impact of cisplatin, commonly used in childhood cancer, on immature (foetal and prepubertal) human testicular tissues. Comparison was made with carboplatin, which is used as an alternative to cisplatin in order to reduce toxicity in healthy tissues. Methods We developed an organotypic culture system combined with xenografting to determine the effect of clinically-relevant exposure to platinum-based chemotherapeutics on human testis. Human foetal and prepubertal testicular tissues were cultured and exposed to cisplatin, carboplatin or vehicle for 24 h, followed by 24-240 h in culture or long-term xenografting. Survival, proliferation and apoptosis of prepubertal germ stem cell populations (gonocytes and spermatogonia), critical for sperm production in adulthood, were quantified. Results Cisplatin exposure resulted in a significant reduction in the total number of germ cells (- 44%, p <0.0001) in human foetal testis, which involved an initial loss of gonocytes followed by a significant reduction in spermatogonia. This coincided with a reduction (- 70%, p <0.05) in germ cell proliferation. Cisplatin exposure resulted in similar effects on total germ cell number (including spermatogonial stem cells) in prepubertal human testicular tissues, demonstrating direct relevance to childhood cancer patients. Xenografting of cisplatin-exposed human foetal testicular tissue demonstrated that germ cell loss (- 42%, p <0.01) persisted at 12 weeks. Comparison between exposures to human-relevant concentrations of cisplatin and carboplatin revealed a very similar degree of germ cell loss at 240 h post-exposure. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of direct effects of chemotherapy exposure on germ cell populations in human foetal and prepubertal testis, demonstrating platinum-induced loss of all germ cell populations, and similar effects of cisplatin or carboplatin. Furthermore, these experimental approaches can be used to determine the effects of established and novel cancer therapies on the developing testis that will inform fertility counselling and development of strategies to preserve fertility in children with cancer.
  • Poganitsch-Korhonen, M.; Masliukaite, I.; Nurmio, M.; Lahteenmaki, P.; van Wely, M.; van Pelt, A. M. M.; Jahnukainen, K.; Stukenborg, J-B (2017)
  • Sundholm, Johnny K. M.; Suominen, Anu; Sarkola, Taisto; Jahnukainen, Kirsi (2020)
    The long-term vascular effects following childhood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are not well characterized. We compared arterial wall morphology and function using very-high resolution ultrasound (25-55 MHz) in 62 patients following autologous (n= 19) or allogenic (n= 43) HSCT for childhood malignancies and hematological disease (median age 25.9 years, IQR 21.1-30.1; median follow-up time 17.5 years IQR 14.1-23.0) with an age matched healthy control group (n= 44). Intima-media thickness of carotid (CIMT 0.49 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.42 +/- 0.06 mm,p<0.001), brachial, femoral, radial arteries, and local carotid stiffness, but not adventitial thickness, were increased (p<0.001). Diffuse intimal thickening (>0.06 mm) of femoral or radial arteries (n= 17) and subclinical carotid or femoral plaques (n= 18) were more common (p<0.001). Radiation predicted plaques (p<0.001) and local carotid stiffness (p<0.001), but not intimal thickening. CIMT was predicted by age, BMI >30 kg/m(2), hsCRP >2.5 mg/L, hypertension, HbA1c > 42 mmol/L, and cumulative anthracycline >150 mg/m(2). Cumulative metabolic syndrome criteria and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were more common among HSCT and related with CIMT (p<0.001), but CIMT was similar among controls and HSCT without CVD risk factors. Long-term childhood HSCT survivors show early arterial aging related with radiation, metabolic, and CVD risk factors. Prevention of risk factors could potentially decelerate early arterial wall thickening.
