Browsing by Subject "SYMPTOMS"

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  • Bjorklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Paivi (2014)
  • Kellezi, Blerina; Guxholli, Aurora; Stevenson, Clifford; Ruth Helen Wakefield, Juliet; Bowe, Mhairi; Bridger, Kay (2021)
    Although Social Cure research shows the importance of family identification in one's ability to cope with stress, there remains little understanding of family responses to human rights violations. This is the first study to explore the role of family identity in the collective experience of such violations: meanings ascribed to suffering, family coping strategies, and family-based understandings of justice. Semi-structured interviews (N = 27) with Albanian dictatorship survivors were analysed using Social Identity Theory informed thematic analysis. The accounts reveal Social Cure processes at work, whereby family groups facilitated shared meaning-making, uncertainty reduction, continuity, resilience-building, collective self-esteem, and support, enhanced through common fate experiences. As well as being curative, families were contexts for Social Curse processes, as relatives shared suffering and consequences collectively, while also experiencing intergenerational injustice and trauma. Although seeking and achieving justice remain important, the preservation of family identity is one of the triumphs in these stories of suffering.
  • Raij, Tuukka T.; Riekki, Tapani J. J.; Rikandi, Eva; Mäntylä, Teemu; Kieseppä, Tuula; Suvisaari, Jaana (2018)
    Delusion is the most characteristic symptom of psychosis, occurring in almost all first-episode psychosis patients. The motivational salience hypothesis suggests delusion to originate from the experience of abnormal motivational salience. Whether the motivation-related brain circuitries are activated during the actual delusional experience remains, however, unknown. We used a forced-choice answering tree at random intervals during functional magnetic resonance imaging to capture delusional and non-delusional spontaneous experiences in patients with first-episode psychosis (n = 31) or clinical high-risk state (n = 7). The motivation-related brain regions were identified by an automated meta-analysis of 149 studies. Thirteen first-episode patients reported both delusional and non-delusional spontaneous experiences. In these patients, delusional experiences were related to stronger activation of the ventral striatum in both hemispheres. This activation overlapped with the most strongly motivation-related brain regions. These findings provide an empirical link between the actual delusional experience and the motivational salience hypothesis. Further use and development of the present methods in localizing the neurobiological basis of the most characteristic symptoms may be useful in the search for etiopathogenic pathways that result in psychotic disorders.
  • Koivuaho, E.; Laru, J.; Ojaniemi, M.; Puukka, K.; Kettunen, J.; Tapanainen, J. S.; Franks, S.; Järvelin, M. -R.; Morin-Papunen, L.; Sebert, S.; Piltonen, T. T. (2019)
    Background: Adiposity rebound (AR), the second BMI rise in childhood at around the age of 6 years, is associated with obesity and metabolic alteration in later life. Given that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a strong metabolic component, early life growth patterns could reveal a risk of PCOS. Thus, we aimed to investigate the associations between age at AR and PCOS diagnosis and BMI later in life. Materials and methods: This study is part of a prospective, population-based longitudinal study, where women with PCOS diagnosis by age 46 (n = 280) were compared with asymptomatic women (CTRLs, n = 1573). Weight and height data from birth to age 13 years, at age at menarche, and at ages 31 and 46 years were analyzed Results: Women with PCOS had lower birth weight (3357 +/- 477 vs. 3 445 +/- 505 g, p <0.001), earlier age at AR (5.2 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.90 years, p <0.001) and higher BMI from AR onwards compared with controls. Early timing of AR was associated with PCOS diagnosis independently of BMI (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.37-1.92). Women with PCOS and early AR had higher BMI at 31 and 46 years when compared to controls with early AR. The age at AR did not associate with T levels at ages 31 or 46 years. Conclusions: Early AR was associated with PCOS diagnosis and high BMI in adulthood. Adolescent girls with early AR and persisting obesity should be screened for PCOS symptoms, such as persistent irregular cycles and hirsutism.
