Browsing by Subject "Salmonella"

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  • Elina, Felin; Outi, Hälli; Mari, Heinonen; Jukola, Elias; Maria, Fredriksson-Ahomaa (2019)
    Current macroscopic meat inspection cannot detect the most common pork-borne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii). Furthermore, food chain information (FCI) may not provide sufficient data for visual-only inspection, which is supposed to be the common way of inspection of pigs in the European Union. Our observational study aimed to evaluate the serological monitoring and the clinical evaluation of on-farm health status of pigs and assess the feasibility of these data as part of the FCI in meat inspection. We studied the serological status of Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp. and T. gondii in pigs during the fattening period. Additionally, we evaluated the association between on-farm health status and meat inspection findings. On 57 indoor fattening pig farms in Finland, we collected blood samples (mean of 20 pigs/farm) and assessed the on-farm health (coughing, tail biting, lameness) at the end of the fattening period. We visited 34 of these farms also at the beginning of the fattening for sampling and on-farm health evaluation of the same pigs. Meat inspection results were obtained after slaughter for all 57 farms. Salmonella seroprevalence was low at the end of the fattening period: it was 17.6%, 10.6% or 1.9%, with the cut-off values of OD15% (recommended by the test manufacturer), OD20% (used by Danish monitoring programme) and OD40% (used by German monitoring programme), respectively. The overall seroprevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. increased significantly (P 
  • Nilsson, Anna; Tervahartiala, Taina; Lennebratt, David; Lannergård, Anders; Sorsa, Timo; Rautelin, Hilpi (2018)
    Campylobacters are major enteropathogens worldwide with a substantial financial burden. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic metalloendopeptidases with ability to modify immune response and shown to be upregulated in patients with several tissue destructive diseases, including infections. We measured here serum concentrations of MMP-8 and MMP-9 together with their regulators myeloperoxidase (MPO), human neutrophil elastase (HNE), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in 80 Campylobacter and 25 Salmonella patients as well as in 27 healthy controls. Paired serum samples were available for 73 and 23 patients, respectively. When the initial serum samples were compared to those from controls, both Campylobacter and Salmonella patients showed elevated concentrations of all biomarkers tested (p 0.037). In the follow-up samples, collected about 25 days afterwards, MMP-8 levels of Campylobacter patients had already turned to normal but all the other biomarkers still showed elevated, although from the initial levels significantly dropped, levels. For the follow-up samples of Salmonella patients, only MMP-9 and MPO levels were at a significantly higher level than in controls. It remains to be studied if the systematically enhanced neutrophil-derived proteolytic and oxidative stress, induced by Campylobacter infection as shown here and persisting for several weeks, is important for the development of late sequelae.
  • Lääveri, Tinja; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Antikainen, Jenni; Riutta, Jukka; Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Kantele, Anu (2014)
  • Holopainen, Tuija (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Salmonella and Campylobacter are one the most significant enteric bacterial organisms causing foodborne infections world-wide. Domestic Finnish broiler meat is rarely contaminated with Salmonella. Campylobacter contamination rate of domestic broiler meat is 10-30 % in summer months, during the seasonal peak of human campylobacter infections. The human campylobacter infections are usually sporadic and the source of infection remains unknown. Impact of domestic broiler meat on the incidence of these infections is unclear. In several case-control studies performed all over the world, consumption of poultry products and cross-contamination are recorded as risk factors for human Campylobacter infection. If broiler meat is contaminated by Campylobacter or Salmonella, the bacteria most probably contaminate kitchen surfaces in contact with the meat. The previous studies on contamination caused by broiler meat are mainly focused on quantitative transfer rates of the bacteria. In this thesis the kitchen contamination was studied using fluorescent liquid injected in broiler meat packages to document contact of meat or meat juice with the surfaces. The used method provides information on how widely and where the bacteria might spread in the kitchen. The study compared contamination on kitchen surfaces and utensils, caused by whole frozen broilers (25 units) and marinated broiler legs (25 units). The frozen broilers were prepared in a test kitchen, cut into pieces and spiced and cooked in oven pan. Marinated legs were opened from the packages and cooked in oven. After handling of each broiler meat unit, contamination on defined areas of kitchen surface and utensils were documented using ultraviolet light marked surface areas in the kitchen. Handling of marinated broiler legs decrease steps of meat handling in the kitchen. As expected, the cutting board and the spice cupboard remained clean with every marinated broiler leg unit. Correspondingly, those surfaces contaminated in the handling of whole frozen broiler unit. In handling of frozen broilers, meat-contact surfaces (i.e. counter and knife blade) contaminated significantly more often (p<0.001) compared to broiler legs. Dishcloths, commonly indicating the cleanness levels in the kitchen were contaminated also more (p<0,001) after handling of whole broiler units. Through hand-contact of whole broilers, the left trash cupboard with the door handle and the knife handle contaminated more often (p<0,001) than in the handling of marinated broiler legs. The right side trash cupboard contaminated more often (p=0,002) in handling of broiler legs than in the handling of whole broilers. The difference of contamination was not statistically significant between the handle of right-hand side trash cupboard and the water tap (trash bin door handle p=0,347, water tap p=0,101). Our study showed, that handling of whole frozen broiler carcasses cause significantly higher risk of cross-contamination appearing in the kitchen. Marinated broiler legs cause only little contamination on kitchen surfaces and utensils. However, cross-contamination is still possible through hands after handling of these products.
