Browsing by Subject "Sediment"

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  • Silvonen, Soila; Niemistö, Juha; Csibrán, Adrián; Jilbert, Tom; Torma, Péter; Krámer, Tamás; Nurminen, Leena; Horppila, Jukka (2021)
    Hypolimnetic withdrawal (HW) is a lake restoration method that is based on the removal of phosphorus (P) along with near-bottom water. While it has often proven to be effective, the method also sets challenges: it is about balancing between effective P removal and maintenance of the thermal stratification of the lake. The success of different HW projects has been reviewed in some studies retrospectively, but scientific literature still lacks studies that use detailed data on the lake biogeochemistry to scale and optimize the method in advance, and to predict the outcomes of the restoration measure. In the current study, we investigated the seasonal biogeochemistry, P stocks and thermal stratification of a eutrophic lake (Lake Kymijarvi/Myllypohja basin, southern Finland) to determine an optimal withdrawal rate, to assess its effects on stratification, and to evaluate the expected success of HW. We found that by adjusting HW with P diffusive fluxes from the sediment (diffusion-adjusted HW), it is possible to remove a notable part of the cycling P without causing major disturbances to the thermal stratification even in a relatively shallow lake. Our results show that HW can have great potential in lake restoration: diffusion-adjusted HW in our study lake could increase the annual P output by 35-46%, shifting the P budget of the lake to negative. We thus propose a novel approach to optimize HW on the basis of the diffusive flux of P from the sediment, with the goal of extracting P continuously at an equivalent rate to the diffusive flux. We finally discuss how this can be achieved more effectively with HW based on a closed-circuit system. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Tallberg, Petra; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Niemistö, Juha; Hall, Per O. J.; Lehtoranta, Jouni (2017)
    We estimated the efflux of dissolved silicon (DSi) from sediments in the Gulf of Finland and compared it to sedimentation fluxes, burial of Si and existing data on Si loading and stocks, reassessing the reliability of existing Si budgets. Benthic fluxes of DSi measured in situ and in vitro were several times higher than estimates from diffusion calculations. The spatial variability in the open Gulf of Finland was relatively small, while both very high and low fluxes were measured from coastal areas. Fluxes were highest in late summer and lowest in early spring. In our re-assessed budget we present a new lower estimate for Si burial in the sediments, ca. 6 Gmol a(-1) and show that more than half of the sedimentation flux of Si is released back into the water column. Changes in the efficiency of internal DSi recycling may thus affect the prevalence of siliceous phytoplankton within the ecosystem, and the diatom spring bloom may be regulated by the functioning of this internal recycling pump. We also show that the seasonal variation in benthic DSi fluxes and dissolved phosphate fluxes is similar, and that a tentative connection between hypoLxia and high DSi efflux exists. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Angove, Charlotte; Norkko, Alf; Gustafsson, Camilla (2018)
    Aquatic plant meadows are valuable components to the 'coastal filter' and it is important to understand the processes that drive their ability to cycle nutrients. However, at present, the field-based evidence for understanding the drivers of nutrient uptake by plants is lacking. This study aimed to investigate how well individual shoots of aquatic plants could meet their nitrogen demands using the sediment nutrient pool (porewater ammonium) and to explore which traits helped to facilitate such uptake. Several species were investigated in shallow, submerged (2-4 m) mixed-species communities in the northern Baltic Sea using incubation experiments with enriched ammonium. After a 3.5 h incubation time, individuals were collected and analysed for nitrogen (% DW) and N-15 (at-%) concentrations. Uptake by plants was calculated per unit nitrogen in response to the N-15 labelled source and to overall nitrogen availability. Background porewater ammonium availability was highly variable between individual plants. Species identity did not significantly affect uptake metrics and the effect of ambient porewater availability was weak. As biomass increased there were significant logarithmic declines in the 95th quantiles of nutrient uptake rates, ambient porewater nutrient availability and aboveground nitrogen tissue concentrations (% DW). Such findings suggested that uptake rates of plants were significantly demand driven and the nutrient conditions of the porewater were significantly driven by the demands of the plant. Findings parameterised the unfulfilled potential for some aquatic plants to cycle nutrients more efficiently and highlighted the potential importance of access to new nutrient sources as a way of enhancing nutrient cycling by aquatic plants. Plant traits and community properties such as the activity of infauna could facilitate such an access and are likely important for nutrient uptake.