  • Mustonen, Antti; Alakokkare, Anni-Emilia; Salom, Caroline; Hurtig, Tuula; Levola, Jonna; Scott, James G.; Miettunen, Jouko; Niemelä, Solja (2021)
    Objective: Early onset of alcohol use is associated with an increased risk of substance use disorders (SUD), but few studies have examined associations with other psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to study the association between the age of first alcohol intoxication (AFI) and the risk of psychiatric disorders in a Finnish general population sample. Methods: We utilized a prospective, general population-based study, the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. In all, 6,290 15?16-year old adolescents answered questions on AFI and were followed up until the age of 33 years for psychiatric disorders (any psychiatric disorder, psychosis, SUD, mood disorders and anxiety disorders) by using nationwide register linkage data. Cox-regression analysis with Hazard Ratios (HR, with 95% confidence intervals (CI)) was used to assess the risk of psychiatric disorders associated with AFI. Results: Statistically significant associations were observed between AFI and any psychiatric disorder, psychosis, SUDs, and mood disorders. After adjustments for other substance use, family structure, sex and parental psychiatric disorders, AFIs of 13?14 years and
  • Malanchini, Margherita; Smith-Woolley, Emily; Ayorech, Ziada; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Rose, Richard J.; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Anckarsater, Henrik; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lichtenstein, Paul; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Plomin, Robert (2019)
    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been linked to offspring's externalizing problems. It has been argued that socio-demographic factors (e.g. maternal age and education), co-occurring environmental risk factors, or pleiotropic genetic effects may account for the association between MSDP and later outcomes. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of the association between MSDP and a single harmonized component of externalizing: aggressive behaviour, measured throughout childhood and adolescence. Methods Data came from four prospective twin cohorts - Twins Early Development Study, Netherlands Twin Register, Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study of Sweden, and FinnTwin12 study - who collaborate in the EU-ACTION consortium. Data from 30 708 unrelated individuals were analysed. Based on item level data, a harmonized measure of aggression was created at ages 9-10; 12; 14-15 and 16-18. Results MSDP predicted aggression in childhood and adolescence. A meta-analysis across the four samples found the independent effect of MSDP to be 0.4% (r = 0.066), this remained consistent when analyses were performed separately by sex. All other perinatal factors combined explained 1.1% of the variance in aggression across all ages and samples (r = 0.112). Paternal smoking and aggressive parenting strategies did not account for the MSDP-aggression association, consistent with the hypothesis of a small direct link between MSDP and aggression. Conclusions Perinatal factors, including MSDP, account for a small portion of the variance in aggression in childhood and adolescence. Later experiences may play a greater role in shaping adolescents' aggressive behaviour.
  • Lintunen, Jonne; Lähteenvuo, Markku; Tanskanen, Antti; Tiihonen, Jari; Taipale, Heidi (2022)
    Background: Improved treatments for bipolar disorder (BD) are needed. Drug repurposing aims to find novel targets for drugs that have been used for other indications. This study investigated the risk of psychiatric hospitalization associated with use of calcium-channel blockers (CCBs; dihydropyridines, diltiazem, verapamil) and adenosine modulators (allopurinol, dipyridamole) in BD in within-individual design. Methods: Individuals diagnosed with BD (ICD-10: F30-F31) were identified from the inpatient, specialized outpatient, sickness absence, and disability pension registers during 1996-2018 in Finland (N = 60,045). The main outcome was hospitalization due to affective symptoms (ICD-10: F30-F39). Within-individual models in stratified Cox regression were used and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) reported. Results: Use of CCBs was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization due to affective symptoms (aHR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.78-0.88) when all CCBs were analyzed together. Of specific CCBs, use of diltiazem (0.71, 0.55-0.91) and dihydropyridines (0.83, 0.78-0.89) were associated with a decreased risk but verapamil was not (0.93, 0.73-1.19). Use of adenosine modulators in general was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalizations due to affective symptoms (0.87, 0.79-0.96). Both allopurinol (0.85, 0.74-0.97) and dipyridamole (0.89, 0.78-1.00) were associated with a marginally decreased risk. Thiazide diuretic use as a negative control was not associated with the risk of hospitalization due to affective symptoms (0.97, 0.83-1.13). Limitations: Due to the observational nature of this study, causation cannot be confirmed. Conclusions: Dihydropyridines and diltiazem were associated with a decreased risk of psychiatric hospitalization in bipolar disorder. Results for allopurinol and dipyridamole were inconclusive.
