Browsing by Subject "Smokers"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Sundar, Isaac K.; Yin, Qiangzong; Baier, Brian S.; Yan, Li; Mazur, Witold; Li, Dongmei; Susiarjo, Martha; Rahman, Irfan (2017)
    Background: Epigenetics changes have been shown to be affected by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated DNA methylation can potentially affect several cellular and pathophysiological processes, acute exacerbations, and comorbidity in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine whether genome-wide lung DNA methylation profiles of smokers and patients with COPD were significantly different from non-smokers. We isolated DNA from parenchymal lung tissues of patients including eight lifelong non-smokers, eight current smokers, and eight patients with COPD and analyzed the samples using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Results: Our data revealed that the differentially methylated genes were related to top canonical pathways (e.g., G beta gamma signaling, mechanisms of cancer, and nNOS signaling in neurons), disease and disorders (organismal injury and abnormalities, cancer, and respiratory disease), and molecular and cellular functions (cell death and survival, cellular assembly and organization, cellular function and maintenance) in patients with COPD. The genome-wide DNA methylation analysis identified suggestive genes, such as NOS1AP, TNFAIP2, BID, GABRB1, ATXN7, and THOC7 with DNA methylation changes in COPD lung tissues that were further validated by pyrosequencing. Pyrosequencing validation confirmed hyper-methylation in smokers and patients with COPD as compared to non-smokers. However, we did not detect significant differences in DNA methylation for TNFAIP2, ATXN7, and THOC7 genes in smokers and COPD groups despite the changes observed in the genome-wide analysis. Conclusions: Our study suggests that DNA methylation in suggestive genes, such as NOS1AP, BID, and GABRB1 may be used as epigenetic signatures in smokers and patients with COPD if the same is validated in a larger cohort. Future studies are required to correlate DNA methylation status with transcriptomics of selective genes identified in this study and elucidate their role and involvement in the progression of COPD and its exacerbations.
  • Rostila, Annina M.; Anttila, Sisko L.; Lalowski, Maciej M.; Vuopala, Katri S.; Toljamo, Tuula I.; Lindström, Irmeli; Baumann, Marc H.; Puustinen, Anne (2020)
    Lung cancer is a deadly disease, typically caused by known risk factors, such as tobacco smoke and asbestos exposure. By triggering cellular oxidative stress and altering the antioxidant pathways eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS), tobacco smoke and asbestos predispose to cancer. Despite easily recognizable high-risk individuals, lung cancer screening and its early detection are hampered by poor diagnostic tools including the absence of proper biomarkers. This study aimed to recognize potential lung cancer biomarkers using induced sputum noninvasively collected from the lungs of individuals in risk of contracting lung cancer. Study groups composed of current and former smokers, who either were significantly asbestos exposed, had lung cancer, or were unexposed and asymptomatic. Screening of potential biomarkers was performed with 52, and five differentially abundant proteins, peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), thioredoxin (TXN), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), and protein S100 A8 (S100A8), were chosen to undergo validation, for their previously known connection with oxidative stress or cancer. Results from the validation in 123 sputa showed that PRDX2, TXN, and GAPDH were differentially abundant in sputa from individuals with lung cancer. TXN had a negative correlation with asbestos exposure, yet a positive correlation with smoking and lung cancer. Thus, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and lung carcinogenesis may disturb the cellular redox state in different ways. A strong correlation was found among PRDX2, TXN, GAPDH, and S100A8, suggesting that these proteins may present a diagnostic biomarker panel to aid recognizing individuals at high risk of contracting lung cancer.