  • Esterhuizen, Maranda; Kim, Young Jun (2022)
    Plastic waste is recognised as hazardous, with the risk increasing as the polymers break down in nature to secondary microplastics or even nanoplastics. The number of studies reporting on the prevalence of microplastic in every perceivable niche and bioavailable to biota is dramatically increasing. Knowledge of the ecotoxicology of microplastic is advancing as well; however, information regarding plants, specifically aquatic macrophytes, is still lacking. The present study aimed to gain more information on the ecotoxicological effects of six different polymer types as 4 mm microplastic on the morphology (germination and growth) and the physiology (catalase and glutathione S-transferase activity) of the rooted aquatic macrophyte, Nelumbo nucifera. The role of sediment was also considered by conducting all exposure both in a sediment-containing and sediment-free exposure system. Polyvinyl chloride and polyurethane exposures caused the highest inhibition of germination and growth compared to the control. However, the presence of sediment significantly decreased the adverse effects. Catalase activity was increased with exposure to polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, and polystyrene, both in the presence and absence of sediment but more so in the sediment-free system. Glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly increased with exposure to polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polyethylene terephthalate in the sediment-free system and exposure to polyethylene terephthalate and polyurethane in the absence of sediment. There was no clear correlation between the morphological and physiological effects observed. Further studies are required to understand the underlying toxicity mechanism of microplastics.
  • Uusheimo, Sari Anneli; Tulonen, Tiina Valpuri; Aalto, Sanni L.; Arvola, Lauri Matti Juhani (2018)
    Constructed agricultural ponds and wetlands can reduce nitrogen loading from agriculture especially in areas where warm climate predominates. However, in cold climate temperature-dependency of microbiological processes have raised the question about the applicability of constructed wetlands in N removal. We measured in situ denitrification rates in a constructed agricultural pond using N-15-isotope pairing technique at ambient light and temperature throughout a year as well as diurnally. The field IPT measurements were combined with a wide set of potentially important explanatory data, including air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, precipitation, discharge, nitrate plus other water quality variables, sediment temperature, oxygen concentration and penetration depth, diffusive oxygen uptake and sediment organic carbon. Denitrification varied, on average, diurnally between 12 and 314 mu mol N m(-2) h(-1) and seasonally between 0 and 12409 mu mol m(-2) h(-1). Light and oxygen regulated the diel variation of denitrification, but seasonally denitrification was governed by a combination of temperature, oxygen and turbidity. The results indicated that the real N removal rate might be 30-35% higher than the measured daytime rates, suggesting that neglecting the diel variation of denitrification we may underestimate N removal capacity of shallow sediments. We conclude, that by following recommended wetland:catchment - size ratios, boreal agricultural ponds can efficiently remove nitrogen by denitrification in summer and in autumn, while in winter and in spring the contribution of denitrification might be negligible relative to the loading, especially with short residence time.
  • Laakso, Johanna Marketta; Uusitalo, Risto; Yli-Halla, Markku Juhani (2016)
    Constructed wetlands and ponds (CWs) are installed to trap suspended material and particulate phosphorus (P) in agricultural runoff. This study investigated whether the P speciation and P sorption capacity of source soils differ from those of CW sediments and whether drying of dredged sediment changes its characteristics. Samples collected from five agricultural CW sites in south-west Finland, two with chemical-aided (aluminium chloride and ferric sulphate) P precipitation and all representing fine-textured mineral soils, were analysed for various P plant availability indices. Clay contents of the CW sediments were much higher than in catchment soils, likely because of selective erosion. All CW sediments were characterised by similar total P content but clearly higher content of anion exchange resin-extractable P in fresh sediments than the source soils. In general, sediment content of NH4F-extractable (aluminium (Al)-associated) P was significantly lower and NaOH-extractable (iron (Fe)-associated) significantly higher than in source soils. Reduced conditions, conducive to mobilisation of Fe-associated P, were observed in all CWs. Accumulation of sulphur (S) in sediments and a pH decline of up to two units upon drying suggested presence of Fe sulphides. Drying also increased oxalate-extractable Al and Fe (hydr)oxide content by 9–47%, resulting in lower degree of P saturation. These results indicate that dredged CW sediments differ greatly in their P retention characteristics from their parent soils. Returning CW sediments to fields is likely to decrease the amount of readily available P for crop uptake.
