Browsing by Subject "Self-efficacy"

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  • Vainio, Annukka; Pulkka, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka; Varho, Vilja; Tapio, Petri (2020)
    This study explored individuals' engagement in the sustainable energy transition in Finland. Using the attitude-behaviour-context model (Guagnano et al., 1995) and Stern's (2000) typology of environmentally significant behaviours, this study tested the assumption that individuals' engagement in transition is a combination of socio-psychological and contextual (socio-economic) variables and that the active engagement requires individuals to have a future orientation, systemic and self-efficacy, subjective knowledge and a pro-environmental attitude. The survey (N = 1012), representative of the 17-75-yearold Finnish population, was analysed with exploratory factor analysis and linear regression. The socio-psychological variables explained a larger portion of variance than the socio-economic variables in all three types of sustainable energy behaviours. The consideration of future consequences, self-efficacy and knowledge were positively associated with all three types of sustainable energy behaviours. Systemic efficacy was positively associated with and the consideration of immediate consequences was negatively associated with private-sphere environmentalism. The results suggest that individuals' consideration of the immediate and distant future should be included in the socio-psychological models of sustainable behaviours. The results also suggest that policymakers need to focus on strengthening citizens' efficacy beliefs, future orientation and knowledge. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Vornanen, Marleena; Konttinen, Hanna; Peltonen, Markku; Haukkala, Ari (2021)
    Background Perceived disease risk may reflect actual risk indicators and/or motivation to change lifestyle. Yet, few longitudinal studies have assessed how perceived risk relates to risk indicators among different disease risk groups. We examined in a 5-year follow-up, whether perceived risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease predicted physical activity, body mass index (BMI kg/m(2)), and blood glucose level, or the reverse. We examined further whether perceived risk, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs together predicted changes in these risk indicators. Method Participants were high diabetes risk participants (N = 432) and low/moderate-risk participants (N = 477) from the national FINRISK 2002 study who were followed up in 2007. Both study phases included questionnaires and health examinations with individual feedback letters. Data were analyzed using gender- and age-adjusted structural equation models. Results In cross-lagged autoregressive models, perceived risks were not found to predict 5-year changes in physical activity, BMI, or 2-h glucose. In contrast, higher BMI and 2-h glucose predicted 5-year increases in perceived risks (beta-values 0.07-0.15,P-values <0.001-0.138). These associations were similar among high- and low/moderate-risk samples. In further structural equation models, higher self-efficacy predicted increased physical activity among both samples (beta-values 0.10-0.16,P-values 0.005-0.034). Higher outcome beliefs predicted lower BMI among the low/moderate-risk sample (beta-values - 0.04 to - 0.05,P-values 0.008-0.011). Conclusion Perceived risk of chronic disease rather follows risk indicators than predicts long-term lifestyle changes. To promote sustained lifestyle changes, future intervention studies need to examine the best ways to combine risk feedback with efficient behavior change techniques.
  • Joki, Anu Maarit Hannele; Mäkelä, Johanna; Konttinen, Hanna; Fogelholm, Mikael (2020)
    BackgroundDespite the current obesogenic environment creating challenges weight management, some people succeed in maintaining a normal weight. This study explored lifelong weight management from the life course perspective. We aimed to gain an insight into the issues related to the pathways of individuals of normal weight from childhood to adulthood, and how their experiences and social connections influence their weight management.MethodsWe approached the research topic using qualitative methods. Two age groups (30-45; 55-70years, men and women), forming a total of 39 individuals, participated in theme interviews. Thematic analysis resulted in two main categories, namely (1) adoption of lifestyle and (2) maintenance of lifestyle.ResultsChildhood family played a central role in the formation of lifestyle: food-upbringing created the basis for the interviewees' current diet, and their lives had always been characterized by an active lifestyle. High perceived self-efficacy was vital in weight management. The interviewees were confident about their routines and trusted their abilities to recognize and handle situations that threatened their lifestyles. They possessed skills for adjusting their lifestyle to altered environments, and showed a high level of coping self-efficacy. The interviewees also highlighted the importance of habits for weight management. They had improved their adopted lifestyle through constant learning. New routines had become more internalized through active repetition, finally turning into habitual practices, which simplified weight management.ConclusionsBased on our interviews, we conclude that childhood was important in the development of the health-promoting lifestyle of our interviewees. However, weight management was described as a journey over the life course, and success also encouraged skills of identifying risks and adjusting actions to cope with challenging situations.