  • Chen, Zuyue; Wei, Hong; Sagalajev, Boriss; Koivisto, Ari; Pertovaara, Antti (2019)
    Background: The central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) is involved in processing and descending regulation of pain. Amygdaloid mechanisms underlying pain processing and control are poorly known. Here we tested the hypothesis that perioperative CeA administration of tetrapentylammonium (TPA), a non-selective THIK-1 channel blocker and thereby inhibitor of microglia, attenuates development of chronic neuropathic pain and comorbid anxiety-like behavior. Methods: Rats with a spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathy or sham operation had a chronic cannula for drug microinjections into the CeA or a control injection site. Monofilament test was used to evaluate pain, and light-dark box (LDB) to assess anxiety. Results: Perioperative CeA treatment with TPA (30 mu g/day up to the third postoperative day, D3) significantly attenuated the development of pain and anxiety-like behavior. In the late phase (> D14), CeA administration of TPA (3-30 mu g) failed to influence pain. Perioperative minocycline (microglia inhibitor; 25 mu g), MK-801 (an N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist; 0.1 mu g), vehicle or TPA in a control injection site failed to attenuate pain development. Conclusions: Perioperative treatment of the CeA with TPA delayed development of neuropathic pain and comorbid anxiety-like behavior, while TPA treatment failed to influence maintenance of established neuropathic pain. The failures to attenuate pain development with CeA administrations of minocycline or MK-801 do not support the hypothesis that the TPA-induced prophylactic effect was due to inhibition of amygdaloid microglia or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. While TPA in the CeA proved to have a prophylactic effect on SNI-induced pain behavior, the underlying mechanism still remains to be studied. (c) 2018 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Direk, Nese; Williams, Stephanie; Smith, Jennifer A.; Ripke, Stephan; Air, Tracy; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amin, Najaf; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bennett, David A.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Boomsma, Dorret; Breen, Gerome; Buttenschon, Henriette N.; Byrne, Enda M.; Borglum, Anders D.; Castelao, Enrique; Cichon, Sven; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Dannlowski, Udo; De Jager, Philip L.; Demirkan, Ayse; Domenici, Enrico; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Dunn, Erin C.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Esko, Tonu; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; de Geus, Eco; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Grabe, Hans Joergen; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hek, Karin; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Horn, Carsten; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kloiber, Stefan; Koenen, Karestan; Kutalik, Zoltan; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Lewis, Glyn; Li, Qingqin S.; Llewellyn, David J.; Lucae, Susanne; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Metspalu, Andres; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mors, Ole; Mosley, Thomas H.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nothen, Markus M.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Perlis, Roy; Potash, James B.; Preisig, Martin; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quiroz, Jorge A.; Raikkonen, Katri; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Rivera, Margarita; Schulze, Thomas G.; Shi, Jianxin; Shyn, Stanley; Sinnamon, Grant C.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Snieder, Harold; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tansey, Katherine E.; Teumer, Alexander; Uher, Rudolf; Umbricht, Daniel; Van der Auwera, Sandra; Ware, Erin B.; Weir, David R.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Tiemeier, Henning; Sullivan, Patrick F. (2017)
    BACKGROUND: The genetics of depression has been explored in genome-wide association studies that focused on either major depressive disorder or depressive symptoms with mostly negative findings. A broad depression phenotype including both phenotypes has not been tested previously using a genome-wide association approach. We aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms significantly associated with a broad phenotype from depressive symptoms to major depressive disorder. METHODS: We analyzed two prior studies of 70,017 participants of European ancestry from general and clinical populations in the discovery stage. We performed a replication meta-analysis of 28,328 participants. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and genetic correlations were calculated using linkage disequilibrium score regression. Discovery and replication analyses were performed using a p-value-based meta-analysis. Lifetime major depressive disorder and depressive symptom scores were used as the outcome measures. RESULTS: The SNP-based heritability of major depressive disorder was 0.21 (SE = 0.02), the SNP-based heritability of depressive symptoms was 0.04 (SE = 0.01), and their genetic correlation was 1.001 (SE = 0.2). We found one genome-wide significant locus related to the broad depression phenotype (rs9825823, chromosome 3: 61,082,153, p = 8.2 x 10(-9)) located in an intron of the FHIT gene. We replicated this SNP in independent samples (p = .02) and the overall meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts (1.0 x 10(-9)). CONCLUSIONS: This large study identified a new locus for depression. Our results support a continuum between depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder. A phenotypically more inclusive approach may help to achieve the large sample sizes needed to detect susceptibility loci for depression.
