Browsing by Subject "Sleep"

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  • Tan, Xiao; van Egmond, Lieve; Partinen, Markku; Lange, Tanja; Benedict, Christian (2019)
    Sleep and circadian disruptions are frequently observed in patients across hospital wards. This is alarming, since impaired nocturnal sleep and disruption of a normal circadian rhythm can compromise health and disturb processes involved in recovery from illness (eg, immune functions). With this in mind, the present narrative review discusses how patient characteristics (sleep disorders, anxiety, stress, chronotype, and disease), hospital routines (pain management, timing of medication, nocturnal vital sign monitoring, and physical inactivity), and hospital environment (light and noise) may all contribute to sleep disturbances and circadian misalignment in patients. We also propose hospital-based strategies that may help reduce sleep and circadian disruptions in patients admitted to the hospital. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Karppinen, Juuso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Unihäiriöt ovat lapsilla yleisiä. Yleisimpiä unihäiriöitä lapsilla ovat nukahtamisen vaikeudet, liian lyhyt yöuni ja liian aikainen herääminen. ADHD-lapsipotilailla unihäiriöitä on kantaväestöä enemmän. ADHD eli aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavaisuuden häiriö on yksi yleisimmistä lastenpsykiatrisista häiriöistä. Unihäiriö ADHD-potilaalla voi pahentaa oireilua ja toisaalta ADHD voi pahentaa unihäiriötä. Unta voidaan lapsilla tutkia subjektiivisilla keinoilla, kuten kyselyillä tai objektiivisilla mittauksilla, esimerkiksi unipolygrafian avulla. Sekä objektiivisilla että subjektiivisillä menetelmillä mitattuna ADHD-lasten uni eroaa terveistä. Unihäiriöitä voidaan diagnosoida ADHD-lapsipotilailla haastattelulla, unipäiväkirjoilla, unikyselyillä, unipolygrafialla ja aktigrafialla. Unihäiriöiden hoidon ydin on unenhuollolliset menetelmät. Näitä voidaan täydentää tarvittaessa lääkityksellä asiantuntevan lääkärin valvonnassa. Unihäiriö reagoi hyvin hoitoon ADHD-lapsilla ja se lievenee iän myötä useimmilla potilailla. Tämän työn empiirisessä osassa tutkittiin lapsen raportoimien unihäiriöiden määrää ja yhteyttä lapsen oirekuvaan ADHD-lapsipotilailla lastenpsykiatrisessa potilasaineistossa. Tutkimuksessa analysoitiin vanhemman täyttämän vaikeudet ja vahvuudet -kyselyn tuloksia ja lapsen täyttämän 17D -kyselyn tuloksia uni -kysymyksen osalta. Unihäiriöiden määrä ADHD-lapsipotilailla oli samansuuntainen verrattuna aikaisempiin tutkimustuloksiin. Havaitsimme, että lapsen ilmoittama unihäiriö liittyi ADHD-lapsipotilailla erityisen vahvasti tunne-elämän ongelmiin. Siksi on tärkeää kartoittaa unihäiriöitä erityisesti tunne-elämän ongelmista kärsivillä ADHD-lapsipotilailla. Unihäiriöitä tulisi tutkia jatkossa standardoiduilla unikyselyillä sekä lapsen että vanhemman vastaamana. Vanhemmat eivät välttämättä tunnista lapsen unihäiriötä ja myös lapsen täyttämä unikysely parantaa herkkyyttä tunnistaa unihäiriö. Jatkossa lapsen raportoimia unihäiriöitä pitää tutkia tarkemmin ADHD-potilailla, koska aikaisempaa tutkimustietoa aiheesta on vähän.