  • Kosola, Silja; McCarthy, Maria C.; McNeil, Robyn; Orme, Lisa M.; Drew, Sarah; Sawyer, Susan M. (2018)
    Purpose: This study describes the early educational and vocational outcomes of Australian adolescents and young adults (AYAs) after cancer diagnosis and examines factors associated with these outcomes. Methods: Within this cross-sectional national Australian study, 196 AYAs aged 15-25 years at cancer diagnosis and within 6-24 months of diagnosis were recruited from 18 sites. Participants completed a survey that included questions about school and work outcomes, support received regarding necessary changes to education and vocation, and validated measures of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Results: Almost half of the sample (43%) was not fully "back on track" with their previous educational and vocational plans. Post-traumatic stress and emotional symptoms were associated with poorer school/work functioning (beta = -0.95, p = 0.009 and beta = -1.27, p = 0.001, respectively). Higher PedsQL school/work functioning was associated with a slightly greater likelihood of being "back on track" with education and work plans (OR 1.03, p = 0.001). AYAs who felt well supported regarding changes to education and work plans more frequently reported receiving support from formal sources and from more sources than those who felt less supported. Unmet need of accessing an educational or vocational advisor was significantly more frequent in adult than in pediatric settings (42% vs. 17%; p = 0.024). Parents were the most common source of educational or vocational support for AYAs rather than professionals. Conclusion: This study highlights the connection between school and work participation and mental health in a national sample of AYAs with cancer. It suggests distinct benefits of educational and vocational support.
  • Laitala, Venla Sinikka; Saarto, Tiina; Einiö, Elina Kaisa; Martikainen, Pekka; Silventoinen, Karri (2015)
    Background: As breast cancer and its treatment are likely to interfere with traditional expectations of womanhood, it may affect marital stability. Methods: The risk of marital dissolution was analysed with respect to diagnosis of early-stage (T1-4N0-3M0) breast cancer in a cohort of 134 435 married Finnish women followed for a median of 17.0 married years. Age, socioeconomic status, education, number of children, duration of marriage and earlier marriages were taken into account and the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine therapy were analysed separately. Results: Women with a diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer did not show increase in marital dissolution (hazard ratio -0.96, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.17). Neither the type of surgical procedure nor any of the oncologic treatments was associated with an increase in the risk of divorce. Conclusions: Any evidence of excess risk of marital breakdown after the diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer and its treatment was not demonstrated.
  • Adults Born Preterm Int Collaborat; Doyle, Lex W.; Andersson, Sture; Bush, Andy; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Clemm, Hege; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Gough, Aisling; Halvorsen, Thomas; Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero; Lee, Katherine J.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Narang, Indra; Näsänen-Gilmore, Pieta; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Vollsaeter, Maria; Vrijlandt, Elianne J. L. E. (2019)
    Background Maximal expiratory airflow peaks early in the third decade of life, then gradually declines with age. The pattern of airflow through adulthood for individuals born very preterm (at 2499 g) or at term. Methods We did a meta-analysis of individual participant data from cohort studies, mostly from the pre-surfactant era. Studies were identified through the Adults born Preterm International Collaboration and by searching PubMed and Embase (search date May 25, 2016). Studies were eligible if they reported on expiratory flow rates beyond 16 years of age in individuals born very preterm or with very low birthweight, as well as controls born at term or with normal birthweight. Studies with highly selected cohorts (eg, only participants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia) or in which few participants were born very preterm or with very low birthweight were excluded. De-identified individual participant data from each cohort were provided by the holders of the original data to a central site, where all the data were pooled into one data file. Any data inconsistencies were resolved by discussion with the individual sites concerned. Individual participant data on expiratory flow variables (FEV1, forced vital capacity [FVC], FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75%]) were converted to Z scores and analysed with use of generalised linear mixed models in a one-step approach. Findings Of the 381 studies identified, 11 studies, comprising a total of 935 participants born very preterm or with very low birthweight and 722 controls, were eligible and included in the analysis. Mean age at testing was 21 years (SD 3.4; range 16-33). Mean Z scores were close to zero (as expected) in the control group, but were reduced in the very preterm or very low birthweight group for FEV1 (-0.06 [SD 1.03] vs -0.81 [1.33], mean difference -0.78 [95% CI -0.96 to -0.61], p Interpretation Individuals born very preterm or with very low birthweight are at risk of not reaching their full airway growth potential in adolescence and early adulthood, suggesting an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in later adulthood. Copyright (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Vehmanen, L.; Sievänen, H.; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P.; Nikander, R.; Huovinen, R.; Ruohola, J.; Penttinen, H.M.; Utriainen, M.; Tokola, K.; Blomqvist, C.; Saarto, T. (2021)