  • Mantere, O.; Saarela, M.; Kieseppä, T.; Raij, T.; Mäntylä, T.; Lindgren, M.; Rikandi, E.; Stoecker, W.; Teegen, B.; Suvisaari, J. (2018)
    It may be challenging to distinguish autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-neuronal autoantibodies from primary psychiatric disorders. Here, serum was drawn from patients with a first-episode psychosis (n = 70) or a clinical high-risk for psychosis (n = 6) and controls (n = 34). We investigated the serum prevalence of 24 antineuronal autoantibodies: IgG antibodies for anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (anti-NMDAR), glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid alpha and beta receptors (GABA-a, GABA-b), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA), glycine receptor (GlyR), metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 and 5 (mGluR1, mGluR5), anti-Tr/Delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor (DNER), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65), collapsin response mediator protein 5/crossveinless-2 (CV2), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), anti-dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX), type 1 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-1, Hu), Ri, Yo, IgLON5, Ma2, zinc finger protein 4 (ZIC4), Rho GTPase-activating protein 26, amphiphysin, and recoverin, as well as IgA and IgM for dopamine-2-receptor (DRD2). Anti-NMDA IgG antibodies were positive with serum titer 1:320 in one patient with a clinical high risk for psychosis. He did not receive a diagnosis of encephalitis after comprehensive neurological evaluation. All other antineuronal autoantibodies were negative and there were no additional findings with immunohistochemistry of brain issues. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Yanes, Manar; Santoni, Giola; Maret-Ouda, John; Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Farkkila, Martti; Lynge, Elsebeth; Nwaru, Bright; Pukkala, Eero; Romundstad, Pal; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lagergren, Jesper (2020)
    Introduction: Airway micro-aspiration might contribute to the proposed associations between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and some lung diseases, including lung cancer. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that antireflux surgery decreases the risk of small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung differently depending on their location in relation to micro-aspiration. Methods: Population-based cohort study including patients having undergone antireflux surgery during 1980-2014 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden. Patients having undergone antireflux surgery were compared with two groups: 1) the corresponding background population, by calculating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and 2) non-operated GERD-patients, by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs using multivariable Cox regression with adjustment for sex, age, calendar period, country, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity diagnosis or type 2 diabetes. Results: Among all 812,617 GERD-patients, 46,996 (5.8%) had undergone antireflux surgery. The SIRs were statistically significantly decreased for small cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.77) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.92), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.06). The HRs were also below unity for small cell carcinoma (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.90) and squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.62-1.03), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.84-1.26). Analyses restricted to patients with objective GERD (reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus) showed similar results. Conclusions: This all-Nordic study indicates that patients who undergo antireflux surgery are at decreased risk of small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, but not of adenocarcinoma of the lung. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Korhonen, Kaarina; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Leinonen, Taina; Einiö, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka (2022)
    Background Depression is associated with an increased dementia risk, but the nature of the association in the long-term remains unresolved, and the role of sociodemographic factors mainly unexplored. Aims To assess whether a history of clinical depression is associated with dementia in later life, controlling for observed sociodemographic factors and unobserved factors shared by siblings, and to test whether gender, educational level and marital status modify the association. Method We conducted a national cohort study of 1 616 321 individuals aged 65 years or older between 2001 and 2018 using administrative healthcare data. A history of depression was ascertained from the national hospital register in the period 15-30 years prior to dementia follow-up. We used conventional and sibling fixed-effects Cox regression models to analyse the association between a history of depression, sociodemographic factors and dementia. Results A history of depression was related to an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% CI 1.23-1.31) for dementia in the conventional Cox model and of 1.55 (95% CI 1.09-2.20) in the sibling fixed-effects model. Depression was related to an elevated dementia risk similarly across all levels of education (test for interaction, P = 0.84), but the association was weaker for the widowed than for the married (P = 0.003), and stronger for men than women (P = 0.006). The excess risk among men attenuated following covariate adjustment (P = 0.10). Discussion This study shows that a history of depression is consistently associated with later-life dementia risk. The results support the hypothesis that depression is an aetiological risk factor for dementia.