  • Felin, E.; Jukola, E.; Raulo, S.; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M. (2015)
    The seroprevalence of Salmonella spp., pathogenic Yersinia spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. was studied in 1353 finishing pigs from 259 farms that were allocated according to farm types: large fattening farms (1000 pig places), small fattening farms (<1000 pig places) and farrow-to-finish farms. The antibodies were analysed with commercial ELISA kits in meat juice samples that were collected at Finnish slaughterhouses. Salmonella antibodies were rare (3% of pigs, 14% of farms) when the cut-off optical density (OD) value 0.2 was used. Antibodies to pathogenic Yersinia spp. and T.gondii were detected in 57% of pigs and 85% of farms (OD 0.3) and in 3% of pigs and 9% of farms (OD 0.15), respectively. No antibodies to Trichinella spp. were detected (OD 0.3). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) considers Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, T.gondii and Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of pigs. The seroprevalence of these important zoonotic pathogens was low in Finland, except that of Yersinia. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma was significantly higher in pigs originating from small-scale fattening farms (P<0.05). Strong positive correlation was observed at the animal level between Salmonella and Yersinia seropositivity and between Salmonella and Toxoplasma seropositivity (P<0.05). We suggest that these results reflect the level and importance of biosecurity measures applied on the farms. Meat juice serology at slaughter is a useful tool for targeting measures to control these pathogens. The information obtained from analyses should be used as part of the food chain information (FCI).
  • Woivalin, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää metsästetyn sorsanlihan elintarvikehygieenistä laatua mikrobien kokonaispesäkeluvun ja Escherichia coli -bakteerimäärän avulla, sekä kartoittaa sorsissa esiintyvien elintarvikevälitteisten patogeenien esiintyvyyttä. Kirjallisuuskatsaus tutustuu sinisorsaan lintulajina sekä sorsan metsästykseen yleisellä tasolla. Kokeellisessa osassa tutkittiin metsästettyjen sorsien pintasivelynäytteitä. Ruhonäytteistä todettiin aerobisten bakteerien kokonaismäärän keskiarvo 3,5 log10 pmy/cm2 ja E. colin 1,2 log10 pmy/cm2. Tutkimuksessa eristettiin Listeria monocytogenes bakteeria 13 %:ssa näytteistä ja Yersinia enterocoliticabakteeria 3 %:ssa näytteistä. Näytteistä 9 % oli PCR:llä Campylobakteeri-positiivisia ja kaikki olivat Salmonella negatiivisia. Sorsanlihan hygieeninen laatu osoittautui hyväksi tai kohtalaiseksi. Näytteiden välillä esiintyi vaihtelua. Tutkimus osoittaa, että sorsanliha voi sisältää myös ruokamyrkytyksiä aiheuttavia bakteereja, mistä syystä ruhon käsittelyn ja lihan valmistuksen hyvät hygieniakäytännöt tulisi muistaa sekä ammatti- että kotikeittiöissä.
  • Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti; Julmi, Jerome; Zweifel, Claudio; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Stephan, Roger (2017)
    Background: Various food-producing animals were recognized in recent years as healthy carriers of bacterial pathogens causing human illness. In northern Fennoscandia, the husbandry of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) is a traditional livelihood and meat is the main product. This study determined the presence of selected foodborne pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy semi-domesticated reindeer at slaughter in northern Finland and Norway. Results: All 470 reindeer fecal samples tested negative for Salmonella spp., whereas L. monocytogenes was detected in 3%, Yersinia spp. in 10%, and Shiga toxins genes (stx1 and/or stx2) in 33% of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes isolates belonged to the serotype 1/2a (14/15) and 4b, Yersinia spp. were identified mainly as Y. kristensenii (30/46) and Y. enterocolitica (8/46), and stx2 predominated among the Shiga toxin genes (stx2 alone or in combination with stx1 was found in 25% of the samples). With regard to the frequency and distribution of stx1/stx2, striking differences were evident among the 10 different areas of origin. Hence, reindeer could constitute a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), but strain isolation and characterization is required for verification purposes and to assess the potential human pathogenicity of strains. On the other hand, the favorable antibiotic resistance profiles (only 5% of 95 E. coli isolates were resistant to one or more of the tested antibiotics) and the absence of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (when applying selective methods) suggest only a limited risk of transmission to humans. Conclusions: Healthy semi-domesticated reindeer in northern Finland and Norway can be carriers of certain bacterial foodborne pathogens. Strict compliance with good hygiene practices during any step of slaughter (in particular during dehiding and evisceration) is therefore of central importance to avoid carcass contamination and to prevent foodborne pathogens from entering the food chain.
  • Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti; Julmi, Jérôme; Zweifel, Claudio; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Stephan, Roger (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Various food-producing animals were recognized in recent years as healthy carriers of bacterial pathogens causing human illness. In northern Fennoscandia, the husbandry of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) is a traditional livelihood and meat is the main product. This study determined the presence of selected foodborne pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy semi-domesticated reindeer at slaughter in northern Finland and Norway. Results All 470 reindeer fecal samples tested negative for Salmonella spp., whereas L. monocytogenes was detected in 3%, Yersinia spp. in 10%, and Shiga toxins genes (stx1 and/or stx2) in 33% of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes isolates belonged to the serotype 1/2a (14/15) and 4b, Yersinia spp. were identified mainly as Y. kristensenii (30/46) and Y. enterocolitica (8/46), and stx2 predominated among the Shiga toxin genes (stx2 alone or in combination with stx1 was found in 25% of the samples). With regard to the frequency and distribution of stx1/stx2, striking differences were evident among the 10 different areas of origin. Hence, reindeer could constitute a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), but strain isolation and characterization is required for verification purposes and to assess the potential human pathogenicity of strains. On the other hand, the favorable antibiotic resistance profiles (only 5% of 95 E. coli isolates were resistant to one or more of the tested antibiotics) and the absence of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (when applying selective methods) suggest only a limited risk of transmission to humans. Conclusions Healthy semi-domesticated reindeer in northern Finland and Norway can be carriers of certain bacterial foodborne pathogens. Strict compliance with good hygiene practices during any step of slaughter (in particular during dehiding and evisceration) is therefore of central importance to avoid carcass contamination and to prevent foodborne pathogens from entering the food chain.
  • Traore, Oumar; Nyholm, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O.; Traore, Alfred S.; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa (2015)
    Background: This study investigated the prevalence, serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica in environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 476 samples, consisting of 36 samples of tap water, 51 samples of well water, 87 samples of channel water, 44 samples of reservoir water, 238 samples of fish, and 20 samples of lettuce were examined using standard bacteriological procedures for Salmonella. Results: Salmonella were isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella were rare in drinking water, since they were not found at all from the tap water, and only in 2 % of well water. Salmonella were more common in the water of reservoir of Tanghin (15 %), reservoir of Yamtenga (20 %), and in the water channels in the city (from 20 to 31 %). Salmonella were commonly isolated from the fish (24 %) caught from the reservoir of Tanghin and from the lettuce (50 %) irrigated with water from Tanghin. The Salmonella isolates were found to represent 50 different serotypes. The 11 most common serotypes were Salmonella Bredeney and S. Colindale (both 8.2 %), S. Muenster (6.1 %), S. Korlebu (5.1 %), S. Eastbourne and S. Poona (both 4.1 %), and S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Drac, S. Senftenberg, S. Waycross (each 3.1 %), accounting for 51.3 % of all the isolates. In general, the Salmonella strains were sensitive to the antimicrobials tested, but two strains were resistant to streptomycin and many more intermediate to streptomycin or sulphonamide. Conclusion: This study highlights the common prevalence of Salmonella and the high diversity of Salmonella serotypes in aquatic environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Therefore, various human activities linked to water and consumption of water-related products, such as fish and lettuce, can lead to human Salmonella infections.
