Browsing by Subject "Sex difference"

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  • Palmu, Samuel; Kuneinen, Susanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Korhonen, Päivi E. (2021)
    Background and aims: Current guidelines on prediabetes and diabetes (T2D) recommend to regularly perform an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on subjects at risk of T2D. However, it is not known why women tend to have relatively higher 2-h post-load plasma (2hPG) glucose concentrations during OGTT than men. The aim of the present study is to investigate if there are sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2hPG concentrations in relation to body size in apparently healthy non-diabetic subjects with normal glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that sex differences in glucose tolerance are physiological and related to different body surface area (BSA) in men and women. Methods and results: A 2-h 75 g OGTT was performed on 2010 subjects aged 45-70 years. Their BSA was calculated using the Mosteller formula. Men and women were separately divided into five BSA levels. Within the normal 2hPG range, women had higher mean 2hPG concentrations during the OGTT than men in all BSA levels estimated by sex-standardized BSA (p for linearity < 0.001). BSA adjusted for age, waist circumference, leisure-time physical activity, and smoking, showed an inverse association with 2hPG concentration in both sexes. Mean FPG concentrations were higher in men than in women. Conclusions: Body size has a negative inverse association with 2hPG concentration in an OGTT even within a physiological plasma glucose range. This may cause underestimation of glucose disorders in individuals with larger BSA and overestimation in individuals with smaller BSA when using an OGTT. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Lithovius, Raija; Toppila, Iiro; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Makinen, Ville-Petteri; FinnDiane Study Grp (2017)
    Aims/hypothesis Previously, we proposed that data-driven metabolic subtypes predict mortality in type 1 diabetes. Here, we analysed new clinical endpoints and revisited the subtypes after 7 years of additional follow-up. Methods Finnish individuals with type 1 diabetes (2059 men and 1924 women, insulin treatment before 35 years of age) were recruited by the national multicentre FinnDiane Study Group. The participants were assigned one of six metabolic subtypes according to a previously published self-organising map from 2008. Subtype-specific all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates in the FinnDiane cohort were compared with registry data from the entire Finnish population. The rates of incident diabetic kidney disease and cardiovascular endpoints were estimated based on hospital records. Results The advanced kidney disease subtype was associated with the highest incidence of kidney disease progression (67.5% per decade, p <0.001), ischaemic heart disease (26.4% per decade, p <0.001) and all-cause mortality (41.5% per decade, p <0.001). Across all subtypes, mortality rates were lower in women compared with men, but standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were higher in women. SMRs were indistinguishable between the original study period (19942007) and the new period (2008-2014). The metabolic syndrome subtype predicted cardiovascular deaths (SMR 11.0 for men, SMR 23.4 for women, p <0.001), and women with the high HDL-cholesterol subtype were also at high cardiovascular risk (SMR 16.3, p <0.001). Men with the low-cholesterol or good glycaemic control subtype showed no excess mortality. Conclusions/interpretation Data-driven multivariable metabolic subtypes predicted the divergence of complication burden across multiple clinical endpoints simultaneously. In particular, men with the metabolic syndrome and women with high HDL-cholesterol should be recognised as important subgroups in interventional studies and public health guidelines on type 1 diabetes.
  • Penttilä, Tero; Lehto, Mika; Niiranen, Jussi; Mehtälä, Juha; Khanfir, Houssem; Lassila, Riitta; Raatikainen, Pekka (2019)
    Females with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been suggested to carry a higher risk for thromboembolic events than males. We compared the residual risk of stroke, bleeding events, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among female and male AF patients taking warfarin. Data from several nationwide registries and laboratory databases were linked with the civil registration number of the patients. A total of 54568 patients with data on the quality of warfarin treatment (time in therapeutic range) 60days prior to the events were included (TTR60). Gender differences in the endpoints were reported for the whole population, pre-specified age groups, and different TTR60 groups. During the 3.21.6years follow-up, there were no differences in the adjusted risk of stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.911.03, P=0.304] between the genders. Cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.780.88, P <0.001) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.750.83, P <0.001) were lower in women when compared with men. There were no differences in the risk of stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality between the genders in the TTR60 categories except for those with TTR60 <50%. Bleeding events were less frequent in females (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.490.56, P <0.001). There were no differences in the risk of stroke between female and male AF patients taking warfarin. Cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and risk of bleeding events were lower in females. Hence, female gender was not a risk marker for adverse outcomes in AF patients with proper warfarin therapy.
  • Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Ljungberg, Börje; Hemminki, Otto (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background The dominant risk factor for urinary bladder cancer has been cigarette smoking, but, as smoking prevalence is decreasing in many populations, other risk factors may become uncovered. Such new risk factors could be responsible for halting the declining incidence of bladder cancer. We hypothesize that snuff use by Swedish men may increase the rate for bladder cancer, as snuff contains carcinogenic nitrosamines. Methods We carried out an ecological study by comparing incidence trends in lung and bladder cancers between Danish, Finnish and Swedish men in order to test if the Swedish bladder cancer rate deviates from the Danish and Finnish ones. We used the NORDCAN database for cancer data from 1960 through 2016 to test the hypothesis. Results In the three countries, the incidence of lung cancer started to decrease after a peak incidence, and this was later followed by declining incidence in bladder cancer in Denmark from 1990 to 2016 by 14.3%, in Finland by 8.3% but not in Sweden (the decline of 1.4% was not significant). The difference in trends can be partly explained by the increasing incidence in Swedish men aged 70 or more years. Sweden differs from the two other countries by low male smoking prevalence but increasing use of snuff recorded by various surveys. Conclusion The stable bladder cancer trend for Swedish men was opposite to the declining trends in Denmark, Finland and globally. We suggest that this unusual finding may be related to the increasing use of snuff by Swedish men. Average users of snuff are exposed to at least 3 times higher levels of carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines than a smoker of one daily pack of cigarettes.
  • Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Ljungberg, Börje; Hemminki, Otto (2021)
    BackgroundThe dominant risk factor for urinary bladder cancer has been cigarette smoking, but, as smoking prevalence is decreasing in many populations, other risk factors may become uncovered. Such new risk factors could be responsible for halting the declining incidence of bladder cancer. We hypothesize that snuff use by Swedish men may increase the rate for bladder cancer, as snuff contains carcinogenic nitrosamines.MethodsWe carried out an ecological study by comparing incidence trends in lung and bladder cancers between Danish, Finnish and Swedish men in order to test if the Swedish bladder cancer rate deviates from the Danish and Finnish ones. We used the NORDCAN database for cancer data from 1960 through 2016 to test the hypothesis.ResultsIn the three countries, the incidence of lung cancer started to decrease after a peak incidence, and this was later followed by declining incidence in bladder cancer in Denmark from 1990 to 2016 by 14.3%, in Finland by 8.3% but not in Sweden (the decline of 1.4% was not significant). The difference in trends can be partly explained by the increasing incidence in Swedish men aged 70 or more years. Sweden differs from the two other countries by low male smoking prevalence but increasing use of snuff recorded by various surveys.ConclusionThe stable bladder cancer trend for Swedish men was opposite to the declining trends in Denmark, Finland and globally. We suggest that this unusual finding may be related to the increasing use of snuff by Swedish men. Average users of snuff are exposed to at least 3 times higher levels of carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines than a smoker of one daily pack of cigarettes.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Chen, Tianhui; Foersti, Asta; Hemminki, Otto; Hemminki, Kari (2021)
    Background: Second primary cancers (SPCs) are increasing due to improving survival in first primary cancers. Previous studies on SPCs in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have focused on treatment and other risk factors, but data of RCC as an SPC are scarce. Objective: In this study, we want to elucidate the risk for any SPC after RCC, and in reverse order, for RCC as an SPC after any cancer. We additionally consider how family histories influence the risks. Design, setting, and participants: Patient data were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1990 through 2015, and family data were obtained from the Multigeneration Register. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We employed standardized incidence ratios to estimate bidirectional relative risks of subsequent cancer associated with RCC. Results and limitations: We identified 17 587 RCCs (60% in male patients). The highest increases for SPCs were observed for nervous system hemangioblastoma (HB; 26.8), adrenal (12.09) tumors, and renal pelvic cancer (6.32). In the reverse order, RCC as an SPC, nervous system HB (17.01), and adrenal tumors (15.34) were associated with the highest risks. Risks for many other sites (12 sites and subsites) were increased bidirectionally. For women, a total of seven sites and subsites were increased bidirectionally, and many were shared with men. The only significant sex difference in SPCs was the higher lung cancer risk in women (2.41) than in men (1.28). Patients with a family history of HBs or of prostate, colorectal and lung cancers showed high risks of these cancers as SPCs after RCC. Family history accounted for 30% of prostate cancers after RCC. Conclusions: The bidirectional study design was able to suggest risk factors for SPCs and offered a clinical take-home message urging to consider strategies for early detection and prevention of SPCs. Readily available information on lifestyle (eg, smoking) and family history (eg, prostate cancer) may reveal targets for risk reduction with prognostic benefits. Patient summary: Close to 10% of kidney cancer patients develop another cancer. The cause for these other cancers may not depend on kidney cancer. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association of Urology.
  • IMAGEN Consortium; Frere, Pauline Bezivin; Vetter, Nora C.; Artiges, Eric; Penttilä, Jani; Lemaitre, Herve (2020)
    Though adolescence is a time of emerging sex differences in emotions, sex-related differences in the anatomy of the maturing brain has been under-explored over this period. The aim of this study was to investigate whether puberty and sexual differentiation in brain maturation could explain emotional differences between girls and boys during adolescence. We adapted a dedicated longitudinal pipeline to process structural and diffusion images from 335 typically developing adolescents between 14 and 16 years. We used voxel-based and Regions of Interest approaches to explore sex and puberty effects on brain and behavioral changes during adolescence. Sexual differences in brain maturation were characterized by amygdala and hippocampal volume increase in boys and decrease in girls. These changes were mediating the sexual differences in positive emotional regulation as illustrated by positive attributes increase in boys and decrease in girls. Moreover, the differential maturation rates between the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex highlighted the delayed maturation in boys compared to girls. This is the first study to show the sex effects on the differential cortico/subcortical maturation rates and the interaction between sex and puberty in the limbic system maturation related to positive attributes, reported as being protective from emotional disorders.