Browsing by Subject "SYNOVIAL-FLUID"

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  • Mikkola, Lea; Holopainen, Saila; Pessa-Morikawa, Tiina; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Iivanainen, Antti (2019)
    Background Hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis continue to be prevalent problems in veterinary and human medicine. Canine hip dysplasia is particularly problematic as it massively affects several large-sized breeds and can cause a severe impairment of the quality of life. In Finland, the complex condition is categorized to five classes from normal to severe dysplasia, but the categorization includes several sub-traits: congruity of the joint, Norberg angle, subluxation degree of the joint, shape and depth of the acetabulum, and osteoarthritis. Hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis have been proposed to have separate genetic etiologies. Results Using Federation Cynologique Internationale -standardized ventrodorsal radiographs, German shepherds were rigorously phenotyped for osteoarthritis, and for joint incongruity by Norberg angle and femoral head center position in relation to dorsal acetabular edge. The affected dogs were categorized into mild, moderate and severe dysplastic phenotypes using official hip scores. Three different genome-wide significant loci were uncovered. The strongest candidate genes for hip joint incongruity were noggin (NOG), a bone and joint developmental gene on chromosome 9, and nanos C2HC-type zinc finger 1 (NANOS1), a regulator of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) on chromosome 28. Osteoarthritis mapped to a long intergenic region on chromosome 1, between genes encoding for NADPH oxidase 3 (NOX3), an intriguing candidate for articular cartilage degradation, and AT-rich interactive domain 1B (ARID1B) that has been previously linked to joint laxity. Conclusions Our findings highlight the complexity of canine hip dysplasia phenotypes. In particular, the results of this study point to the potential involvement of specific and partially distinct loci and genes or pathways in the development of incongruity, mild dysplasia, moderate-to-severe dysplasia and osteoarthritis of canine hip joints. Further studies should unravel the unique and common mechanisms for the various sub-traits.
  • Äyräväinen, Leena; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Laasonen, Leena; Moilanen, Eeva; Hämäläinen, Mari; Tervahartiala, Taina; Meurman, Jukka H.; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Sorsa, Timo (2018)
    Objective: To study prospectively the association of salivary and serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 with periodontal and systemic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We hypothesized that biomarker concentrations reflect inflammation. Methods: Fifty three early untreated RA (ERA) and 28 chronic RA (CRA) patients, underwent rheumatological and dental examinations at baseline and one year later after starting first conventional or biological disease modifying antirheumatic drug. We included 43 control subjects. Saliva and serum samples were analyzed for MMP-8, TIMP-1 and IL-6. Periodontal health was assessed by bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket depth (PD) and periodontal inflammatory burden index (PIBI); RA disease activity was assessed by disease activity score DAS28. Joint destruction was analyzed by the modified Sharp-van der Heijde (SHS) method. Results: Serum MMP-8 (p <.001; p <.001) and IL-6 (p <.001; p =.002) were significantly higher in CRA vs. other study groups during the study. Salivary MMP-8 (p =.010) and IL-6 (p =.010) were significantly higher in ERA vs. other study groups at baseline. Salivary MMP-8 was associated with periodontal parameters. Conclusion: Elevated serum concentrations of MMP-8 and IL-6 in CRA patients reflected chronic RA, while elevated salivary concentrations of MMP-8 levels in ERA patients reflected increased periodontal inflammation.
  • Visvanathan, Sudha; Wagner, Carrie; Marini, Joseph C.; Lovell, Daniel J.; Martini, Alberto; Petty, Ross; Cuttica, Ruben; Woo, Patricia; Espada, Graciela; Gattorno, Marco; Apaz, Maria T.; Baildam, Eileen; Fasth, Anders; Gerloni, Valeria; Lahdenne, Pekka; Quartier, Pierre; Saurenmann, Rotraud; Travers, Suzanne; Mendelsohn, Alan; Xu, Stephen; Giannini, Edward H.; Ruperto, Nicoline; PRINTO, PRCSG (2010)
  • Heikkilä, Helka M.; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K.; Innes, John F.; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M. (2017)
    Background: Recently, intra-articular botulinum toxin A (IA BoNT A) has been shown to reduce joint pain in osteoarthritic dogs. Similar results have been reported in human patients with arthritis. However, the mechanism of the antinociceptive action of IA BoNT A is currently not known. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism of action by investigating the effect of IA BoNT A on synovial fluid (SF) and serum substance P (SP), prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in osteoarthritic dogs. Additionally, the aim was to compare SF SP and PGE(2) between osteoarthritic and non-osteoarthritic joints, and investigate associations between SP, PGE(2), osteoarthritic pain, and the signalment of dogs. Thirty-five dogs with chronic naturally occurring osteoarthritis and 13 non-osteoarthritic control dogs were included in the study. Osteoarthritic dogs received either IA BoNT A (n = 19) or IA placebo (n = 16). Serum and SF samples were collected and osteoarthritic pain was evaluated before (baseline) and 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. Osteoarthritic pain was assessed with force platform, Helsinki Chronic Pain Index, and joint palpation. Synovial fluid samples were obtained from control dogs after euthanasia. The change from baseline in SP and PGE(2) concentration was compared between the IA BoNT A and placebo groups. The synovial fluid SP and PGE(2) concentration was compared between osteoarthritic and control joints. Associations between SP, PGE(2), osteoarthritic pain, and the signalment of dogs were evaluated. Results: There was no significant change from baseline in SP or PGE(2) after IA BoNT A. Synovial fluid PGE(2) was significantly higher in osteoarthritic compared to control joints. Synovial fluid PGE(2) correlated with osteoarthritic pain. No associations were found between SP or PGE2 and the signalment of dogs. The concentration of TNF-alpha remained under the detection limit of the assay in all samples. Conclusions: The results suggest that the antinociceptive effect of IA BoNT A in the joint might not be related to the inhibition of SP nor PGE(2). Synovial fluid PGE(2,) but not SP, could be a marker for chronic osteoarthritis and pain in dogs.
  • Barreto, Goncalo; Sandelin, Jerker; Salem, Abdelhakim; Nordstrom, Dan C.; Waris, Eero (2017)
    Background and purpose - Although the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is not well understood, chondrocyte-mediated inflammatory responses (triggered by the activation of innate immune receptors by damage-associated molecules) are thought to be involved. We examined the relationship between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and OA in cartilage from 2 joints differing in size and mechanical loading: the first carpometacarpal (CMC-I) and the knee. Patients and methods - Samples of human cartilage obtained from OA CMC-I and knee joints were immunostained for TLRs (1-9) and analyzed using histomorphometry and principal component analysis (PCA). mRNA expression levels were analyzed with RT-PCR. Collected synovial fluid (SF) samples were screened for the presence of soluble forms of TLR2 and TLR4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results - In contrast to knee OA, TLR expression in CMC-I OA did not show grade-dependent overall profile changes, but PCA revealed that TLR expression profiles clustered according to their cellular compartment organization. Protein levels of TLR4 were substantially higher in knee OA than in CMC-I OA, while the opposite was the case at the mRNA level. ELISA assays confirmed the presence of soluble forms of TLR2 and TLR4 in SF, with sTLR4 being considerably higher in CMC-I OA than in knee OA. Interpretation - We observed that TLRs are differentially expressed in OA cartilage, depending on the joint. Soluble forms of TLR2 and TLR4 were detected for the first time in SF of osteoarthritic joints, with soluble TLR4 being differentially expressed. Together, our results suggest that negative regulatory mechanisms of innate immunity may be involved in the pathomolecular mechanisms of osteoarthritis.