  • Pyykko, Ilmari; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Farkkila, Markus; Kentala, Erna; Zou, Jing (2019)
    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate complaints in people with Meniere's disease (MD) with and without migraine and headache to study the association between MD and Vestibular Migraine (VM). We believe this will help us understand if these two disorders represent a disease continuum in that they may share a common aetiology. Methods: The study used a retrospective design and included data of 911 patients with MD from the Finnish Meniere Federation database. The study participants had a mean age of 60.2 years, mean duration of disease of 12.6 years, and 78.7% of the participants were females. The questionnaire data comprised of both disease specific and impact related questions. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Kruskal Wallis H test, logistic regression analyses, and decision tree analysis. Results: Migraine and headache was reported by 190 subjects (20.9%) and 391 subjects (42.9%) respectively. We found that patients that could be classified as VM in the study (i.e., those with frequent vertigo spells associated with migraine) more often reported complaints of severe MD symptoms, had reduced health-related quality of life, suffered more from anxiety, had more neurological complaints, and experienced a reduced sense of coherence than the non-migraneous patients with MD. However, neither the decision tree analysis nor the logistic regression analysis could reliably discriminate VM from MD patients. Conclusion: Our study results confirm that MD is frequently associated with headache and migraine. In addition, results also indicate that migraine provokes the severity of MD. We suggest that MD and VM may share similar pathophysiological mechanisms. Hence, the future MD classification systems should include a category referred to as 'MD with migraine' that will include patients with VM. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Koskinen, Sini M.; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Kujala, Teija; Kaprio, Jaakko; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Osipova, Daria; Viken, Richard J.; Naatanen, Risto; Rose, Richard J. (2022)
    Major depression is associated with alterations in the auditory P3 event-related potential (ERP). However, the persistence of these abnormalities after recovery from depressive episodes, especially in young adults, is not well known. Furthermore, the potential influence of substance use on this association is poorly understood. Young adult twin pairs (N = 177) from the longitudinal FinnTwin16 study were studied with a psychiatric interview, and P3a and P3b ERPs elicited by task-irrelevant novel sounds and targets, respectively. Dyadic linear mixed effect models were used to distinguish the effects of lifetime major depressive disorder from familial factors and effects of alcohol problem drinking and tobacco smoking. P3a amplitude was significantly increased and P3b latency decreased, in individuals with a history of lifetime major depression, when controlling the fixed effects of alcohol abuse, tobacco, gender, twins' birth order, and zygosity. These results suggest that past lifetime major depressive disorder may be associated with enhanced attentional sensitivity.
