Browsing by Subject "Serology"

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  • Reusken, Chantal; Boonstra, Marrit; Rugebregt, Sharona; Scherbeijn, Sandra; Chandler, Felicity; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Vapalahti, Olli; Koopmans, Marion; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H. (2019)
    Background: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infectious disease endemic to large parts of Europe and Asia. Diagnosing TBE often relies on the detection of TBEV-specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as viral genome is mostly not detectable once neurological symptoms occur. Objectives: We evaluated the performance of TBEV IgM and IgG ELISAs in both serum and CSF of confirmed TBEV patients and discuss the role of (CSF) serology in TBEV diagnostics. Study design: For the assay evaluation we collected specimen from confirmed TBEV patients. Assay specificity was assessed using sera from patients with a related flavivirus infection or other acute infection. A selected ELISA assay was used to analyze TBEV-specific antibodies in CSF and to evaluate the use in confirming TBE diagnosis. Results: In this study the overall sensitivity of the IgM TBEV ELISAs was acceptable (94-100 %). Four out of five IgM ELISA's demonstrated an excellent overall specificity from 94-100% whereas a low overall specificity was observed for the IgG TBEV ELISAs (30-71%). Intrathecal antibody production against TBEV was demonstrated in a subset of TBE patients. Conclusions: In four out of five ELISAs, IgM testing in serum and CSF of TBE patients is specific and confirmative. The lack of IgG specificity in all ELISAs emphasizes the need of confirmatory testing by virus neutralisation, depending on the patient's background and the geographic location of exposure to TBEV. A CSF-serum IgG antibody index can support the diagnosis specifically in chronic disease or once IgM has disappeared.
  • Rouhiainen, Meri; Pietikäinen, Annukka; Kortela, Elisa; Kanerva, Mari J.; Oksi, Jarmo; Hytönen, Jukka (2021)
    The cut-off values used in C6 peptide-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA), a widely used test in Lyme borreliosis (LB) serology, have not been thoroughly analysed. The objective of the study was to examine the performance of the C6 EIA, and to determine optimal cut-off values for the test. The analysed data contained results of 1368 serum samples. C6 EIA index values were compared statistically with the immunoblot (IB) test results. The identified cut-off values were further tested in a well-defined LB patient cohort. Cut-off value 1.6 appeared to be optimal when C6 EIA was used as a stand-alone test. When using C6 EIA as the first-tier test, the optimal cut-off values were 0.9 and 2.4 for negative and positive results. When C6 EIA was used as a second-tier test, samples yielding C6 index values >= 3.0 could be considered positive. The identified cut-off values had also a high sensitivity to identify seropositivity among definite LB patients. The identified cut-off values refine the role of C6 EIA in LB serology. Importantly, the use of C6 EIA leads to a reduction in the number of samples that need to be analysed using an IB, thus also reducing the costs. Two alternative workflows for LB serology including the C6 EIA are suggested.
  • Blazevic, Vesna; Malm, Maria; Honkanen, Hanna; Knip, Mikael; Hyoty, Heikki; Vesikari, Timo (2016)
    The burden of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis is substantial in young children. Maternal antibodies are thought to protect a child from NoV infection in early infancy but subsequent development of NoV-specific protective immunity in children is still largely unexplored. We have determined NoV-specific antibody seroconversion to GII.4 virus-like particles as an indicator of NoV infection in two children prospectively followed from birth to eight years of age. Blocking activity and affinity maturation of maternal and serum IgG antibodies were evaluated. Our results show that multiple infections occur in children up to eight years of age. The titer, blocking activity and avidity of maternal antibodies determined susceptibility of an infant to NoV infection. NoV GII.4-specific antibodies with high blocking potential and avidity were developed at two to three years of age and were retained throughout the follow-up. Subsequent NoV infections may have contributed to the duration of protective NoV-specific immune responses that lasted for several years. This study adds to current understanding of the duration of passive protection by maternal antibodies and the duration and quality of acquired immunity following primary and subsequent NoV infections in infants and young children, who are the main target group for NoV vaccine development. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of Institut Pasteur.
  • Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; London, Laura; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Kantala, Tuija; Laamanen, Ilona; Bistrom, Mia; Maunula, Leena; Gadd, Tuija (2020)
    The northern European wild boar population has increased during the last decade. Highest wild boar numbers in Finland have been reported in the southeastern part near the Russian border. Wild boars may be infected with several human and animal pathogens. In this study, we investigated the presence of important foodborne pathogens in wild boars hunted in 2016 in Finland using serology, PCR and culturing. Seroprevalence of Salmonella (38%) and Yersinia (56%) infections was high in wild boars. Antibodies to hepatitis E virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella were found in 18%, 9% and 9% of the wild boars, respectively. Trichinella antibodies were detected in 1% of the animals. We recorded no differences in the seroprevalence between males and females. However, Yersinia and T. gondii antibodies were detected significantly more often in adults than in young individuals. Listeria monocytogenes (48%) and stx-positive Escherichia coli (33%) determinants were frequently detected in the visceral organs (spleen and kidneys) by PCR. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 and L. monocytogenes 2a and 4b were identified by culturing from the PCR-positive samples. Brucella suis biovar 2 was isolated from visceral organs. No African swine fever, classical swine fever or Aujeszky's disease were detected in the wild boars. Our study shows that wild boars are important reservoirs of foodborne pathogens.
  • Tonteri, Elina; Jokelainen, Pikka; Matala, Juho; Pusenius, Jyrki; Vapalahti, Olli (2016)
    Background: The incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans has increased in Finland, and the disease has emerged in new foci. These foci have been investigated to determine the circulating virus subtype, the tick host species and the ecological parameters, but countrywide epidemiological information on the distribution of TBEV has been limited. Methods: In this study, we screened sera from hunter-harvested wild cervids for the presence of antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) with a hemagglutination inhibition test. The positive results were confirmed by a neutralisation assay. Results: Nine (0.74 %) of 1213 moose, one (0.74 %) of 135 white-tailed deer, and none of the 17 roe deer were found seropositive for TBEV. A close geographical congruence between seropositive cervids and recently reported human TBE cases was observed: nine of the ten seropositive animals were from known endemic areas. Conclusions: Our results confirm the local circulation of TBEV in several known endemic areas. One seropositive moose had been shot in an area where human TBE cases have not been reported, suggesting a possible new focus. Moose appear to be a useful sentinel animal for the presence of TBEV in the taiga region.
  • Rantsi, T.; Joki-Korpela, P.; Hokynar, K.; Kalliala, I.; Öhman, H.; Surcel, H-M.; Paavonen, J.; Tiitinen, A.; Puolakkainen, M. (2018)
    Persistent genital chlamydial infection may lead to tubal factor infertility (TFI). Chlamydia trachomatis TroA and HtrA are proteins expressed during persistent chlamydial infection in vitro. We studied serum IgG antibody response against these proteins by EIA in women with TFI and in subfertile women without tubal pathology. Altogether, 22 of 258 subfertile women (8.5%) had TFI which was unilateral in 17 cases and bilateral in 5 cases. Overall, 55 (21.3%) of the 258 women had TroA and 39 (15.1%) had HtrA antibodies. Seropositivity to TroA and HtrA was more common among women with TFI than women with other causes for subfertility (45.5 vs. 19.1%, p = 0.004 for TroA; 36.4 vs. 13.1%, p = 0.004 for HtrA). Mean absorbance values and the prevalence of TroA and HtrA antibodies increased with increasing severity of TFI. On the basis of our results, TroA and HtrA serology has the potential to be further developed to a specific biomarker for C. trachomatis-related TFI.