  • Lång, Sakari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aims: Adolescent sleep is impacted by numerous biological, psychosocial and contextual factors. The sheer number of new elements capable of affecting adolescent sleep has grown steadily, most notably the amount of electronic devices available. In this adolescent-based sample, we first seek to characterize, and secondly investigate the relationship between gaming, and adolescent sleep, depression and anxiety. Methods. Total of 1374 respondents, aged from 15 to 17 years of age, provided sufficient data in SleepHelsinki! Helsinki university research project. The associations between study parameters were analyzed using correlational comparisons and canonical correlations. Gender differences were also evaluated. The relationships between gaming, sleep, depression and anxiety were further studied using mediation model. Results and Conclusions. In our study the adolescents sleep duration averaged 7:10 hours (SD 1:07) which is well under the recommended amount 8-9 hours of sleep per night. Severe restriction of less than 6 hours of sleep existed in 17.3% of respondents. Negative associations between sleep duration and sleep quality were established on depression, anxiety, chronotype, gaming and alcohol consumption. Positive connections were found between good self-control and sleep hygiene. Girls fared systematically worse than their male counterparts: significantly having more severe sleep restrictions, longer sleep onset latency, worse sleep hygiene and sleep quality. The gaming addiction score was found to mediate the effect of both depression and anxiety on total sleep time. The hours of gaming also mediated the effect of anxiety, but not depression. This study confirms many findings indicating both risk factors and protective factors regarding adolescent sleep. The gaming is established as an integral component when examining adolescent sleep – it should be studied in unison with particularly anxiety and depression symptoms.
  • Tienari, Pentti; Myllykangas, Liisa (2017)
  • Basnet, Syaron; Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Männistö, Satu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2016)
  • Ämmälä, Antti-Jussi; Suvisaari, Jaana; Kananen, Laura; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pirkola, Sami; Paunio, Tiina; Hovatta, Iiris (2021)
    Telomeres are repeat sequences and an associated protein complex located at the end of the chromosomes. They shorten with every cell division and are regarded markers for cellular aging. Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been observed in many complex diseases, including psychiatric disorders. However, analyses focusing on psychiatric disorders are mainly based on clinical samples and the significance of shorter LTL on the population level remains uncertain. We addressed this question in a population-based sample from Finland (N = 7142). The survey was performed and the blood samples were collected in 2000-2001 to assess major public health problems and their determinants. DSM-IV diagnoses of major psychiatric illnesses were obtained by interview using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Information regarding their risk factors, including the number of self-reported childhood adversities, recent psychological distress, and sleep difficulties was collected by questionnaires. LTL was measured by qPCR. None of the studied psychiatric illnesses, sleep difficulties, or recent psychological distress associated with LTL. However, individuals with three or more childhood adversities had shorter LTL at adult age (13 = -0.006, P = 0.005). Also, current occupational status was associated with LTL (13 = -0.03, P = 0.04). These effects remained significant after adjusting for known LTLassociated lifestyle or sociodemographic factors. In conclusion, relatively common childhood adversities were associated with shorter LTL at adult age in a nationally representative population-based cohort, implying that childhood adversities may cause accelerated telomere shortening. Our finding has potentially important implications as it supports the view that childhood adversities have an impact on psychological and somatic wellbeing later in life.
  • Nuutinen, Teija; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva; Villberg, Jari; Tynjala, Jorma (2017)
    To examine how clusters of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs), including sleep related factors, were associated with overweight among adolescents. In Finland, 4262 adolescents, aged 13-15, participated in the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The adolescents completed questionnaires assessing EBRBs [sleep duration, discrepancy and quality, physical activity (PA), screen time, junk food, fruit, and vegetable intake] and height and weight. Clusters were identified with kappa-means cluster analysis and their associations with overweight with logistic regression analyses. Common clusters for boys and girls were labelled "Healthy lifestyle" and "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle". In addition, the cluster "Low/moderate screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" was identified among boys, and the cluster "Poor sleep, unhealthy lifestyle" among girls. Only girls in the cluster "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" were at increased risk for overweight. Girls, whose EBRB was characterized by high screen time and low PA, but not with poor sleep, were at increased risk for overweight. Future studies should examine ways to promote PA among adolescent girls with high interest in screen-based activities.