  • Heikkilä, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Lisensiaatintutkielmani sisältää kirjallisuuskatsauksen kissojen raakaruokintaan liittyen ja alkuperäistutkimuksen. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään ihmisille tavallisimpien mahasuolitulehduksia aiheuttavien bakteerien esiintyvyyttä kissoille soveltuvassa raakaruoassa. Tämän lisäksi tutkittiin kahden raakaruokaa syövän kissan ulosteita tavoitteena selvittää erittyvätkö mahdollisesti ruoassa esiintyvät tautia aiheuttavat bakteerit kissojen ulosteeseen. Aihe valittiin, koska lemmikkien raakaruokintaa ei ole vielä kovin paljon Suomessa tutkittu, varsinkaan kissojen kohdalla. Lemmikkien raakaruoan mikrobiologista laatua on tutkittu ulkomailla, missä suurin huoli on tavallisesti ollut salmonella. Suomalaisessa raa’assa lihassa salmonellan esiintyminen on kuitenkin erittäin vähäistä. Suomessa tavallisimmat ihmisille tautia aiheuttavat elintarvikevälitteiset bakteerit ovat Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, shiga-toksiinia tuottava Escherichia coli eli STEC ja salmonella. Hypoteeseja oli kolme erillistä. Ensimmäisen mukaan oletettiin, että lemmikkien raakaruoasta löytyisi jonkin verran tautia aiheuttavia bakteereita. Toisen perusteella odotettiin yleisimpien löytöjen olevan Y. enterocolitica ja kampylobakteerit. Kolmas hypoteesi oli, että sisäkissan ulosteesta ei juuri löytyisi tautia aiheuttavia bakteereita. Tutkimuksen aikana kerättiin vuoden aikana 48 raakaruokanäytettä ja 73 ulostenäytettä. Ulostenäytteitä kerättiin kahdelta eri kissalta, joista toiselta koko tutkimuksen ajan ja toiselta vain viimeisen puolen vuoden ajan. Näytteet sekoitettiin puskuroituun peptoniveteen ja viljeltiin selektiivisille agareille. Peptonivesiseokset inkuboitiin yön ylitse +37 °C:ssa. Inkuboiduista seoksista tehtiin säilytys 20 % glyserolin kanssa -70 °C ja PCR-ajoa varten DNA-eristys ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrepTM -menetelmää (Zymo Research, USA) käyttäen. Peptonivesiseokset säilöttiin tutkimuksen ajan 4 °C:ssa. PCR-positiiviset näytteet viljeltiin uudelleen selektiiviselle maljoille esirikastetuista seoksista. Tutkituista ruokanäytteistä 42 % sisälsi jotain tutkittua tautia aiheuttavaa bakteeria. Ulostenäytteistä 84 % sisälsi jotain tutkittua bakteeria PCR-tulosten perusteella. Ulostenäytteistä yhteensä 74% oli kampylobakteeripositiivisia, vaikka ruokanäytteet eivät olleet. Ruokanäytteistä saadut PCR-positiiviset näytteet eivät kasvaneet agarmaljoilla lainkaan. Ulostenäytteistä kaksi PCRpositiivista Y. enterocolitica löydöstä kasvoi myös agarmaljoilla. Nämä olivat biotyyppiä 4 ja kaupallisella vasta-aineella tehdyllä testillä serotyyppiä O:3. Kummankin kissanulosteesta eristettiin Campylobacter helveticus. Tulosten perusteella voidaan vetää johtopäätös, että raakaruokinnassa on riskejä lemmikkien ja ihmisten terveydelle. Riskit ovat suuret erityisesti ihmisille, joiden immuunijärjestelmän toiminta ei ole normaalia. Hypoteesit olivat osittain oikein, mutta esimerkiksi ulosteessa esiintyvien tautia aiheuttavien kampylobakteerien korkea esiintyvyys oli yllätys. Tutkimuksen toinen tavoite, mikä oli selvittää siirtyvätkö ruoan patogeenit kissojen ulosteeseen, ei välttämättä onnistunut näytteenottosuunnitelman takia. Näytteitä olisi pitänyt ottaa pidemmän aikaa raakaruoan syöttämisen jälkeen ja tutkia kissat etukäteen, etteivät ne eritä mitään bakteeria valmiiksi ulosteeseensa.
  • Rönnqvist, Maria; Välttilä, Ville; Heinola, Katriina; Ranta, Jukka; Niemi, Jarkko; Tuominen, Pirkko (Evira, 2018)
    Evira Research Reports 3/2018
    Food items of animal origin, such as pork products, have been suggested as the main source of zoonotic salmonella infections in Europe. Contaminated feed can potentially introduce the pathogen into the animal-derived food chains. The prevalence of salmonella in different feeds for Finnish pigs was estimated as below 2% (medians) and on average in pigs 0.25% (mean). Feed was estimated on average as the cause of 35% of salmonella infections in fattening pigs and 55% in sows. Around 5% of the 300–400 domestic human salmonella infections reported per year were estimated as attributable to pig feeds. Year 2013 was employed as a reference. The present costs for the prevention of salmonella contamination in pig feeds were estimated at 1.8–3.0 million euros per year for the year 2013. The costs due to feed contamination, measures due to detected contamination and the resulting salmonella infections in pigs and humans were estimated at €2.4 (0.3–6.1) million annually. According to a scenario, if salmonella prevalence in Finnish pig feed would be similar to that acquired using data from other EU counties, the prevalence in fattening pigs and people could increase by 55-fold on average. If specific measures to eliminate salmonella from feed were not carried out, the costs due to preventive actions against salmonella were at least €1.1–1.8 million per year. Additionally, the costs due to the eradication of feedborne salmonella on pig farms, consequential measures at slaughterhouses, and the health costs to humans could rise to approximately €33 million per year. According to the results, the present feed salmonella control, including the preventive