  • Nokireki, T.; Laine, T.; London, L.; Ikonen, N.; Huovilainen, A. (2013)
    Background: Swine influenza is an infectious acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by influenza A virus. We investigated the time of entry of swine influenza into the Finnish pig population. We also describe the molecular detection of two types of influenza A (H1N1) viruses in porcine samples submitted in 2009 and 2010. This retrospective study was based on three categories of samples: blood samples collected for disease monitoring from pigs at major slaughterhouses from 2007 to 2009; blood samples from pigs in farms with a special health status taken in 2008 and 2009; and diagnostic blood samples from pigs in farms with clinical signs of respiratory disease in 2008 and 2009. The blood samples were tested for influenza A antibodies with an antibody ELISA. Positive samples were further analyzed for H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Diagnostic samples for virus detection were subjected to influenza A M-gene-specific real-time RT-PCR and to pandemic influenza A H1N1-specific real-time RT-PCR. Positive samples were further analyzed with RT-PCRs designed for this purpose, and the PCR products were sequenced and sequences analyzed phylogenetically. Results: In the blood samples from pigs in special health class farms producing replacement animals and in diagnostic blood samples, the first serologically positive samples originated from the period July–August 2008. In samples collected for disease monitoring, < 0.1%, 0% and 16% were positive for antibodies against influenza A H1N1 in the HI test in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. Swine influenza A virus of avian-like H1N1 was first detected in diagnostic samples in February 2009. In 2009 and 2010, the avian-like H1N1 virus was detected on 12 and two farms, respectively. The pandemic H1N1 virus (A(H1N1) pdm09) was detected on one pig farm in 2009 and on two farms in 2010. Conclusions: Based on our study, swine influenza of avian-like H1N1 virus was introduced into the Finnish pig population in 2008 and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. The source of avian-like H1N1 infection could not be determined. Cases of pandemic H1N1 in pigs coincided with the period when the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was spread in humans in Finland.
  • Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kart; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka (2017)
    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results: Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Conclusions: Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.
  • Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Conclusions Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.
  • Laforet, Celine Kaae; Deksne, Gunita; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jokelainen, Pikka; Johansen, Maria Vang; Lassen, Brian (2019)
    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite of worldwide importance. In this study, we estimated T. gondii seroprevalence in extensively farmed wild boars in Denmark, where little is known about T. gondii in animal hosts. Our study focused on wild boars because they are considered good indicator species for the presence of T. gondii, and wild boar meat is used for human consumption. Serum samples from 101 wild boars collected in 2016-2018 from five different locations from the continental part of Denmark, Jutland, were screened for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The samples were analysed using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples from 28 (27.7%) of the 101 wild boars tested positive with the ELISA. The odds for a wild boar to test seropositive were higher if it was sampled during the hunting season 2017-2018 than during 2016-2017 and if it was reported to be at least 1year old than if it was younger (logistic regression model with the two variables: odds ratios 17.5 and 3.9, respectively). A substantial proportion of the investigated extensively farmed wild boars had been exposed to T. gondii. Moreover, the parasite appeared widespread, at least in the continental part of Denmark, Jutland, as seropositive wild boars were found from all five sampled locations. Assuming seropositivity indicates hosting viable parasites, consumption of undercooked wild boar meat from Denmark is a potential source of T. gondii infections to other hosts, including humans.
  • Laforet, Celine K; Deksne, Gunita; Petersen, Heidi H; Jokelainen, Pikka; Johansen, Maria V; Lassen, Brian (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite of worldwide importance. In this study, we estimated T. gondii seroprevalence in extensively farmed wild boars in Denmark, where little is known about T. gondii in animal hosts. Our study focused on wild boars because they are considered good indicator species for the presence of T. gondii, and wild boar meat is used for human consumption. Serum samples from 101 wild boars collected in 2016–2018 from five different locations from the continental part of Denmark, Jutland, were screened for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The samples were analysed using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples from 28 (27.7%) of the 101 wild boars tested positive with the ELISA. The odds for a wild boar to test seropositive were higher if it was sampled during the hunting season 2017–2018 than during 2016–2017 and if it was reported to be at least 1 year old than if it was younger (logistic regression model with the two variables: odds ratios 17.5 and 3.9, respectively). A substantial proportion of the investigated extensively farmed wild boars had been exposed to T. gondii. Moreover, the parasite appeared widespread, at least in the continental part of Denmark, Jutland, as seropositive wild boars were found from all five sampled locations. Assuming seropositivity indicates hosting viable parasites, consumption of undercooked wild boar meat from Denmark is a potential source of T. gondii infections to other hosts, including humans.