  • Leppänen, Marja H.; Ray, Carola; Wennman, Heini; Alexandrou, Christina; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Background: Recent 24-h movement guidelines for the early years established recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. To date, few studies have focused on compliance with meeting the guidelines and their associations with health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to investigate: 1) compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, and 2) associations between compliance and anthropometry in Finnish preschoolers. Methods: We utilized DAGIS survey data that were collected in 2015-2016 (N = 864). PA was assessed 24 h/day over 7 days using a waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. ST and sleep were reported by the parents during the same 7 days. Anthropometry was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC, cm). Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they averaged >= 180 min/day of PA, which consisted of >= 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity; Results: Children were physically active on average 390 (+/- 46.2) min/day and spent 86 (+/- 25.5) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA. They spent 76 (+/- 37.4) min/day on ST and had on average 10:21 (+/- 0:33) h:min/day of sleep. The compliance rate in meeting all three movement guidelines overall was 24%. The highest compliance rate was found for PA (85%), followed by sleep (76%) and ST (35%). Meeting guidelines separately for PA or sleep, or for both, were associated with lower WC (PA: B = -1.37, p <0.001; Sleep: B = -0.72, p = 0.009; PA + Sleep: B = -1.03, p <0.001). In addition, meeting guidelines for sleep or for both PA and sleep were associated with lower BMI (Sleep: B = -0.26, p = 0.027; PA + Sleep: B = -0.30, p = 0.007). There were no significant associations found regarding ST. Conclusions: Meeting recommendations for PA and sleep may have an important role in supporting a healthy weight status in young children. However, there is still a need to improve compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, especially for ST.
  • Leppänen, Marja H; Ray, Carola; Wennman, Heini; Alexandrou, Christina; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Recent 24-h movement guidelines for the early years established recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. To date, few studies have focused on compliance with meeting the guidelines and their associations with health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to investigate: 1) compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, and 2) associations between compliance and anthropometry in Finnish preschoolers. Methods We utilized DAGIS survey data that were collected in 2015–2016 (N = 864). PA was assessed 24 h/day over 7 days using a waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. ST and sleep were reported by the parents during the same 7 days. Anthropometry was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC, cm). Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they averaged ≥180 min/day of PA, which consisted of ≥60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity; ≤60 min/day of ST; and 10–13 h/day of sleep. In total, 778 children (51% boys, mean age: 4.7 ± 0.9 years) were included in the study. The compliance with meeting the 24-h movement guidelines was calculated for each behavior separately and in combinations. Adjusted linear regression analyses were applied to examine associations of compliance with BMI and WC. Results Children were physically active on average 390 (±46.2) min/day and spent 86 (±25.5) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA. They spent 76 (±37.4) min/day on ST and had on average 10:21 (±0:33) h:min/day of sleep. The compliance rate in meeting all three movement guidelines overall was 24%. The highest compliance rate was found for PA (85%), followed by sleep (76%) and ST (35%). Meeting guidelines separately for PA or sleep, or for both, were associated with lower WC (PA: B = -1.37, p < 0.001; Sleep: B = -0.72, p = 0.009; PA + Sleep: B = -1.03, p < 0.001). In addition, meeting guidelines for sleep or for both PA and sleep were associated with lower BMI (Sleep: B = -0.26, p = 0.027; PA + Sleep: B = -0.30, p = 0.007). There were no significant associations found regarding ST. Conclusions Meeting recommendations for PA and sleep may have an important role in supporting a healthy weight status in young children. However, there is still a need to improve compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, especially for ST.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; van Strien, Tatjana; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Haukkala, Ari (2019)
