Browsing by Subject "Serum amyloid A"

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  • Seppä-Lassila, Leena; Oksanen, Jarkko; Herva, Tuomas; Dorbek-Kolin, Elisabeth; Kosunen, Heli; Parviainen, Laura; Soveri, Timo; Orro, Toomas (2018)
    Efficient dairy-beef production relies on good quality of purchased calves, defined by breed, health, and growth characteristics. Several management factors, such as commingling of calves and large group size, predispose calves to diseases. Acute phase proteins are sensitive detectors of calf diseases. We studied the associations between group size, serum acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin G (IgG), calf morbidity and growth of dairy-beef calves in a random field trial in a calf-rearing unit in Finland. The randomized trial was carried out at a calf rearing unit, where approximately 80 dairy or crossbred calves were allocated either into a single group of 40 calves or into four groups of 10 on arrival at the calf-rearing unit (at age 24.1 SD +/- 9.2 days). The study was carried out on 6 arrival batches: 476 calves. Calves were clinically examined and blood sampled on arrival (day 0), and haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), albumin and IgG were determined. Calves were weighed on arrival (day 0, average age 24.1 days), at the end of the milk feed period (day 49), at approximately 200 days of age and at slaughter (carcass weight) at 15-18 months of age. During the rearing calves were observed by the farm workers and treated, if necessary, according to pre-determined instructions of the veterinary surgeon. All NSAID and antimicrobial treatments were recorded and used as morbidity indicators in statistical analysis. There were no differences in the numbers of antimicrobial treatments or growth among the groups. The majority (84.1%) of antimicrobial treatments were used against respiratory tract infections. Higher concentrations of albumin and IgG on arrival extended the time before the first and the second antimicrobial treatments. Complex relationships between group size, morbidity, concentrations of serum acute phase proteins and IgG at arrival, and growth of calves were explored. Group size of 10 calves did not protect calves from respiratory tract infections, when the small groups were sharing the air space with a large group. An increased SAA concentration on arrival was associated with poorer average daily gain at two rearing periods and with lower carcass weight at slaughter. Serum proteins could be valuable health indicators for purchased calves because they have numerous and variable associations with health and growth. The mechanisms that connect increased SAA concentration and poorer average daily gain over the long term remain unclear.
  • Niine, Tarmo; Peetsalu, Kristel; Nieminen, Mauri; Oksanen, Antti; Soveri, Timo; Orro, Toomas (2017)
    This longitudinal observational study was conducted to investigate the spontaneous effect of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections on acute phase response (APR) in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Finnish Lapland. Serum (n = 609) and faecal samples (n = 366) were collected from 54 reindeer calves aged zero to 33 days. The samples were analysed for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, acute phase proteins (APP) and gamma-globulins. Linear regression models were used to investigate associations of early Giardia infection (before 12 days of life) with the response of APPs and acquiring of passive immunity. Giardia was detected in 100% and Cryptosporidium in 23% of calves. There was a negative association between early Giardia infection and gamma-globulin concentrations (p = 0.032) and a positive association with serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations (p = 0.042). The results suggest a protective effect of colostrum against Giardia infection and that early infection may induce activation of APR.