    A 12-month exercise program reversibly prevented hip bone loss in premenopausal women with early breast cancer. The bone-protective effect was maintained for 2 years after the end of the program but was lost thereafter. Purpose Breast cancer survivors are at an increased risk for osteoporosis and fracture. This 5-year follow-up of a randomized impact exercise intervention trial evaluated the maintenance of training effects on bone among breast cancer patients. Methods Five hundred seventy-three early breast cancer patients aged 35-68 years and treated with adjuvant therapy were allocated into a 12-month exercise program or a control group. Four hundred forty-four patients (77%) were included in the 5-year analysis. The exercise intervention comprised weekly supervised step aerobics, circuit exercises, and home training. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week and physical performance assessed by 2-km walking and figure-8 running tests. Results In premenopausal patients, the 12-month exercise program maintained femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) aBMD for 3 years, but the protective effect was lost thereafter. The mean FN aBMD change in the exercise and control groups was - 0.2% and - 1.5% 1 year, - 1.1% and - 2.1% 3 years and - 3.3% versus - 2.4% 5 years after the beginning of the intervention, respectively. Lumbar spine (LS) bone loss was not prevented in premenopausal women and no training effects on aBMD were seen in postmenopausal women. The main confounding element of the study was the unexpected rise in physical activity among patients in the control group. The physical performance improved among premenopausal women in the exercise group compared with the controls. Conclusion The 12-month exercise program prevented FN and TH bone loss in premenopausal breast cancer patients for 3 years. The bone-protective effect was reversible and lost thereafter.
  • Tiainen, Marjaana; Poutiainen, Erja; Oksanen, Tuomas; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Pettila, Ville; Skrifvars, Markus; Varpula, Tero; Castren, Maaret (2015)
  • ARISE Investigators; Luethi, Nora; Bailey, Michael; Harjola, V-P; Okkonen, M.; Pettilä, V.; Sutinen, E.; Wilkman, E. (2020)
    Purpose: To assess the impact of gender and pre-menopausal state on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with septic shock. Material and methods: Cohort study of the Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) trial, an international randomized controlled trial comparing early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) to usual care in patients with early septic shock, conducted between October 2008 and April 2014. The primary exposure in this analysis was legal gender and the secondary exposure was pre-menopausal state defined by chronological age ( Results: 641 (40.3%) of all 1591 ARISE trial participants in the intention-to-treat population were females and overall, 337 (21.2%) (146 females) patients were 50 years of age or younger. After risk-adjustment, we could not identify any survival benefit for female patients at day 90 in the younger (50 years) age-group (aOR: 1.10 (0.81-1.49), p = .56). Similarly, there was no gender-difference in ICU, hospital, 1-year mortality nor quality of life measures. Conclusions: This post-hoc analysis of a large multi-center trial in early septic shock has shown no short- or long-term survival effect for women overall as well as in the pre-menopausal age-group. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Kainulainen, Satu; Koivusalo, A. M.; Roine, R. P.; Wilkman, T.; Sintonen, H.; Törnwall, J.; Thoren, H.; Lassus, P. (2020)
    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of head and neck cancer patients with microvascular surgery. Surgical treatment causes great changes in patient HRQoL. Studies focusing on long-term HRQoL after microvascular reconstruction for head and neck cancer patients are scarce. Methods We conducted a prospective study of 93 patients with head and neck cancer and microvascular reconstruction in Helsinki University Hospital Finland. HRQoL was measured using the 15D instrument at baseline and after a mean 4.9-years follow up. Results were compared with those of an age-standardized general population. Results Of the 93 patients, 61 (66%) were alive after follow-up; of these, 42 (69%) answered the follow-up questionnaire. The median time between surgery and HRQoL assessment was 4.9 years (range 3.7-7.8 years). The mean 15D score of all patients (n = 42) at the 4.9-years follow up was statistically significantly (p = 0.010) and clinically importantly lower than at baseline. The dimensions of "speech" and "usual activities" were significantly impaired at the end of follow up. There was a significant difference at the 4.9-years follow-up in the mean 15D score between patients and the general population (p = 0.014). After follow up, patients were significantly (p <0.05) worse off on the dimensions of "speech," "eating," and "usual activities." Conclusions Long-term HRQoL was significantly reduced in the whole patient cohort. Speech and usual activities were the most affected dimensions in head and neck cancer patients with microvascular reconstruction at the end of the 4.9-years follow up.
  • Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Yu, Hongyao; Sud, Amit; Sundquist, Jan; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2018)
  • Kangaslampi, Samuli; Garoff, Ferdinand; Peltonen, Kirsi (2015)
    Background: Millions of children worldwide suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other mental health problems due to repeated exposure to war or organized violence. Forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most commonly used treatment for PTSD and appear to be effective for children as well, but little is known about the mechanisms of change through which they achieve their effectiveness. Here we present the study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) studying the effectiveness and mechanisms of change of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET), a CBT-based, manualized, short-term intervention for PTSD symptoms resulting from repeated traumatization, in immigrant children traumatized by war. Methods/Design: We are conducting a multicentre, pragmatic RCT in a usual care setting. Up to 80 9-17-year-old immigrant children who have experienced war and suffer from PTSD symptoms will be randomized into intervention (NET) and control (treatment as usual, TAU) groups of equal sizes. The effectiveness of NET treatment will be compared to both a waiting list and the parallel TAU positive control group, on the primary outcomes of PTSD and depressive symptoms, psychological distress, resilience, and level of cognitive performance. The effects of the intervention on traumatic memories and posttraumatic cognitions will be studied as potential mechanisms of change mediating overall treatment effectiveness. The possible moderating effects of peritraumatic dissociation, level of cognitive performance, and gender on treatment effectiveness will also be considered. We hypothesize that NET will be more effective than a waitlist condition or TAU in reducing PTSD and other symptoms and improving resilience, and that these effects will be mediated by changes in traumatic memories and posttraumatic cognitions. Discussion: The results of this trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness of NET in treating trauma-related symptoms in immigrant children affected by war. The trial will also generate insights into the complex relationships between PTSD, memory functions, posttraumatic cognitions and cognitive performance in children, and help guide the future development and implementation of therapeutic interventions for PTSD in children.
  • Rautalin, Ilari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korja, Miikka (2020)
    As the number of obese people is globally increasing, reports about the putative protective effect of obesity in life-threatening diseases, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), are gaining more interest. This theory-the obesity paradox-is challenging to study, and the impact of obesity has remained unclear in survival of several critical illnesses, including SAH. Thus, we performed a systematic review to clarify the relation of obesity and SAH mortality. Our study protocol included systematic literature search in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases, whereas risk-of-bias estimation and quality of each selected study were evaluated by the Critical Appraisal Skills Program and Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. A directional power analysis was performed to estimate sufficient sample size for significant results. From 176 reviewed studies, six fulfilled our eligibility criteria for qualitative analysis. One study found paradoxical effect (odds ratio, OR = 0.83 (0.74-0.92)) between morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) > 40) and in-hospital SAH mortality, and another study found the effect between continuously increasing BMI and both short-term (OR = 0.90 (0.82-0.99)) and long-term SAH mortalities (OR = 0.92 (0.85-0.98)). However, according to our quality assessment, methodological shortcomings expose all reviewed studies to a high-risk-of-bias. Even though two studies suggest that obesity may protect SAH patients from death in the acute phase, all reviewed studies suffered from methodological shortcomings that have been typical in the research field of obesity paradox. Therefore, no definite conclusions could be drawn.