    Background: Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. Methods: Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. Results: Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R-2 = 0.048) and WC (R-2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P <0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. Conclusions: Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; van Strien, Tatjana; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Haukkala, Ari (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. Methods Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. Results Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R2 = 0.048) and WC (R2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P < 0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. Conclusions Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
  • Lammers, Gert Jan; Bassetti, Claudio L.A.; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Jennum, Poul J.; Kallweit, Ulf; Khatami, Ramin; Lecendreux, Michel; Manconi, Mauro; Mayer, Geert; Partinen, Markku; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Reading, Paul J.; Santamaria, Joan; Sonka, Karel; Dauvilliers, Yves (2020)
    Summary The aim of this European initiative is to facilitate a structured discussion to improve the next edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), particularly the chapter on central disorders of hypersomnolence. The ultimate goal for a sleep disorders classification is to be based on the underlying neurobiological causes of the disorders with clear implication for treatment or, ideally, prevention and or healing. The current ICSD classification, published in 2014, inevitably has important shortcomings, largely reflecting the lack of knowledge about the precise neurobiological mechanisms underlying the majority of sleep disorders we currently delineate. Despite a clear rationale for the present structure, there remain important limitations that make it difficult to apply in routine clinical practice. Moreover, there are indications that the current structure may even prevent us from gaining relevant new knowledge to better understand certain sleep disorders and their neurobiological causes. We suggest the creation of a new consistent, complaint driven, hierarchical classification for central disorders of hypersomnolence; containing levels of certainty, and giving diagnostic tests, particularly the MSLT, a weighting based on its specificity and sensitivity in the diagnostic context. We propose and define three diagnostic categories (with levels of certainty): 1/“Narcolepsy” 2/“Idiopathic hypersomnia”, 3/“Idiopathic excessive sleepiness” (with subtypes)
  • Cooke, Marie; Ritmala-Castren, Marita; Dwan, Toni; Mitchell, Marion (2020)
    Background Pharmacological interventions for sleep (analgesic, sedative and hypnotic agents) can both disrupt and induce sleep and have many negative side effects within the intensive care population. The use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies to assist with sleep has been studied but given the variety of modalities and methodological limitations no reliable conclusions have been drawn. Objective To synthesise research findings regarding the effectiveness of using complementary and alternative medicine interventions within the domains of mind and body practices (relaxation techniques, acupuncture) and natural biologically based products (herbs, vitamins, minerals, probiotics) on sleep quality and quantity in adult intensive care patients. Review method used Systematic review Data sources Five databases were searched in August 2018 and updated in February 2019 and 2020. Review methods: Searches were limited to peer reviewed randomised controlled trials, published in English involving adult populations in intensive care units. Interventions were related to the complementary and alternative medicine domains of mind and body practices and natural products. Included studies were assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Results Seventeen studies were included. The interventions used varied: 4 investigated melatonin; 4 music +/- another therapy; 3 acupressure; 2 aromatherapy and 1 each for relaxation and imagery, reflexology, bright light exposure and inspiratory muscle training. Measurement of sleep quantity and quality was also varied: 5 studies used objective measures such as Polysomnography and Bispectral index with the remaining using subjective patient or clinician assessment (for example, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, observation). Given the different interventions, outcomes and measures used in the studies a meta-analysis was not possible. Generally, the results support the use of complementary and alternative medicine for assisting with sleep with 11 out of 17 trials reporting significant results for the interventions examined. Conclusions Complementary and alternative medicine interventions, in particular, melatonin and music, have shown promise for improving sleep in adults with critically conditions; however, further research that addresses the limitations of small sample sizes and improved techniques for measuring sleep is needed.
