Browsing by Subject "SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-8 of 8
  • Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Mitra, Nandita; Wan, Fei; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; McGuffog, Lesley; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; CIMBA Consortium; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina (2015)
    IMPORTANCE Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists. OBJECTIVE To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19 581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11 900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk. EXPOSURES Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Breast and ovarian cancer risks. RESULTS Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317(12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682(6%) with ovarian cancer, 272(2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% Cl, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 x 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RH R = 1.34; 95% Cl, 1.01-1.78; P =.04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% Cl, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 x 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% Cl, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 x 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% Cl, 1.06-2.78; P =.03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCRI; RHR = 1.63; 95% Cl, 1.10-2.40; P =.01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95% Cl, 1.69-3.16; P =.00002). We also identified 3 OCCRs: the first (OCCR1) spanned c.3249 to c.5681 that was adjacent to c.5946delT (6174delT; RHR = 0.51; 95% Cl, 0.44-0.60; P = 6 x 10(-17)). The second OCCR spanned c.6645 to c.7471 (OCCR2; RHR = 0.57; 95% Cl, 0.41-0.80; P =.001). Mutations conferring nonsense-mediated decay were associated with differential breast or ovarian cancer risks and an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Breast and ovarian cancer risks varied by type and location of BRCA1/2 mutations. With appropriate validation, these data may have implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention decision making for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
  • Leppilahti, Jussi; Majuri, Marja-Leena; Sorsa, Timo; Hirvonen, Ari; Piirilä, Päivi (2019)
    Introduction: Di-isocyanates TDI (toluene di-isocyanate), MDI (diphenylmethane di-isocyanate), and HDI (hexamethylene di-isocyanate) are the most common chemicals causing occupational asthma. Di-isocyanate inhalation has been reported to induce oxidative stress via reactive oxygen and nitrogen species leading to tissue injury. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) and N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are detoxifying enzymes whose general function is to inactivate electrophilic substances. The most important genes regulating these enzymes, i.e., GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT1, and NAT2 have polymorphic variants resulting in enhanced or lowered enzyme activities. Since inability to detoxify harmful oxidants can lead to inflammatory processes involving activation of bronchoconstrictive mechanisms, we studied whether the altered GST and NAT genotypes were associated with bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in patients with di-isocyanate exposure related occupational asthma, irrespective of cessation of di-isocyanate exposure, and adequacy of asthma treatment.Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods were used to analyze nine common polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT1, and NAT2 genes in 108 patients with diagnosed occupational di-isocyanate-induced asthma. The genotype data were compared with spirometric lung function and BHR status at diagnosis and in the follow-up examination on average 11 years (range 1–22 years) after the asthma diagnosis. Serum IgE and IL13 levels were also assessed in the follow-up phase.Results: An association between BHR and GSTP1 slow activity (Val105/Val105) genotype was demonstrated in the subjects at the follow-up phase but not at the diagnosis phase. Moreover, the patients with the GSTP1 slow activity genotype exhibited characteristics of Th-2 type immune response more often compared to those with the unaltered GSTP1 gene. Interestingly, all 10 patients with the GSTP1 slow activity genotype had both the GSTM3 slow activity genotype and the unaltered GSTT1 gene.Discussion: The results suggest associations of the low activity variants of the GSTP1 gene with BHR. The fact that these associations came up only at the follow-up phase when the subjects were not any more exposed to di-isocyanates, and used asthma medication, suggest that medication and environmental factors influence the presentation of these associations. However, due to the exploratory character of the study and relatively small study size, the findings remain to be confirmed in future studies with larger sample sizes.
  • Kiiski, Johanna I.; Tervasmäki, Anna; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Mantere, Tuomo; Pylkäs, Katri; Mannermaa, Arto; Tengström, Maria; Kvist, Anders; Borg, Åke; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kallioniemi, Anne; Schleutker, Johanna; Bützow, Ralf; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Winqvist, Robert; Nevanlinna, Heli (2017)
    The FANCM c.5101C > T nonsense mutation was previously found to associate with breast cancer in the Finnish population, especially among triple-negative cases. Here, we studied the prevalence of three other FANCM variants: c.5791C > T, which has been reported to predispose to familial breast cancer, and the c.4025_4026delCT and c.5293dupA variants recently identified in Finnish cancer patients. We genotyped the FANCM c.5791C > T mutation in 4806 invasive breast cancer patients, including BRCA1/2 mutation negative familial cases and unselected cases, and in 2734 healthy population controls from four different geographical areas of Finland. The association of the mutation with breast cancer risk among patient subgroups was statistically evaluated. We further analyzed the combined risk associated with c.5101C > T and c.5791C > T mutations. We also genotyped 526 unselected ovarian cancer patients for the c.5791C > T mutation and 862 familial breast cancer patients for the c.4025_4026delCT and c.5293dupA variants. The frequency of the FANCM c.5791C > T mutation was higher among breast cancer cases than in controls (OR 1.94, 95% CI 0.87-4.32, P = 0.11), with a statistically significant association with triple-negative breast cancer (OR 5.14, 95% CI 1.65-16.0, P = 0.005). The combined analysis for c.5101C > T and c.5791C > T carriers confirmed a strong association with breast cancer (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.32-2.49, P = 0.0002), especially among the triple-negative patients (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.77-5.35, P = 0.00007). For the other variants, only one additional c.4025_4026delCT carrier and no c.5293dupA carriers were observed. These results support the role of FANCM as a breast cancer susceptibility gene, particularly for triple-negative breast cancer.