  • Joki, Anu; Mäkelä, Johanna; Konttinen, Hanna; Fogelholm, Mikael (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Despite the current obesogenic environment creating challenges weight management, some people succeed in maintaining a normal weight. This study explored lifelong weight management from the life course perspective. We aimed to gain an insight into the issues related to the pathways of individuals of normal weight from childhood to adulthood, and how their experiences and social connections influence their weight management. Methods We approached the research topic using qualitative methods. Two age groups (30–45; 55–70 years, men and women), forming a total of 39 individuals, participated in theme interviews. Thematic analysis resulted in two main categories, namely (1) adoption of lifestyle and (2) maintenance of lifestyle. Results Childhood family played a central role in the formation of lifestyle: food-upbringing created the basis for the interviewees’ current diet, and their lives had always been characterized by an active lifestyle. High perceived self-efficacy was vital in weight management. The interviewees were confident about their routines and trusted their abilities to recognize and handle situations that threatened their lifestyles. They possessed skills for adjusting their lifestyle to altered environments, and showed a high level of coping self-efficacy. The interviewees also highlighted the importance of habits for weight management. They had improved their adopted lifestyle through constant learning. New routines had become more internalized through active repetition, finally turning into habitual practices, which simplified weight management. Conclusions Based on our interviews, we conclude that childhood was important in the development of the health-promoting lifestyle of our interviewees. However, weight management was described as a journey over the life course, and success also encouraged skills of identifying risks and adjusting actions to cope with challenging situations.
  • Grabau, Larry J.; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle (2021)
    Finland’s educational prowess, though tempered by recent international assessments, has remained intact. This report focused on lessons that could be learned regarding secondary-level science education from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, sciencefocused assessment. That PISA iteration included not only science literacy but also students’ science dispositions (epistemology, enjoyment, interest, and self-efficacy) and the schools’ science climate measures (disciplinary climate and teaching support). Due to the hierarchical nature of the PISA data, multilevel models were employed in this Finnish study, involving 5582 students from 167 schools. Science dispositions (as outcome measures) were differently associated with teaching support and disciplinary climate (epistemology with neither; enjoyment and interest, with both). Science literacy (as an outcome measure) was associated with all four science dispositions, whether modeled with each science disposition separately or all four simultaneously. Science literacy was also associated with the disciplinary climate in science classes for all tested models. We concluded that, in the Finnish context, science dispositions and the disciplinary climate were predictive of science literacy. Furthermore, we presented evidence from the literature indicating that these conclusions may well extend to other international contexts.
  • Nuutila, Katariina; Tapola, Anna; Tuominen, Heta; Molnár, Gyöngyvér; Niemivirta, Markku (2021)
    This study examined how students' interest, self-efficacy, and perceived difficulty change during a task, how those changes relate to each other, and how they predict performance. Sixth-graders (N = 1024) rated their interest, self-efficacy, and perceived difficulty repeatedly during a dynamic problem-solving task. Results from the estimated non-linear and piecewise latent growth curve models showed interest and self-efficacy to decrease, and perceived difficulty first to increase, and then to decrease, over time. The levels of and changes in interest and self-efficacy correlated positively with each other, but negatively with perceived difficulty. Task performance was positively predicted by initial interest and less negative change in self-efficacy, and negatively by initial perceived difficulty and steeper increase in it. The results suggest perceived difficulty to have a distinctive role in the dynamics of task-specific motivation, and on-task changes to be relatively independent of more general motivation and competence.