  • Seppä-Lassila, Leena; Eerola, Ulla; Orro, Toomas; Härtel, Heidi; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Soveri, Timo (2017)
    Healthy, thriving calves are essential for beef calf production. We studied the health status and factors associated with the growth of beef calves in six cow-calf herds during the first month of the calves’ lives and at weaning age (200 days). The six herds were visited three times, when calves were approximately 3 days, 16 days and 30 days of age. On each visit calves (n=37) were clinically examined, weighed or measured, blood samples were collected, faecal samples obtained and deep nasopharyngeal swabs were taken. Each blood sample was analysed for acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid-A, fibrinogen), total proteins and albumin, the faecal sample for intestinal tract pathogens (rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella, oocysts of Eimeria coccidia and Cryptosporidium, and nematode eggs), and the nasopharyngeal swab for respiratory tract pathogens (bovine coronavirus (BCV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bacteria and mycoplasma). Clinical diagnosis of respiratory tract disease, diarrhoea or umbilical disease was set at 15.0% for all the three consecutive examinations combined (n=107), but only few pathogens were detected from the samples. The increased levels of acute phase proteins were neither associated with any of the diseases nor with the pathogens. Random intercept linear models were used to explore factors affecting early (3–30 days) and long-term (3–200 days) growth, showing that calves with elevated serum amyloid-A concentrations at the age of 16 days had lower long-term growth. Increased albumin concentration at 30 days of age and higher parity of the dam increased early-term growth. The lack of association between a disease and the acute phase protein may stem from the low disease prevalence in the beef calves examined. The measurement of acute phase proteins of a young calf can help identify animals with possible future growth deficiencies, although the mechanisms through which the association between acute phase proteins and growth has yet to be explained. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
  • Hadrup, Niels; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Berthing, Trine; Wolff, Henrik; Bengtson, Stefan; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall; Hojgaard, Casper; Winther, Jakob Rahr; Willemoes, Martin; Wedin, Irene; Nuopponen, Markus; Alenius, Harri; Norppa, Hannu; Wallin, Hakan; Vogel, Ulla (2019)
    We studied if the pulmonary and systemic toxicity of nanofibrillated celluloses can be reduced by carboxylation. Nanofibrillated celluloses administered at 6 or 18 mu g to mice by intratracheal instillation were: 1) FINE NFC, 2-20 mu m in length, 2-15 nm in width, 2) AS (-COOH), carboxylated, 0.5-10 mu m in length, 4-10 nm in width, containing the biocide BIM MC4901 and 3) BIOCID FINE NFC: as (1) but containing BIM MC4901. FINE NFC administration increased neutrophil influx in BAL and induced SAA3 in plasma. AS (-COOH) produced lower neutrophil influx and systemic SAA3 levels than FINE NFC. Results obtained with BIOCID FINE NFC suggested that BIM MC4901 biocide did not explain the lowered response. Increased DNA damage levels were observed across materials, doses and time points. In conclusion, carboxylation of nanofibrillated cellulose was associated with reduced pulmonary and systemic toxicity, suggesting involvement of OH groups in the inflammatory and acute phase responses.
  • Huuska, Nora; Netti, Eliisa; Tulamo, Riikka; Lehti, Satu; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Kovanen, Petri T.; Niemelä, Mika (2021)
    Saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) rupture leads to a disabling subarachnoid hemorrhage. Chronic inflammation and lipid accumulation in the sIA wall contribute to wall degenerative remodeling that precedes its rupture. A better understanding of the pathobiological process is essential for improved future treatment of patients carrying sIAs. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein produced in response to acute and chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Here, we studied the presence and the potential role of SAA in 36 intraoperatively resected sIAs (16 unruptured and 20 ruptured), that had previously been studied by histology and immunohistochemistry. SAA was present in all sIAs, but the extent of immunopositivity varied greatly. SAA immunopositivity correlated with wall degeneration (p=0.028) and rupture (p=0.004), with numbers of CD163-positive and CD68-positive macrophages and CD3-positive T lymphocytes (all p
  • Viitanen, Sanna Johanna; Lappalainen, Anu Katriina; Christensen, M. B.; Sankari, Satu Marja; Rajamäki, Minna (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are sensitive markers of inflammation, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) recently has been shown to be a useful diagnostic marker in dogs with bacterial pneumonia (BP). In humans with community-acquired pneumonia, APPs also have great utility as follow-up markers aiding in the assessment of treatment response. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the applicability of APPs as markers of treatment response in dogs with BP. ANIMALS: Nineteen dogs diagnosed with BP and 64 healthy dogs. METHODS: The study was conducted as a prospective longitudinal observational study. Serum CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA), and haptoglobin concentrations were followed during a natural course of BP. Normalization of serum CRP was used to guide the duration of antibiotic treatment (treatment was stopped 5-7 days after CRP normalized) in 8 of 17 dogs surviving to discharge; 9 of 17 dogs were treated according to conventional recommendations. RESULTS: All measured APPs initially were significantly increased, but the magnitude of increase was not correlated to disease severity. C-reactive protein and SAA concentrations decreased rapidly after initiation of antimicrobial treatment. When normalization of serum CRP was used to guide the duration of antibiotic treatment, treatment duration was significantly (P = .015) decreased without increasing the number of relapses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Serum CRP and SAA reflected the recovery process well and therefore may be used as markers of treatment response. According to the results, the normalization of serum CRP may be used to guide the duration of antibiotic treatment in dogs with BP.