  • Nazu, Nazma Akter; Wikström, Katja; Lamidi, Marja-Leena; Lindström, Jaana; Tirkkonen, Hilkka; Rautiainen, Päivi; Laatikainen, Tiina (2020)
    Aims: To compare the quality of diabetes care among type 2 diabetes patients with and without mental disorders during six-year follow-up in North Karelia, Finland. Methods: All type 2 diabetes patients (n = 10190) were analysed using the electronic health records data from 2011-12 to 2015-16. The diabetes care was evaluated using the measurement activity and the achievement of the treatment targets for HbA1c and LDL. Results: Monitoring of HbA1c and LDL levels improved among all patient groups, except the dementia patients. The proportion of those achieving the HbA1c target declined and those achieving the LDL target improved in all patient groups. Differences in the changes of achievement of the target HbA1c level among patients with dementia and depression were observed when compared with those having only type 2 diabetes. Conclusions: This study highlights the challenge of glucose level management as the age and comorbidities of the patients related to the care and achievements of the treatment targets. Mental disorders that are likely to affect patients' adherence to medication and other treatments should be taken into account and more support for self-care should be provided to such patients. Improvement in the achievement of LDL target address the progress in the prevention of macrovascular complications. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Griffiths, Amanda; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Vaananen, Ari; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2014)
  • Psychiat Genomics Consortium; Yao, Shuyang; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Martin, Joanna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Raevuori, Anu; Ripatti, Samuli; Widen, Elisabeth (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs) frequently cooccur, little is known about the shared etiology. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the genetic association between ADHD and various EDs, including anorexia nervosa (AN) and other EDs such as bulimia nervosa. METHODS: We applied different genetically informative designs to register-based information of a Swedish nationwide population (N = 3,550,118). We first examined the familial coaggregation of clinically diagnosed ADHD and EDs across multiple types of relatives. We then applied quantitative genetic modeling in full-sisters and maternal half-sisters to estimate the genetic correlations between ADHD and EDs. We further tested the associations between ADHD polygenic risk scores and ED symptoms, and between AN polygenic risk scores and ADHD symptoms, in a genotyped population-based sample (N = 13,472). RESULTS: Increased risk of all types of EDs was found in individuals with ADHD (any ED: odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.81, 4.14; AN: OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 2.15, 2.86; other EDs: OR = 4.66, 95% CI = 4.47, 4.87; bulimia nervosa: OR = 5.01, 95% CI = 4.63, 5.41) and their relatives compared with individuals without ADHD and their relatives. The magnitude of the associations decreased as the degree of relatedness decreased, suggesting shared familial liability between ADHD and EDs. Quantitative genetic models revealed stronger genetic correlation of ADHD with other EDs (.37, 95% CI = .31, .42) than with AN (.14, 95% CI = .05, .22). ADHD polygenic risk scores correlated positively with ED symptom measures overall and with the subscales Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction despite small effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: We observed stronger genetic association with ADHD for non-AN EDs than for AN, highlighting specific genetic correlation beyond a general genetic factor across psychiatric disorders.
  • Oksman, Elli; Rosenström, Tom; Gluschkoff, Kia; Saarinen, Aino; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli Tuomas; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2019)
    Sociability is a widely studied trait that has been linked both with individual well-and ill-being. Although early childcare has been shown to affect social competence in children, its role in the development of different aspects of adulthood sociability is poorly understood. Using a longitudinal population-based sample (N = 464), this study investigated whether childcare arrangements at ages 3 or 6 are associated with self-reported adulthood sociability at ages 20 to 35 years. A total of five aspects of sociability were measured using three well-established personality inventories (EAS, NEO-FFI, and TCI). Multilevel modeling was applied to examine the association between early care and adulthood sociability, adjusting for several sources of random variation (between-individual variance, within-individual variance