  • Bernard, Guillaume; Gammal, Johanna; Järnström, Marie; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf (2019)
    Bioturbation by benthic macrofauna communities plays a significant role in the setting and maintenance of important ecosystem functions and the delivery of associated ecosystem services. We investigated the context-dependence of bioturbation performed by natural benthic communities in the coastal northern Baltic Sea by quantifying three bioturbation metrics (particle mixing intensity, surface sediment reworking and bioturbation depth) across 18 sites ranging from cohesive muddy sediments to non-cohesive coarse sands, while accounting for the complexity of natural communities and habitat characteristics. We identified two distinct patterns of bioturbation; in fine sediments bioturbation rates were highly variable and in coarse sediments bioturbation rates were less variable and characterized by lower maximal values. Using distance-based linear multiple regressions, we found that 75.5% of the variance in bioturbation rates in fine sediment could be explained by key functional groups/species abundance and/or biomass (i.e. biomass of the gallery-diffusors and abundances of biodiffusors, surface modifiers, conveyors and gallery diffusors, respectively). In coarse sediment, 47.8% of the variance in bioturbation rates could be explained by a combination of environmental factors (grain size, organic matter content, buried plant material) and faunal functional groups, although fauna alone explained only 13% of this variance. Bioturbation in fine sediments was therefore more predictable based on the composition of benthic fauna. In coarse sediment, the bioturbation activities of benthic fauna were strongly modified by habitat characteristics (including the presence of buried plant material, sediment organic content and grain size) whereas in fine sediments this was not the case. Our results therefore highlight that variability in spatial patterns of bioturbation is a result of complex relationships between macrofauna community structure, sediment type and other habitat characteristics, likely modifying bioturbation performance of individual fauna.
  • Vetterli, Adrien; Hietanen, Susanna; Leskinen, Elina (2016)
    The diversity and dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) nitrifying communities in the sediments of the eutrophic Gulf of Finland (GoF) were investigated. Using clone libraries of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene fragments and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), we found a low richness of both AOB and AOA. The AOB amoA phylogeny matched that of AOB 16S ribosomal genes from the same samples. AOA communities were characterized by strong spatial variation while AOB communities showed notable temporal patterns. At open sea sites, where transient anoxic conditions prevail, richness of both AOA and AOB was lowest and communities were dominated by organisms with gene signatures unique to the GoF. Given the importance of nitrification as a link between the fixation of nitrogen and its removal from aquatic environments, the low diversity of ammonia-oxidizing microbes across the GoF could be of relevance for ecosystem resilience in the face of rapid global environmental changes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Jäntti, Helena; Jilbert, Tom; Aalto, Sanni L.; Simojoki, Asko; Mangayil, Rahul; Peura, Sari; Rissanen, Antti J. (2022)
    The nitrogen availability, that affects the greenhouse gas emission and the trophic level of lakes, is controlled mainly by microbial processes. We measured in a boreal nitrate and iron rich lake how the rates of potential denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) are affected by degradability of organic matter and availability of aqueous ferrous iron. We also investigated the microbial community by using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing approach, which allows taxonomic analyses and detection of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) containing genes for both nitrate reduction and iron oxidation. The results show that truncated denitrification, leading to release of nitrous oxide, is favored over dinitrogen production in conditions where the degradability of the organic matter is low. DNRA rates were always minor compared to denitrification and appeared to be independent of the degradability of organic carbon. Reduced iron stimulated nitrate reducing processes, although consistently only DNRA. However, the proportion of MAGs containing DNRA genes was low suggesting chemistry driven stimulation by reduced iron. Nevertheless, the metagenomic analyses revealed unique taxa genetically capable of oxidizing iron and reducing nitrate simultaneously. Overall, the results highlight the spatial variability in microbial community and nitrous oxide emissions in boreal lake sediments.