  • Stenberg, Tarja (2019)
  • Kuula, Liisa; Partonen, Timo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2020)
    Objective: Early-stage romantic involvement may resemble hypomania in its manifestation on behavioral, physiological, and psychological levels. Previous research suggests that self-reported sleep duration may diminish as a result of falling in love during adolescence. We investigated how feelings of infatuation are related to subjective and objective measures of sleep duration, quality, and timing. Methods: 1374 adolescents (66% girls; mean age: 16.9, SD=0.6 years) selected from the population register responded to online questionnaires regarding romantic love, mental well-being, and sleep behavior. A sub-sample (n=309) underwent a week-long actigraphy measurement (GENEActiv Original). We compared the sleep duration, quality, and timing of those who reported being in the early stages of love to those who were not. Results: 11% of all participants reported being in the early stages of romantic love. Those girls and boys who were in love had higher scores of depression and anxiety than others. Girls who were in love reported poorer sleep quality, later sleep timing, and shorter sleep duration both on weekdays (mean difference: 32 minutes, p Conclusions: We conclude that romantic love is one further cause for short or poor quality sleep in girls and may relate to symptoms of depression and anxiety in both sexes. However, feelings of infatuation contain important developmental lessons. (C) 2020 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Urrila, Anna S.; Hakkarainen, Antti; Castaneda, Anu; Paunio, Tiina; Marttunen, Mauri; Lundbom, Nina (2017)
    Aim: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1 MRS) to evaluate the neurochemistry of the frontal cortex in adolescents with symptoms of sleep and depression. Methods: Nineteen non-medicated adolescent boys (mean age 16.0 years; 9 clinical cases with depression/sleep symptoms and 10 healthy controls) underwent H-1 MRS at 3 T. MR spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and frontal white matter. Concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate, total creatine, choline-containing compounds, total glutamine plus glutamate, and myo-inositol (mI) were compared in the 2 subgroups, and correlated with sleep and clinical measures in the total sample. Sleep was assessed with self-report questionnaires and ambulatory polysomnography recordings. Results: Concentrations of mI were lower in both frontal cortical regions among the depressed adolescents than in controls. No statistically significant differences in other metabolite concentrations were observed between the subgroups. Frontal cortex mI concentrations correlated negatively with depression severity, subjective daytime sleepiness, insomnia symptoms, and the level of anxiety, and correlated positively with total sleep time and overall psychosocial functioning. The correlations between mI in the ACC and total sleep time as well as daytime sleepiness remained statistically significant when depression severity was controlled in the analyses. Conclusion: Lower frontal cortex ml may indicate a disturbed second messenger system. Frontal cortical mI may thus be linked to the pathophysiology of depression and concomitant sleep symptoms among maturing adolescents. Short sleep and daytime sleepiness may be associated with frontal cortex mI independently from depression. (C) 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Ollila, Hanna M.; Kronholm, Erkki; Kettunen, Johannes; Silander, Kaisa; Perola, Markus; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Salomaa, Veikko; Paunio, Tiina (2016)
  • Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Rod, Naja H.; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo (2020)
    Job insecurity has been linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Our aim was to assess the extent to which this association is mediated through life style, physiological, or psychological factors. A total of 3917 men and women free from CHD provided data on job insecurity in the Whitehall II cohort study in 1997-1999. The association between job insecurity and CHD was decomposed into a direct and indirect effect mediated through unhealthy behaviors (smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity), sleep disturbances, 'allostatic load', or psychological distress. The counterfactual analyses on psychological distress indicated a marginally significant association between job insecurity and incident CHD (hazard ratio (HR) 1.32; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.75). This association was decomposed into a direct (HR 1.22, 95 %CI 0.92-1.63) and indirect association (1.08, 95 %CI 1.01-1.15), suggesting that about 30 % of the total relationship was mediated by psychological distress. No mediation was indicated via health behaviors, sleep disturbances, or allostatic load, although job insecurity was related to disturbed sleep and C-reactive protein, which, in turn were associated with CHD. In conclusion, our results suggest that psychological distress may play a role in the relation between job insecurity and CHD.
  • Nevalainen, Päivi; Ilveskoski, Ismo; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Lauronen, Leena (2019)
    Kliinisen neurofysiologian menetelmillä selvitetään keskus- ja ääreishermoston sekä lihaksiston sairauksia. Lapsilla yleisin tutkimus on aivosähkökäyrä eli EEG, jolla selvitetään erityisesti kohtausoireiden taustaa. Tavallisia ovat myös uni- ja vireystilatutkimukset, elektroneuromyografia ja herätevastetutkimukset. Erityistilanteissa tarvitaan akuuttihoidon aivomonitorointia, leikkauksenaikaista neuromonitorointia sekä aivotoimintojen paikantamista.