between measurement times, variance between used sociability indicators, and error variance that cannot be attributed to the previously mentioned) and potential confounders (disruptive behavior in childhood, parental socio-economic status, parent-child relationship quality, maternal age, and the number of children in the family). Based on our results, in comparison to home care, family daycare and center-based daycare at age 3 and center-based daycare at age 6 were associated with higher sociability later in life. The association was strongest for aspects of sociability that emphasize the willingness to be surrounded by other people and to be attached to them. In other words, characteristics of early care may contribute uniquely to the development of these aspects of sociability with effects that persist into adult life
  • Toffol, Elena; But, Anna; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Latvala, Antti; Partonen, Timo; Haukka, Jari (2020)
    Objectives Sociodemographic and mental health characteristics are associated with contraceptive choices. We aimed to describe the sociodemographic, reproductive and mental health characteristics of all fertile-aged women in Finland who used hormonal contraception (HC) in 2017. Design A nationwide, register-based study. Setting All women living in Finland in 2017; data from the Care Register of Health Care, Medical Birth Register, Population Register Centre, Prescription Centre, Register of Induced Abortions. Participants All women aged 15-49 with one redeemed HC prescription in 2017 (n=294 356), and a same-sized, age-matched and residence-matched, control group of non-users. Outcomes Rates of HC use; associations between HC use and mental disorders, sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics. Results 25.8% of women aged 15-49 years used HC. Women with the lowest socioeconomic levels had lower odds of using HC than women with upper-level statuses (OR, 95% CI students: 0.97, 0.94 to 0.99; entitled to pension: 0.66, 0.63 to 0.69; other: 0.87, 0.85 to 0.89; unknown: 0.90, 0.85 to 0.90). Women with the highest education (secondary: 1.46, 1.43 to 1.48; tertiary: 1.64, 1.58 to 1.70; academic: 1.60, 1.56 to 1.63) and income (second quarter: 1.57, 1.54 to 1.60; third quarter: 1.85, 1.82 to 1.89; fourth quarter: 2.01, 1.97 to 2.06), and unmarried women had higher odds of using HC than women with the lowest education and income levels, and married (0.61, 0.60 to 0.62), divorced (0.86, 0.84 to 0.88), widowed (0.73, 0.65 to 0.83) or other marital status women (0.26, 0.22 to 0.30). Parous women (0.70, 0.69 to 0.71), those with previous induced abortion(s) (0.91, 0.89 to 0.92) or recent eating (0.68, 0.62 to 0.75) or personality (0.89, 0.79 to 0.97) disorders had lower odds of HC use. Absolute risk differences between women with and without mental disorders ranged from 3.1% (anxiety disorders) to 10.1% (eating disorders). Conclusions A quarter of the fertile-aged women use HC in Finland. Sociodemographic disparities persist in relation to HC use, although of small effect size. HC use is less common among women suffering from severe to moderate psychiatric disorders, especially eating disorders.
  • Lempainen, Johanna; Korhonen, Laura S.; Kantojärvi, Katri; Heinonen, Santtu; Toivonen, Laura; Räty, Panu; Ramilo, Octavio; Mejias, Asuncion; Vuorinen, Tytti; Waris, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Laine, Antti-Pekka; Paunio, Tiina; Peltola, Ville (2021)
    Background. Genetic heterogeneity in type I interferon (IFN)-related gene IFI44L may account for variable susceptibility to respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. Methods. In 2 prospective, population-based birth cohorts, the STEPS Study and the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, IFI44L genotypes for rs273259 and rs1333969 were determined in relation to the development of RTIs until 1 or 2 years of age, respectively. At age 3 months, whole-blood transcriptional profiles were analyzed and nasal samples were tested for respiratory viruses in a subset of children. Results. In the STEPS Study (n=1135), IFI44L minor/minor gene variants were associated with lower rates of acute otitis media episodes (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.77 [95% confidence interval, .61-.96] for rs273259 and 0.74 [.55-.99] for rs1333969) and courses of antibiotics for RTIs (0.76 [.62-.95] and 0.73 [.56-.97], respectively. In the FinnBrain cohort (n=971), IFI44L variants were associated with lower rates of RTIs and courses of antibiotics for RTIs. In respiratory virus-positive 3-month-old children, IFI44L gene variants were associated with decreased expression levels of IFI44L and several other IFN-related genes. Conclusions. Variant forms of IFI44L gene were protective against early-childhood RTIs or acute otitis media, and they attenuated IFN pathway activation by respiratory viruses.