  • Metsä-Simola, Niina; Einiö, Elina; Peltonen, Riina; Martikainen, Pekka (2021)
    Background Studies that assess the role of physical health conditions on separation risk are scarce and mostly lack health information on both partners. It is unclear how the association between physical illness and separation risk varies by type of illness, gender of the ill spouse and age of the couple. Methods We used Finnish register data on 127 313 couples to examine how neurological conditions, heart and lung disease, and cancer are associated with separation risk. The data included information on medication, hospitalisations, separations and sociodemographic characteristics. Marital and non-marital cohabiting couples aged 40-70 years were followed from 1998 to 2003 for the onset of health conditions and subsequent separation, and Cox regression was used to examine the associations. Results Compared with healthy couples, the HR of separation was elevated by 43% for couples in which both spouses had a physical health condition, by 22% for couples in which only the male spouse had fallen ill, and by 11% for couples in which only the female had fallen ill. Among older couples, the associations between physical illness and separation risk were even clearer. The association with separation risk was strongest for neurological conditions, and after incidence of these conditions among males, separation risk increased over time. Adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics had little effect. Conclusions Our findings suggest that poor health may largely strain relationships through disability and associated burden of spousal care, and this should be taken into consideration when planning support services for couples with physical health conditions.
  • Vehviläinen, Juho; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Marinkovic, Ivan; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Hoppu, Sanna; Laitio, Ruut; Siironen, Jari; Raj, Rahul (2021)
    Background Psychiatric sequelae after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common and may impede recovery. We aimed to assess the occurrence and risk factors of post-injury psychotropic medication use in intensive care unit (ICU)-treated patients with TBI and its association with late mortality. Methods We conducted a retrospective multi-centre observational study using the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database. We included adult TBI patients admitted in four university hospital ICUs during 2003-2013 that were alive at 1 year after injury. Patients were followed-up until end of 2016. We obtained data regarding psychotropic medication use through the national drug reimbursement database. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the association between TBI severity, treatment-related variables and the odds of psychotropic medication use and its association with late all-cause mortality (more than 1 year after TBI). Results Of 3061 patients, 2305 (75%) were alive at 1 year. Of these, 400 (17%) became new psychotropic medication users. The most common medication types were antidepressants (61%), antipsychotics (35%) and anxiolytics (26%). A higher Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was associated with lower odds (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.96) and a diffuse injury with midline shift was associated with higher odds (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-9.0) of new psychotropic medication use. After adjusting for injury severity, new psychotropic medication use was associated with increased odds of late mortality (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.19-2.17, median follow-up time 6.4 years). Conclusions Psychotropic medication use is common in TBI survivors. Higher TBI severity is associated with increased odds of psychotropic medication use. New use of psychotropic medications after TBI was associated with increased odds of late mortality. Our results highlight the need for early identification of potential psychiatric sequelae and psychiatric evaluation in TBI survivors.
  • COMACARE Study Grp; Jakkula, Pekka; Reinikainen, Matti; Hästbacka, Johanna; Loisa, Pekka; Tiainen, Marjaana; Pettilä, Ville; Toppila, Jussi; Lähde, Marika; Bäcklund, Minna; Okkonen, Marjatta; Bendel, Stepani; Birkelund, Thomas; Pulkkinen, Anni; Heinonen, Jonna; Tikka, Tuukka; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2018)
    PurposeWe assessed the effects of targeting low-normal or high-normal arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and normoxia or moderate hyperoxia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) on markers of cerebral and cardiac injury.MethodsUsing a 2(3) factorial design, we randomly assigned 123 patients resuscitated from OHCA to low-normal (4.5-4.7kPa) or high-normal (5.8-6.0kPa) PaCO2 and to normoxia (arterial oxygen tension [PaO2] 10-15kPa) or moderate hyperoxia (PaO2 20-25kPa) and to low-normal or high-normal mean arterial pressure during the first 36h in the intensive care unit. Here we report the results of the low-normal vs. high-normal PaCO2 and normoxia vs. moderate hyperoxia comparisons. The primary endpoint was the serum concentration of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) 48h after cardiac arrest. Secondary endpoints included S100B protein and cardiac troponin concentrations, continuous electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) results and neurologic outcome at 6months.ResultsIn total 120 patients were included in the analyses. There was a clear separation in PaCO2 (p