  • Gialluisi, Alessandro; Andlauer, Till F. M.; Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin; Moll, Kristina; Becker, Jessica; Hoffmann, Per; Ludwig, Kerstin U.; Czamara, Darina; St Pourcain, Beate; Honbolygo, Ferenc; Toth, Denes; Csepe, Valeria; Huguet, Guillaume; Chaix, Yves; Iannuzzi, Stephanie; Demonet, Jean-Francois; Morris, Andrew P.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Smith, Shelley D.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Vaessen, Anniek; Maurer, Urs; Lyytinen, Heikki; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Brandeis, Daniel; Bonte, Milene; Stein, John F.; Talcott, Joel B.; Fauchereau, Fabien; Wilcke, Arndt; Kirsten, Holger; Mueller, Bent; Francks, Clyde; Bourgeron, Thomas; Monaco, Anthony P.; Ramus, Franck; Landerl, Karin; Kere, Juha; Scerri, Thomas S.; Paracchini, Silvia; Fisher, Simon E.; Schumacher, Johannes; Noethen, Markus M.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schulte-Koerne, Gerd (2021)
    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a learning disorder affecting the ability to read, with a heritability of 40-60%. A notable part of this heritability remains unexplained, and large genetic studies are warranted to identify new susceptibility genes and clarify the genetic bases of dyslexia. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2274 dyslexia cases and 6272 controls, testing associations at the single variant, gene, and pathway level, and estimating heritability using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We also calculated polygenic scores (PGSs) based on large-scale GWAS data for different neuropsychiatric disorders and cortical brain measures, educational attainment, and fluid intelligence, testing them for association with dyslexia status in our sample. We observed statistically significant (p <2.8 x 10(-6)) enrichment of associations at the gene level, forLOC388780(20p13; uncharacterized gene), and forVEPH1(3q25), a gene implicated in brain development. We estimated an SNP-based heritability of 20-25% for DD, and observed significant associations of dyslexia risk with PGSs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (atp(T) = 0.05 in the training GWAS: OR = 1.23[1.16; 1.30] per standard deviation increase;p = 8 x 10(-13)), bipolar disorder (1.53[1.44; 1.63];p = 1 x 10(-43)), schizophrenia (1.36[1.28; 1.45];p = 4 x 10(-22)), psychiatric cross-disorder susceptibility (1.23[1.16; 1.30];p = 3 x 10(-12)), cortical thickness of the transverse temporal gyrus (0.90[0.86; 0.96];p = 5 x 10(-4)), educational attainment (0.86[0.82; 0.91];p = 2 x 10(-7)), and intelligence (0.72[0.68; 0.76];p = 9 x 10(-29)). This study suggests an important contribution of common genetic variants to dyslexia risk, and novel genomic overlaps with psychiatric conditions like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and cross-disorder susceptibility. Moreover, it revealed the presence of shared genetic foundations with a neural correlate previously implicated in dyslexia by neuroimaging evidence.
  • Wang, Jingwen; Skoog, Tiina; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Kaartokallio, Tea; Laivuori, Hannele; Grauers, Anna; Gerdhem, Paul; Hytonen, Marjo; Lohi, Hannes; Kere, Juha; Jiao, Hong (2016)
    High-throughput sequencing using pooled DNA samples can facilitate genome-wide studies on rare and low-frequency variants in a large population. Some major questions concerning the pooling sequencing strategy are whether rare and low-frequency variants can be detected reliably, and whether estimated minor allele frequencies (MAFs) can represent the actual values obtained from individually genotyped samples. In this study, we evaluated MAF estimates using three variant detection tools with two sets of pooled whole exome sequencing (WES) and one set of pooled whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. Both GATK and Freebayes displayed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy when detecting rare or low-frequency variants. For the WGS study, 56% of the low-frequency variants in Illumina array have identical MAFs and 26% have one allele difference between sequencing and individual genotyping data. The MAF estimates from WGS correlated well (r = 0.94) with those from Illumina arrays. The MAFs from the pooled WES data also showed high concordance (r = 0.88) with those from the individual genotyping data. In conclusion, the MAFs estimated from pooled DNA sequencing data reflect the MAFs in individually genotyped samples well. The pooling strategy can thus be a rapid and cost-effective approach for the initial screening in large-scale association studies.
  • Pelttari, Liisa M.; Nurminen, Riikka; Gylfe, Alexandra; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Nevanlinna, Heli (2012)
  • Pelttari, Liisa M.; Kinnunen, Laura; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Khan, Sofia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli (2016)
    Several high and moderate risk alleles have been identified for breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and most of them encode proteins that function in DNA repair. A prospective candidate for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility is the HELQ helicase that has a role in the resolution of DNA interstrand cross-links. HELQ interacts with the RAD51 paralog complex BCDX2. Two components of the complex, RAD51C and RAD51D, increase the risk of ovarian cancer especially, and the other two, RAD51B and XRCC2 have been associated with breast cancer risk. To investigate the role of HELQ in cancer predisposition, we screened the gene for germline variation in 185 Finnish breast or ovarian cancer families and performed haplotype analyses for 1517 breast cancer cases, 308 ovarian cancer cases, and 1234 population controls using five common polymorphisms at the HELQ gene locus. No truncating mutations were identified among the families. One putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.1309A > G was identified but no additional carriers were observed in the subsequent genotyping of 332 familial breast or ovarian cancer patients. Furthermore, the haplotype distribution did not differ between breast or ovarian cancer cases and population controls. Our results indicate that HELQ is not a major breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene in the Finnish population. However, we cannot rule out rare risk-variants in the Finnish or other populations and larger datasets are needed to further assess the role of HELQ especially in ovarian cancer predisposition.